rhinovirus

Summary

Summary: A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE inhabiting primarily the respiratory tract of mammalian hosts. It includes over 100 human serotypes associated with the COMMON COLD.

Top Publications

  1. Harvala H, McIntyre C, McLeish N, Kondracka J, Palmer J, Molyneaux P, et al. High detection frequency and viral loads of human rhinovirus species A to C in fecal samples; diagnostic and clinical implications. J Med Virol. 2012;84:536-42 pubmed publisher
    ..High detection frequencies (10%) and viral loads in stool samples provide evidence for enteric replication of HRV, and its association with enteric disease requires further etiological studies. ..
  2. Durrani S, Montville D, Pratt A, Sahu S, Devries M, Rajamanickam V, et al. Innate immune responses to rhinovirus are reduced by the high-affinity IgE receptor in allergic asthmatic children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130:489-95 pubmed publisher
    Children with allergic asthma have more frequent and severe human rhinovirus (HRV)-induced wheezing and asthma exacerbations through unclear mechanisms...
  3. Stokes C, Ismail S, Dick E, Bennett J, Johnston S, Edwards M, et al. Role of interleukin-1 and MyD88-dependent signaling in rhinovirus infection. J Virol. 2011;85:7912-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we explored the roles of IL-1? and its signaling pathways in the responses of airway cells to rhinovirus-1B (RV-1B) and further determined how responses to RV-1B were modified in a model of bacterial coinfection...
  4. Calvo C, Casas I, Garcia Garcia M, Pozo F, Reyes N, Cruz N, et al. Role of rhinovirus C respiratory infections in sick and healthy children in Spain. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29:717-20 pubmed publisher
    Recently a new genogroup of human rhinovirus (HRV) has been described and named HRV-C. The relative importance of HRV-C in viral respiratory tract illnesses is unknown...
  5. Khan A, Pickl Herk A, Gajdzik L, Marlovits T, Fuchs R, Blaas D. Human rhinovirus 14 enters rhabdomyosarcoma cells expressing icam-1 by a clathrin-, caveolin-, and flotillin-independent pathway. J Virol. 2010;84:3984-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, cellular uptake of HRV14 occurs via a pathway exhibiting some, but not all, characteristics of macropinocytosis and is similar to that recently described for adenovirus 3 entry via alpha(v) integrin/CD46 in HeLa cells. ..
  6. Khan A, Pickl Herk A, Gajdzik L, Marlovits T, Fuchs R, Blaas D. Entry of a heparan sulphate-binding HRV8 variant strictly depends on dynamin but not on clathrin, caveolin, and flotillin. Virology. 2011;412:55-67 pubmed publisher
    The major group human rhinovirus type 8 can enter cells via heparan sulphate. When internalized into ICAM-1 negative rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells, HRV8 accumulated in the cells but caused CPE only after 3 days when used at high MOI...
  7. Weiss V, Subirats X, Pickl Herk A, Bilek G, Winkler W, Kumar M, et al. Characterization of rhinovirus subviral A particles via capillary electrophoresis, electron microscopy and gas-phase electrophoretic mobility molecular analysis: Part I. Electrophoresis. 2012;33:1833-41 pubmed publisher
    ..More data on particle characterization including its protein composition and RNA content (for unambiguous identification of the detected intermediate as subviral A particle) will be presented in the second part of the publication. ..
  8. de Almeida M, Zerbinati R, Tateno A, Oliveira C, Romao R, Rodrigues J, et al. Rhinovirus C and respiratory exacerbations in children with cystic fibrosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:996-9 pubmed publisher
    To investigate a possible role for human rhinovirus C in respiratory exacerbations of children with cystic fibrosis, we conducted microbiologic testing on respiratory specimens from 103 such patients in São Paulo, Brazil, during 2006-..
  9. Dobrikova E, Goetz C, Walters R, Lawson S, Peggins J, Muszynski K, et al. Attenuation of neurovirulence, biodistribution, and shedding of a poliovirus:rhinovirus chimera after intrathalamic inoculation in Macaca fascicularis. J Virol. 2012;86:2750-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Intrathalamic PVS-RIPO inoculation induced neutralizing antibody responses against poliovirus serotype 1 in all animals studied...
  10. Nagarkar D, Bowman E, Schneider D, Wang Q, Shim J, Zhao Y, et al. Rhinovirus infection of allergen-sensitized and -challenged mice induces eotaxin release from functionally polarized macrophages. J Immunol. 2010;185:2525-35 pubmed publisher
    Human rhinovirus is responsible for the majority of virus-induced asthma exacerbations...

Detail Information

Publications99

  1. Harvala H, McIntyre C, McLeish N, Kondracka J, Palmer J, Molyneaux P, et al. High detection frequency and viral loads of human rhinovirus species A to C in fecal samples; diagnostic and clinical implications. J Med Virol. 2012;84:536-42 pubmed publisher
    ..High detection frequencies (10%) and viral loads in stool samples provide evidence for enteric replication of HRV, and its association with enteric disease requires further etiological studies. ..
  2. Durrani S, Montville D, Pratt A, Sahu S, Devries M, Rajamanickam V, et al. Innate immune responses to rhinovirus are reduced by the high-affinity IgE receptor in allergic asthmatic children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130:489-95 pubmed publisher
    Children with allergic asthma have more frequent and severe human rhinovirus (HRV)-induced wheezing and asthma exacerbations through unclear mechanisms...
  3. Stokes C, Ismail S, Dick E, Bennett J, Johnston S, Edwards M, et al. Role of interleukin-1 and MyD88-dependent signaling in rhinovirus infection. J Virol. 2011;85:7912-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we explored the roles of IL-1? and its signaling pathways in the responses of airway cells to rhinovirus-1B (RV-1B) and further determined how responses to RV-1B were modified in a model of bacterial coinfection...
  4. Calvo C, Casas I, Garcia Garcia M, Pozo F, Reyes N, Cruz N, et al. Role of rhinovirus C respiratory infections in sick and healthy children in Spain. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29:717-20 pubmed publisher
    Recently a new genogroup of human rhinovirus (HRV) has been described and named HRV-C. The relative importance of HRV-C in viral respiratory tract illnesses is unknown...
  5. Khan A, Pickl Herk A, Gajdzik L, Marlovits T, Fuchs R, Blaas D. Human rhinovirus 14 enters rhabdomyosarcoma cells expressing icam-1 by a clathrin-, caveolin-, and flotillin-independent pathway. J Virol. 2010;84:3984-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, cellular uptake of HRV14 occurs via a pathway exhibiting some, but not all, characteristics of macropinocytosis and is similar to that recently described for adenovirus 3 entry via alpha(v) integrin/CD46 in HeLa cells. ..
  6. Khan A, Pickl Herk A, Gajdzik L, Marlovits T, Fuchs R, Blaas D. Entry of a heparan sulphate-binding HRV8 variant strictly depends on dynamin but not on clathrin, caveolin, and flotillin. Virology. 2011;412:55-67 pubmed publisher
    The major group human rhinovirus type 8 can enter cells via heparan sulphate. When internalized into ICAM-1 negative rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells, HRV8 accumulated in the cells but caused CPE only after 3 days when used at high MOI...
  7. Weiss V, Subirats X, Pickl Herk A, Bilek G, Winkler W, Kumar M, et al. Characterization of rhinovirus subviral A particles via capillary electrophoresis, electron microscopy and gas-phase electrophoretic mobility molecular analysis: Part I. Electrophoresis. 2012;33:1833-41 pubmed publisher
    ..More data on particle characterization including its protein composition and RNA content (for unambiguous identification of the detected intermediate as subviral A particle) will be presented in the second part of the publication. ..
  8. de Almeida M, Zerbinati R, Tateno A, Oliveira C, Romao R, Rodrigues J, et al. Rhinovirus C and respiratory exacerbations in children with cystic fibrosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:996-9 pubmed publisher
    To investigate a possible role for human rhinovirus C in respiratory exacerbations of children with cystic fibrosis, we conducted microbiologic testing on respiratory specimens from 103 such patients in São Paulo, Brazil, during 2006-..
  9. Dobrikova E, Goetz C, Walters R, Lawson S, Peggins J, Muszynski K, et al. Attenuation of neurovirulence, biodistribution, and shedding of a poliovirus:rhinovirus chimera after intrathalamic inoculation in Macaca fascicularis. J Virol. 2012;86:2750-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Intrathalamic PVS-RIPO inoculation induced neutralizing antibody responses against poliovirus serotype 1 in all animals studied...
  10. Nagarkar D, Bowman E, Schneider D, Wang Q, Shim J, Zhao Y, et al. Rhinovirus infection of allergen-sensitized and -challenged mice induces eotaxin release from functionally polarized macrophages. J Immunol. 2010;185:2525-35 pubmed publisher
    Human rhinovirus is responsible for the majority of virus-induced asthma exacerbations...
  11. Yamaya M, Nishimura H, Hatachi Y, Yoshida M, Fujiwara H, Asada M, et al. Procaterol inhibits rhinovirus infection in primary cultures of human tracheal epithelial cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;650:431-44 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the inhibitory effects of ?(2) agonists on the infection of rhinovirus, the major cause of exacerbations, have not been well studied...
  12. Garcia C, Soriano Fallas A, Lozano J, Leos N, Gomez A, Ramilo O, et al. Decreased innate immune cytokine responses correlate with disease severity in children with respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinovirus bronchiolitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2012;31:86-9 pubmed publisher
    The immunopathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus lower respiratory tract infections in children remains to be defined...
  13. Jurgeit A, Moese S, Roulin P, Dorsch A, Lötzerich M, Lee W, et al. An RNA replication-center assay for high content image-based quantifications of human rhinovirus and coxsackievirus infections. Virol J. 2010;7:264 pubmed publisher
    ..This protocol also allows to directly compare results from small compound or siRNA infection screens for different serotypes without the risk of assay specific artifacts. ..
  14. Simmonds P, McIntyre C, Savolainen Kopra C, Tapparel C, Mackay I, Hovi T. Proposals for the classification of human rhinovirus species C into genotypically assigned types. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:2409-19 pubmed publisher
  15. Chattoraj S, Ganesan S, Faris A, Comstock A, Lee W, Sajjan U. Pseudomonas aeruginosa suppresses interferon response to rhinovirus infection in cystic fibrosis but not in normal bronchial epithelial cells. Infect Immun. 2011;79:4131-45 pubmed publisher
    ..aeruginosa infection on the innate immune responses of bronchial epithelial cells to rhinovirus (RV) infection. CF cells sequentially infected with mucoid P...
  16. Calvén J, Yudina Y, Uller L. Rhinovirus and dsRNA induce RIG-I-like receptors and expression of interferon ? and ?1 in human bronchial smooth muscle cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62718 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhinovirus (RV) infections cause exacerbations and development of severe asthma highlighting the importance of antiviral interferon (IFN) defence by airway cells...
  17. Schreiber M, Schuler B, LI L, Hall D. Activation of the small G-protein Rac by human rhinovirus attenuates the TLR3/IFN-? axis while promoting CCL2 release in human monocyte-lineage cells. Innate Immun. 2013;19:278-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Human rhinovirus (HRV) is unique in that nearly genetically identical viruses bind either the ICAM-1 or low-density lipoprotein ..
  18. Miller E, Mackay I. From sneeze to wheeze: what we know about rhinovirus Cs. J Clin Virol. 2013;57:291-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In the meantime, new antivirals should benefit groups at risk of the most severe disease. ..
  19. Onyango C, Welch S, Munywoki P, Agoti C, Bett A, Ngama M, et al. Molecular epidemiology of human rhinovirus infections in Kilifi, coastal Kenya. J Med Virol. 2012;84:823-31 pubmed publisher
    This study reports pediatric surveillance over 3 years for human rhinovirus (HRV) at the District Hospital of Kilifi, coastal Kenya...
  20. Chattoraj S, Ganesan S, Jones A, Helm J, Comstock A, Bright Thomas R, et al. Rhinovirus infection liberates planktonic bacteria from biofilm and increases chemokine responses in cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells. Thorax. 2011;66:333-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations imply that acute RV infection may increase lower respiratory symptoms by increasing planktonic bacterial load. However, the underlying mechanisms are not known...
  21. Cox D, Bizzintino J, Ferrari G, Khoo S, Zhang G, Whelan S, et al. Human rhinovirus species C infection in young children with acute wheeze is associated with increased acute respiratory hospital admissions. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013;188:1358-64 pubmed publisher
    Human rhinovirus species C (HRV-C) is the most common cause of acute wheezing exacerbations in young children presenting to hospital, but its impact on subsequent respiratory illnesses has not been defined...
  22. Slater L, Bartlett N, Haas J, Zhu J, Message S, Walton R, et al. Co-ordinated role of TLR3, RIG-I and MDA5 in the innate response to rhinovirus in bronchial epithelium. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1001178 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the roles of each pattern recognition receptor in rhinovirus infection using primary bronchial epithelial cells...
  23. Palmenberg A, Rathe J, Liggett S. Analysis of the complete genome sequences of human rhinovirus. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;125:1190-9; quiz 1200-1 pubmed publisher
    Human rhinovirus (HRV) infection is the cause of about one half of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations...
  24. Jahan N, Wimmer E, Mueller S. A host-specific, temperature-sensitive translation defect determines the attenuation phenotype of a human rhinovirus/poliovirus chimera, PV1(RIPO). J Virol. 2011;85:7225-35 pubmed publisher
    ..rhinosvirus/poliovirus type 1 chimera, PV1(RIPO), with the cognate internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of human rhinovirus type 2 (HRV2), we set out to shed light on the mechanism by which this variant expresses its attenuated ..
  25. Anestad G, Nordbø S. Virus interference. Did rhinoviruses activity hamper the progress of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in Norway?. Med Hypotheses. 2011;77:1132-4 pubmed publisher
    ..If so, cytokines, in particular interferon, are the most probable executor of this effect. ..
  26. Bilek G, Matscheko N, Pickl Herk A, Weiss V, Subirats X, Kenndler E, et al. Liposomal nanocontainers as models for viral infection: monitoring viral genomic RNA transfer through lipid membranes. J Virol. 2011;85:8368-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We here demonstrate the in vitro transfer of the single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome of human rhinovirus 2 into liposomes decorated with recombinant very-low-density lipoprotein receptor fragments...
  27. Proud D, Hudy M, Wiehler S, Zaheer R, Amin M, Pelikan J, et al. Cigarette smoke modulates expression of human rhinovirus-induced airway epithelial host defense genes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40762 pubmed publisher
    Human rhinovirus (HRV) infections trigger acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma...
  28. Guilbert T, Singh A, Danov Z, Evans M, Jackson D, Burton R, et al. Decreased lung function after preschool wheezing rhinovirus illnesses in children at risk to develop asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128:532-8.e1-10 pubmed publisher
    Preschool rhinovirus (RV) wheezing illnesses predict an increased risk of childhood asthma; however, it is not clear how specific viral illnesses in early life relate to lung function later on in childhood.
  29. Piralla A, Lilleri D, Sarasini A, Marchi A, Zecca M, Stronati M, et al. Human rhinovirus and human respiratory enterovirus (EV68 and EV104) infections in hospitalized patients in Italy, 2008-2009. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012;73:162-7 pubmed publisher
    ..One-third of patients were human rhinovirus (HRV)-positive. Of 336 HRV-associated episodes, 153 (45.5%) were sustained by HRV-A, 31 (9...
  30. Falah N, Violot S, D cimo D, Berri F, Foucault Grunenwald M, Ohlmann T, et al. Ex vivo and in vivo inhibition of human rhinovirus replication by a new pseudosubstrate of viral 2A protease. J Virol. 2012;86:691-704 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report validating a compound against HRV infection in a mouse model...
  31. Wang Z, Malanoski A, Lin B, Long N, Leski T, Blaney K, et al. Broad spectrum respiratory pathogen analysis of throat swabs from military recruits reveals interference between rhinoviruses and adenoviruses. Microb Ecol. 2010;59:623-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we explore the carriage rates and disease associations of adenovirus, enterovirus, rhinovirus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis in military recruits using high-..
  32. Xiang Z, Gonzalez R, Xie Z, Xiao Y, Liu J, Chen L, et al. Human rhinovirus C infections mirror those of human rhinovirus A in children with community-acquired pneumonia. J Clin Virol. 2010;49:94-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The severity of clinical manifestations for HRV-C is comparable to that for HRV-A in children with CAP. These findings point to an important role of both HRV-A and HRV-C in pediatric CAP. ..
  33. Kennedy J, Shaker M, McMeen V, Gern J, Carper H, Murphy D, et al. Comparison of viral load in individuals with and without asthma during infections with rhinovirus. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014;189:532-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Most virus-induced attacks of asthma are caused by rhinoviruses (RVs)...
  34. Pierangeli A, Ciccozzi M, Chiavelli S, Concato C, Giovanetti M, Cella E, et al. Molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of human rhinovirus affecting hospitalized children in Rome. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2013;202:303-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This study confirmed the high number of different HRV genotypes infecting hospitalized children over one year and reveals a greater than expected variability in HRV-C VP4 protein, potentially suggestive of differences in replication. ..
  35. Hudy M, Proud D. Cigarette smoke enhances human rhinovirus-induced CXCL8 production via HuR-mediated mRNA stabilization in human airway epithelial cells. Respir Res. 2013;14:88 pubmed publisher
    Human rhinovirus (HRV) triggers exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cigarette smoking is the leading risk factor for the development of COPD and 25% of asthmatics smoke...
  36. Turner R, Fuls J, Rodgers N, Goldfarb H, Lockhart L, Aust L. A randomized trial of the efficacy of hand disinfection for prevention of rhinovirus infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54:1422-6 pubmed publisher
    Hand disinfection is frequently recommended for prevention of rhinovirus (RV) infection and RV-associated common colds. The effectiveness of this intervention has not been established in a natural setting...
  37. Traub S, Nikonova A, Carruthers A, Dunmore R, Vousden K, Gogsadze L, et al. An anti-human ICAM-1 antibody inhibits rhinovirus-induced exacerbations of lung inflammation. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003520 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus a human ICAM-1 domain-1-specific antibody can prevent major group HRV entry and induction of airway inflammation in vivo. ..
  38. Tacon C, Newton R, Proud D, Leigh R. Rhinovirus-induced MMP-9 expression is dependent on Fra-1, which is modulated by formoterol and dexamethasone. J Immunol. 2012;188:4621-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously confirmed that human rhinovirus-16 (HRV-16) infection increases MMP-9 expression both in vivo and in vitro...
  39. Laconi S, Madeddu M, Pompei R. Study of the biological activity of novel synthetic compounds with antiviral properties against human rhinoviruses. Molecules. 2011;16:3479-87 pubmed publisher
    ..group in the central chain (as in compound I-6602) resulted in decreased cell toxicity and in improved anti-Rhinovirus activity. This compound actually showed a PI >700 on HRV14, while pirodavir had a PI of 250...
  40. Fry A, Lu X, Olsen S, Chittaganpitch M, Sawatwong P, Chantra S, et al. Human rhinovirus infections in rural Thailand: epidemiological evidence for rhinovirus as both pathogen and bystander. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17780 pubmed publisher
    We describe human rhinovirus (HRV) detections in SaKaeo province, Thailand.
  41. Singh M, Lee S, Porter P, Xu C, Ohno A, Atmar R, et al. Human rhinovirus proteinase 2A induces TH1 and TH2 immunity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;125:1369-1378.e2 pubmed publisher
    ..Acute exacerbation of COPD (AE-COPD) is commonly associated with upper and lower respiratory tract viral infections and can result in respiratory failure in those with advanced lung disease...
  42. Min J, Shin S, Kwon H, Jang Y. Levocetirizine inhibits rhinovirus-induced bacterial adhesion to nasal epithelial cells through down-regulation of cell adhesion molecules. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2012;108:44-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The rhinovirus (RV)-induced increased expression of cell adhesion molecules including fibronectin (Fn) and carcinoembryonic ..
  43. Linsuwanon P, Payungporn S, Suwannakarn K, Chieochansin T, Theamboonlers A, Poovorawan Y. Complete coding sequence characterization and comparative analysis of the putative novel human rhinovirus (HRV) species C and B. Virol J. 2011;8:5 pubmed publisher
    ..Although recent studies have phylogenetically identified the new HRV species (HRV-C), data on molecular epidemiology, genetic diversity, and clinical manifestation have been limited...
  44. Piper S, Ferguson J, Kay L, Parker L, Sabroe I, Sleeman M, et al. The role of interleukin-1 and interleukin-18 in pro-inflammatory and anti-viral responses to rhinovirus in primary bronchial epithelial cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63365 pubmed publisher
    Human Rhinovirus (HRV) is associated with acute exacerbations of chronic respiratory disease...
  45. Wu Q, van Dyk L, Jiang D, Dakhama A, Li L, White S, et al. Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase M (IRAK-M) promotes human rhinovirus infection in lung epithelial cells via the autophagic pathway. Virology. 2013;446:199-206 pubmed publisher
    Human rhinovirus (HRV) is the most common viral etiology in acute exacerbations of asthma. However, the exact mechanisms underlying HRV infection in allergic airways are poorly understood...
  46. van der Zalm M, Wilbrink B, van Ewijk B, Overduin P, Wolfs T, van der Ent C. Highly frequent infections with human rhinovirus in healthy young children: a longitudinal cohort study. J Clin Virol. 2011;52:317-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are an important cause of respiratory tract infections...
  47. Amineva S, Aminev A, Gern J, Palmenberg A. Comparison of rhinovirus A infection in human primary epithelial and HeLa cells. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:2549-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Viral-induced shutoff of host cell processes (e.g. nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking) was also comparable...
  48. Faux C, Arden K, Lambert S, Nissen M, Nolan T, Chang A, et al. Usefulness of published PCR primers in detecting human rhinovirus infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:296-8 pubmed publisher
    We conducted a preliminary comparison of the relative sensitivity of a cross-section of published human rhinovirus (HRV)-specific PCR primer pairs, varying the oligonucleotides and annealing temperature...
  49. Lee W, Lemanske R, Evans M, Vang F, Pappas T, Gangnon R, et al. Human rhinovirus species and season of infection determine illness severity. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012;186:886-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) consist of approximately 160 types that cause a wide range of clinical outcomes, including asymptomatic infections, common colds, and severe lower respiratory illnesses...
  50. Parsons K, Hsu A, Wark P. TLR3 and MDA5 signalling, although not expression, is impaired in asthmatic epithelial cells in response to rhinovirus infection. Clin Exp Allergy. 2014;44:91-101 pubmed publisher
    ..RV entry and replication is recognized by pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs), specifically toll-like receptor (TLR)3 and the RNA helicases; retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5)...
  51. Van Der Sluijs K, van de Pol M, Kulik W, Dijkhuis A, Smids B, van Eijk H, et al. Systemic tryptophan and kynurenine catabolite levels relate to severity of rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbation: a prospective study with a parallel-group design. Thorax. 2013;68:1122-30 pubmed publisher
    Patients with allergic asthma have exacerbations which are frequently caused by rhinovirus infection...
  52. Papi A, Contoli M, Adcock I, Bellettato C, Padovani A, Casolari P, et al. Rhinovirus infection causes steroid resistance in airway epithelium through nuclear factor ?B and c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;132:1075-1085.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..Although inhaled glucocorticoids are the mainstays of asthma treatment, they are poorly effective at treating and preventing virus-induced asthma exacerbations. The major viruses precipitating asthma exacerbations are rhinoviruses...
  53. Esposito S, Zampiero A, Terranova L, Ierardi V, Ascolese B, Daleno C, et al. Pneumococcal bacterial load colonization as a marker of mixed infection in children with alveolar community-acquired pneumonia and respiratory syncytial virus or rhinovirus infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013;32:1199-204 pubmed publisher
    ..was to evaluate whether nasopharyngeal Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization in children with alveolar community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or rhinovirus (RV) infection indicates a mixed lung infection.
  54. Greenberg S. Update on rhinovirus and coronavirus infections. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;32:433-46 pubmed publisher
    ..These sensitive diagnostic tests have been used to describe new members of these virus families, such as human rhinovirus C (HRVC) and human coronavirus NL-63 (HCoV-NL63)...
  55. Landa Cardeña A, Morales Romero J, García Román R, Cobián Güemes A, Méndez E, Ortiz Leon C, et al. Clinical characteristics and genetic variability of human rhinovirus in Mexico. Viruses. 2012;4:200-10 pubmed publisher
    Human rhinovirus (HRV) is a leading cause of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in young children and infants worldwide and has a high impact on morbidity and mortality in this population...
  56. Wood L, Powell H, Grissell T, Davies B, Shafren D, Whitehead B, et al. Persistence of rhinovirus RNA and IP-10 gene expression after acute asthma. Respirology. 2011;16:291-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigates the frequency of viral persistence after acute asthma, assesses viral infectivity and determines the host inflammatory responses to viral persistence...
  57. McLean G, Walton R, Shetty S, Peel T, Paktiawal N, Kebadze T, et al. Rhinovirus infections and immunisation induce cross-serotype reactive antibodies to VP1. Antiviral Res. 2012;95:193-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunisation strategies boosted homotypic as well as inducing cross-serotype neutralising IgG responses. We conclude that VP1 based antigens combined with adjuvants may permit successful antibody-mediated vaccine design and development...
  58. Bizzintino J, Lee W, Laing I, Vang F, Pappas T, Zhang G, et al. Association between human rhinovirus C and severity of acute asthma in children. Eur Respir J. 2011;37:1037-42 pubmed publisher
    A new and potentially more pathogenic group of human rhinovirus (HRV), group C (HRVC), has recently been discovered...
  59. Gandhi A, Walsh E, Formica M, Hennessey P, Criddle M, Peterson D, et al. Factors associated with symptomatic rhinovirus infection in patients with COPD. J Clin Virol. 2012;55:343-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Human rhinoviruses (HRV) can be detected by RT-PCR in a large proportion of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) but can also be detected in COPD patients without symptoms...
  60. Caliskan M, Bochkov Y, Kreiner Møller E, Bønnelykke K, Stein M, Du G, et al. Rhinovirus wheezing illness and genetic risk of childhood-onset asthma. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:1398-407 pubmed publisher
    ..Our aim was to determine the effects of these two factors on the risk of asthma in the Childhood Origins of Asthma (COAST) and the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC) birth cohorts...
  61. Moreira L, Kamikawa J, Watanabe A, Carraro E, Leal E, Arruda E, et al. Frequency of human rhinovirus species in outpatient children with acute respiratory infections at primary care level in Brazil. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30:612-4 pubmed publisher
    This study assessed the occurrence of human rhinovirus (HRV) species in outpatient children attending day-care in Sao Paulo, Brazil...
  62. Miller E, Williams J, Gebretsadik T, Carroll K, Dupont W, Mohamed Y, et al. Host and viral factors associated with severity of human rhinovirus-associated infant respiratory tract illness. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127:883-91 pubmed publisher
    Risk factors for severe human rhinovirus (HRV)-associated infant illness are unknown.
  63. Kortus M, Kempf B, Haworth K, Barton D, Peersen O. A template RNA entry channel in the fingers domain of the poliovirus polymerase. J Mol Biol. 2012;417:263-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These data identify key residues within the template RNA entry channel and begin to define their distinct mechanistic roles within RNA ECs...
  64. Cordey S, Junier T, Gerlach D, Gobbini F, Farinelli L, Zdobnov E, et al. Rhinovirus genome evolution during experimental human infection. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10588 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo, HRV generate new variants rapidly during the course of an acute infection due to mutations that accumulate in hot spot regions located at the capsid level, as well as in 2C and 3C genes...
  65. Bochkov Y, Palmenberg A, Lee W, Rathe J, Amineva S, Sun X, et al. Molecular modeling, organ culture and reverse genetics for a newly identified human rhinovirus C. Nat Med. 2011;17:627-32 pubmed publisher
    A recently recognized human rhinovirus species C (HRV-C) is associated with up to half of HRV infections in young children...
  66. Gern J. The ABCs of rhinoviruses, wheezing, and asthma. J Virol. 2010;84:7418-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The close relationship between HRV infections and asthma suggests that antiviral treatments could have a major impact on the morbidity associated with this chronic respiratory disease...
  67. Rasmussen A, Racaniello V. Selection of rhinovirus 1A variants adapted for growth in mouse lung epithelial cells. Virology. 2011;420:82-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Convenient animal models are not available to study the pathogenesis of rhinovirus-induced illness...
  68. Forbes R, Gibson P, Murphy V, Wark P. Impaired type I and III interferon response to rhinovirus infection during pregnancy and asthma. Thorax. 2012;67:209-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Pregnant women have increased susceptibility and disease severity to viral infections like influenza and HRVs, as do asthmatics. Successful pregnancy requires immunological modulation to permit fetal tolerance...
  69. Pierangeli A, Scagnolari C, Selvaggi C, Verzaro S, Spina M, Bresciani E, et al. Rhinovirus frequently detected in elderly adults attending an emergency department. J Med Virol. 2011;83:2043-7 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Rhinovirus (HRV) was detected in 16% and 8% of patients recruited over the two study periods, respectively...
  70. Schnepf N, Resche Rigon M, Chaillon A, Scemla A, Gras G, Semoun O, et al. High burden of non-influenza viruses in influenza-like illness in the early weeks of H1N1v epidemic in France. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23514 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical observations are of little help to recognise myxovirus infection and implement appropriate prevention measures. The limited use of molecular tools underestimates the role of other common pathogens...
  71. Tapparel C, Sobo K, Constant S, Huang S, Van Belle S, Kaiser L. Growth and characterization of different human rhinovirus C types in three-dimensional human airway epithelia reconstituted in vitro. Virology. 2013;446:1-8 pubmed publisher
    New molecular diagnostic tools have recently allowed the discovery of human rhinovirus species C (HRV-C) that may be overrepresented in children with lower respiratory tract complications...
  72. Hewson C, Haas J, Bartlett N, Message S, Laza Stanca V, Kebadze T, et al. Rhinovirus induces MUC5AC in a human infection model and in vitro via NF-?B and EGFR pathways. Eur Respir J. 2010;36:1425-35 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhinovirus (RV) infections are the major cause of asthma exacerbations, the major cause of morbidity and mortality in asthma. MUC5AC is the major mucin produced by bronchial epithelial cells...
  73. Eddleston J, Lee R, Doerner A, Herschbach J, Zuraw B. Cigarette smoke decreases innate responses of epithelial cells to rhinovirus infection. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2011;44:118-26 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the effects of cigarette smoke on the response of airway epithelial cells to rhinovirus infection...
  74. Peltola V, Waris M, Kainulainen L, Kero J, Ruuskanen O. Virus shedding after human rhinovirus infection in children, adults and patients with hypogammaglobulinaemia. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2013;19:E322-7 pubmed publisher
    The shedding of human rhinovirus (HRV) after an acute, naturally acquired infection has not been described in detail...
  75. McIntyre C, Savolainen Kopra C, Hovi T, Simmonds P. Recombination in the evolution of human rhinovirus genomes. Arch Virol. 2013;158:1497-515 pubmed publisher
  76. Longtin J, Marchand Austin A, Winter A, Patel S, Eshaghi A, Jamieson F, et al. Rhinovirus outbreaks in long-term care facilities, Ontario, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:1463-5 pubmed publisher
    Diagnostic difficulties may have led to underestimation of rhinovirus infections in long-term care facilities...
  77. Brand H, De Groot R, Galama J, Brouwer M, Teuwen K, Hermans P, et al. Infection with multiple viruses is not associated with increased disease severity in children with bronchiolitis. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2012;47:393-400 pubmed publisher
    ..This study evaluated the association between the detection of multiple viruses by RT-PCR and disease severity in children with bronchiolitis...
  78. Iwane M, Prill M, Lu X, Miller E, Edwards K, Hall C, et al. Human rhinovirus species associated with hospitalizations for acute respiratory illness in young US children. J Infect Dis. 2011;204:1702-10 pubmed publisher
    The contribution of human rhinovirus (HRV) to severe acute respiratory illness (ARI) is unclear.
  79. Comstock A, Ganesan S, Chattoraj A, Faris A, MARGOLIS B, Hershenson M, et al. Rhinovirus-induced barrier dysfunction in polarized airway epithelial cells is mediated by NADPH oxidase 1. J Virol. 2011;85:6795-808 pubmed publisher
    Previously, we showed that rhinovirus (RV), which is responsible for the majority of common colds, disrupts airway epithelial barrier function, as evidenced by reduced transepithelial resistance (R(T)), dissociation of zona occludins 1 (..
  80. Niespodziana K, Napora K, Cabauatan C, Focke Tejkl M, Keller W, Niederberger V, et al. Misdirected antibody responses against an N-terminal epitope on human rhinovirus VP1 as explanation for recurrent RV infections. FASEB J. 2012;26:1001-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these findings, it may be possible to design vaccines against RV infections and RV-induced respiratory diseases...
  81. Shi L, Manthei D, Guadarrama A, Lenertz L, Denlinger L. Rhinovirus-induced IL-1? release from bronchial epithelial cells is independent of functional P2X7. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2012;47:363-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, blockade of nucleotide receptors with oxidized ATP significantly increased human rhinovirus (HRV) recovered 24 hours after infection in BECs, whereas 2'-3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl) ATP treatment of brushed ..
  82. Nascimento M, Souza A, Ferreira A, Rodrigues J, Abramovici S, Silva Filho L. High rate of viral identification and coinfections in infants with acute bronchiolitis. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2010;65:1133-7 pubmed
    ..To determine the viruses and risk factors associated with hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions in infants with acute bronchiolitis...
  83. Jartti T, Kuusipalo H, Vuorinen T, Soderlund Venermo M, Allander T, Waris M, et al. Allergic sensitization is associated with rhinovirus-, but not other virus-, induced wheezing in children. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2010;21:1008-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Data on the link between atopy and viral wheeze are limited...
  84. Yeo N, Hwang Y, Kim S, Kwon H, Jang Y. Asian sand dust enhances rhinovirus-induced cytokine secretion and viral replication in human nasal epithelial cells. Inhal Toxicol. 2010;22:1038-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the most common respiratory illnesses is the common cold caused by rhinovirus (RV) infection. To date, however, the impact of ASD on RV infection has not been studied.
  85. Hao W, Bernard K, Patel N, Ulbrandt N, Feng H, Svabek C, et al. Infection and propagation of human rhinovirus C in human airway epithelial cells. J Virol. 2012;86:13524-32 pubmed publisher
    Human rhinovirus species C (HRV-C) was recently discovered using molecular diagnostic techniques and is associated with lower respiratory tract disease, particularly in children...
  86. Kiyota N, Kushibuchi I, Kobayashi M, Tsukagoshi H, Ryo A, Nishimura K, et al. Genetic analysis of the VP4/VP2 coding region in human rhinovirus species C in patients with acute respiratory infection in Japan. J Med Microbiol. 2013;62:610-7 pubmed publisher
    Detailed genetic analysis was carried out of the VP4/VP2 coding region in human rhinovirus species C (HRV-C) strains detected in patients with acute respiratory infection in Japan...
  87. McLeish N, Witteveldt J, Clasper L, McIntyre C, McWilliam Leitch E, Hardie A, et al. Development and assay of RNA transcripts of enterovirus species A to D, rhinovirus species a to C, and human parechovirus: assessment of assay sensitivity and specificity of real-time screening and typing methods. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:2910-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Transcripts developed in this study provide reagents for the ongoing development of effective diagnostics that accommodate increasing knowledge of genetic heterogeneity of diagnostic targets...
  88. McIntyre C, McWilliam Leitch E, Savolainen Kopra C, Hovi T, Simmonds P. Analysis of genetic diversity and sites of recombination in human rhinovirus species C. J Virol. 2010;84:10297-310 pubmed publisher
    ..The extensive sequence data from multiple genome regions of HRV-C and analyses of recombination in the current study will assist future formulation of consensus criteria for HRV-C type assignment and identification...
  89. Othumpangat S, Regier M, Piedimonte G. Nerve growth factor modulates human rhinovirus infection in airway epithelial cells by controlling ICAM-1 expression. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2012;302:L1057-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that HRV upregulates the NGF-TrkA pathway in airway epithelial cells, which in turn amplifies viral replication by increasing HRV entry via ICAM-1 receptors and by limiting apoptosis...
  90. Winther B. Rhinovirus infections in the upper airway. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2011;8:79-89 pubmed publisher
    ..The clinical complications related to all rhinovirus infections include acute otitis media, acute sinusitis, and acute bronchitis...
  91. Garriga D, Pickl Herk A, Luque D, Wruss J, Castón J, Blaas D, et al. Insights into minor group rhinovirus uncoating: the X-ray structure of the HRV2 empty capsid. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002473 pubmed publisher
    ..The structural comparison between native and empty HRV2 particles unveils a number of pH-sensitive amino acid residues, conserved in rhinoviruses, which participate in the structural rearrangements involved in the uncoating process...
  92. Jahan N, Wimmer E, Mueller S. Polypyrimidine tract binding protein-1 (PTB1) is a determinant of the tissue and host tropism of a human rhinovirus/poliovirus chimera PV1(RIPO). PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60791 pubmed publisher
    ..a chimeric poliovirus in which translation of the poliovirus polyprotein is under the control of a human rhinovirus type 2 (HRV2) IRES element...
  93. Sykes A, Macintyre J, Edwards M, Del Rosario A, Haas J, Gielen V, et al. Rhinovirus-induced interferon production is not deficient in well controlled asthma. Thorax. 2014;69:240-6 pubmed publisher
    Defective rhinovirus (RV)-induced interferon (IFN)-? and IFN-? production and increased RV replication have been reported in primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) from subjects with asthma...
  94. Denlinger L, Sorkness R, Lee W, Evans M, Wolff M, Mathur S, et al. Lower airway rhinovirus burden and the seasonal risk of asthma exacerbation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;184:1007-14 pubmed publisher
    Most asthma exacerbations are initiated by viral upper respiratory illnesses. It is unclear whether human rhinovirus (HRV)–induced exacerbations are associated with greater viral replication and neutrophilic inflammation compared with ..