equine infectious anemia virus

Summary

Summary: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus equine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, EQUINE), causing acute and chronic infection in horses. It is transmitted mechanically by biting flies, mosquitoes, and midges, and iatrogenically through unsterilized equipment. Chronic infection often consists of acute episodes with remissions.

Top Publications

  1. Cook R, Cook S, Bolin P, Howe L, Zhou W, Montelaro R, et al. Genetic immunization with codon-optimized equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) surface unit (SU) envelope protein gene sequences stimulates immune responses in ponies. Vet Microbiol. 2005;108:23-37 pubmed
    In the context of DNA vaccines the native equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)-envelope gene has proven to be an extremely weak immunogen in horses probably because the RNA transcripts are poorly expressed owing to an unusual codon-usage ..
  2. Mealey R, Leib S, Pownder S, McGuire T. Adaptive immunity is the primary force driving selection of equine infectious anemia virus envelope SU variants during acute infection. J Virol. 2004;78:9295-305 pubmed
    b>Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a lentivirus that causes persistent infection in horses...
  3. Zhang B, Sun C, Jin S, Cascio M, Montelaro R. Mapping of equine lentivirus receptor 1 residues critical for equine infectious anemia virus envelope binding. J Virol. 2008;82:1204-13 pubmed publisher
    ..tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) protein family, has been identified as a functional receptor for equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)...
  4. Mealey R, Zhang B, Leib S, Littke M, McGuire T. Epitope specificity is critical for high and moderate avidity cytotoxic T lymphocytes associated with control of viral load and clinical disease in horses with equine infectious anemia virus. Virology. 2003;313:537-52 pubmed
    b>Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a lentivirus that causes persistent infections in horses...
  5. Payne S, Fuller F. Virulence determinants of equine infectious anemia virus. Curr HIV Res. 2010;8:66-72 pubmed
    b>Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a macrophage-tropic lentivirus that rapidly Induces disease in experimentally infected horses...
  6. Tagmyer T, Craigo J, Cook S, Issel C, Montelaro R. Envelope-specific T-helper and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses associated with protective immunity to equine infectious anemia virus. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:1324-36 pubmed
    b>Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infection of horses provides a valuable model for examining the natural immunological control of lentivirus infection and disease and the mechanisms of protective and enhancing vaccine immunity...
  7. Ma J, Jiang C, Lin Y, Wang X, Zhao L, Xiang W, et al. In vivo evolution of the gp90 gene and consistently low plasma viral load during transient immune suppression demonstrate the safety of an attenuated equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) vaccine. Arch Virol. 2009;154:867-73 pubmed publisher
    To study the in vivo evolution of the attenuated Chinese equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) vaccine, viral gp90 gene variation and virus replication in immunosuppressed hosts were investigated...
  8. Perry S, Flaherty M, Kelley M, Clabough D, Tronick S, Coggins L, et al. The surface envelope protein gene region of equine infectious anemia virus is not an important determinant of tropism in vitro. J Virol. 1992;66:4085-97 pubmed
    Virulent, wild-type equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is restricted in one or more early steps in replication in equine skin fibroblast cells compared with cell culture-adapted virus, which is fully competent for replication in this ..
  9. Bogerd H, Tallmadge R, Oaks J, Carpenter S, Cullen B. Equine infectious anemia virus resists the antiretroviral activity of equine APOBEC3 proteins through a packaging-independent mechanism. J Virol. 2008;82:11889-901 pubmed publisher
    b>Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), uniquely among lentiviruses, does not encode a vif gene product...
  10. Mealey R, Stone D, Hines M, Alperin D, Littke M, Leib S, et al. Experimental Rhodococcus equi and equine infectious anemia virus DNA vaccination in adult and neonatal horses: effect of IL-12, dose, and route. Vaccine. 2007;25:7582-97 pubmed
    ..Rhodoccocus equi and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) are two naturally occurring equine pathogens that also serve as important large animal models ..

Detail Information

Publications75

  1. Cook R, Cook S, Bolin P, Howe L, Zhou W, Montelaro R, et al. Genetic immunization with codon-optimized equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) surface unit (SU) envelope protein gene sequences stimulates immune responses in ponies. Vet Microbiol. 2005;108:23-37 pubmed
    In the context of DNA vaccines the native equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)-envelope gene has proven to be an extremely weak immunogen in horses probably because the RNA transcripts are poorly expressed owing to an unusual codon-usage ..
  2. Mealey R, Leib S, Pownder S, McGuire T. Adaptive immunity is the primary force driving selection of equine infectious anemia virus envelope SU variants during acute infection. J Virol. 2004;78:9295-305 pubmed
    b>Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a lentivirus that causes persistent infection in horses...
  3. Zhang B, Sun C, Jin S, Cascio M, Montelaro R. Mapping of equine lentivirus receptor 1 residues critical for equine infectious anemia virus envelope binding. J Virol. 2008;82:1204-13 pubmed publisher
    ..tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) protein family, has been identified as a functional receptor for equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)...
  4. Mealey R, Zhang B, Leib S, Littke M, McGuire T. Epitope specificity is critical for high and moderate avidity cytotoxic T lymphocytes associated with control of viral load and clinical disease in horses with equine infectious anemia virus. Virology. 2003;313:537-52 pubmed
    b>Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a lentivirus that causes persistent infections in horses...
  5. Payne S, Fuller F. Virulence determinants of equine infectious anemia virus. Curr HIV Res. 2010;8:66-72 pubmed
    b>Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a macrophage-tropic lentivirus that rapidly Induces disease in experimentally infected horses...
  6. Tagmyer T, Craigo J, Cook S, Issel C, Montelaro R. Envelope-specific T-helper and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses associated with protective immunity to equine infectious anemia virus. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:1324-36 pubmed
    b>Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infection of horses provides a valuable model for examining the natural immunological control of lentivirus infection and disease and the mechanisms of protective and enhancing vaccine immunity...
  7. Ma J, Jiang C, Lin Y, Wang X, Zhao L, Xiang W, et al. In vivo evolution of the gp90 gene and consistently low plasma viral load during transient immune suppression demonstrate the safety of an attenuated equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) vaccine. Arch Virol. 2009;154:867-73 pubmed publisher
    To study the in vivo evolution of the attenuated Chinese equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) vaccine, viral gp90 gene variation and virus replication in immunosuppressed hosts were investigated...
  8. Perry S, Flaherty M, Kelley M, Clabough D, Tronick S, Coggins L, et al. The surface envelope protein gene region of equine infectious anemia virus is not an important determinant of tropism in vitro. J Virol. 1992;66:4085-97 pubmed
    Virulent, wild-type equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is restricted in one or more early steps in replication in equine skin fibroblast cells compared with cell culture-adapted virus, which is fully competent for replication in this ..
  9. Bogerd H, Tallmadge R, Oaks J, Carpenter S, Cullen B. Equine infectious anemia virus resists the antiretroviral activity of equine APOBEC3 proteins through a packaging-independent mechanism. J Virol. 2008;82:11889-901 pubmed publisher
    b>Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), uniquely among lentiviruses, does not encode a vif gene product...
  10. Mealey R, Stone D, Hines M, Alperin D, Littke M, Leib S, et al. Experimental Rhodococcus equi and equine infectious anemia virus DNA vaccination in adult and neonatal horses: effect of IL-12, dose, and route. Vaccine. 2007;25:7582-97 pubmed
    ..Rhodoccocus equi and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) are two naturally occurring equine pathogens that also serve as important large animal models ..
  11. Cook S, Cook R, Montelaro R, Issel C. Differential responses of Equus caballus and Equus asinus to infection with two pathogenic strains of equine infectious anemia virus. Vet Microbiol. 2001;79:93-109 pubmed
    Most in vivo studies with equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) have been performed in horses and ponies (Equus caballus) with little published information available detailing the clinical responses of donkeys (Equus asinus) to infection ..
  12. Ott D, Coren L, Sowder R, Adams J, Nagashima K, Schubert U. Equine infectious anemia virus and the ubiquitin-proteasome system. J Virol. 2002;76:3038-44 pubmed
    ..We examined equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) particles and found that approximately 2% of the p9(Gag) proteins are monoubiquitinated, ..
  13. Strack B, Calistri A, Craig S, Popova E, Gottlinger H. AIP1/ALIX is a binding partner for HIV-1 p6 and EIAV p9 functioning in virus budding. Cell. 2003;114:689-99 pubmed
    ..These observations identify AIP1 as a component of the viral budding machinery, which serves to link a distinct region in the L domain of HIV-1 p6 and EIAV p9 to ESCRT-III...
  14. Hacker C, Vink C, Wardell T, Lee S, Treasure P, Kingsman S, et al. The integration profile of EIAV-based vectors. Mol Ther. 2006;14:536-45 pubmed
    Lentiviral vectors based on equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) stably integrate into dividing and nondividing cells such as neurons, conferring long-term expression of their transgene...
  15. Jin S, Issel C, Montelaro R. Serological method using recombinant S2 protein to differentiate equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)-infected and EIAV-vaccinated horses. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2004;11:1120-9 pubmed
    We recently reported a highly protective attenuated live virus vaccine for equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) based on a proviral construct (EIAVUKDeltaS2) with a genetically engineered mutation in the viral S2 gene that eliminates ..
  16. Covaleda L, Gno B, Fuller F, Payne S. Identification of cellular proteins interacting with equine infectious anemia virus S2 protein. Virus Res. 2010;151:235-9 pubmed publisher
    The macrophage-tropic lentivirus, equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), encodes the small auxiliary protein S2 from a short open reading frame that overlaps the amino terminus of env EIAV S2 is dispensable for virus replication in ..
  17. Cook R, Leroux C, Cook S, Berger S, Lichtenstein D, Ghabrial N, et al. Development and characterization of an in vivo pathogenic molecular clone of equine infectious anemia virus. J Virol. 1998;72:1383-93 pubmed
    An infectious nonpathogenic molecular clone (19-2-6A) of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) was modified by substitution of a 3...
  18. Nord J, Kiefer M, Adolph H, Zeppezauer M, Nyman P. Transient kinetics of ligand binding and role of the C-terminus in the dUTPase from equine infectious anemia virus. FEBS Lett. 2000;472:312-6 pubmed
    Transient kinetics of the equine infectious anemia virus deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nucleotide hydrolase were characterized by monitoring the fluorescence of the protein...
  19. Leroux C, Cadoré J, Montelaro R. Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV): what has HIV's country cousin got to tell us?. Vet Res. 2004;35:485-512 pubmed
    b>Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV) is a lentivirus, of the Retrovirus family, with an almost worldwide distribution, infecting equids...
  20. Shehu Xhilaga M, Ablan S, Demirov D, Chen C, Montelaro R, Freed E. Late domain-dependent inhibition of equine infectious anemia virus budding. J Virol. 2004;78:724-32 pubmed
    ..reported that, while the release of a number of retroviruses is disrupted by proteasome inhibitors, equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) budding is not affected by these agents...
  21. Hötzel I. Conservation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 V1/V2 stem/loop structure in the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) gp90. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2003;19:923-4 pubmed
  22. Liang H, He X, Shen R, Shen T, Tong X, Ma Y, et al. Combined amino acid mutations occurring in the envelope closely correlate with pathogenicity of EIAV. Arch Virol. 2006;151:1387-403 pubmed
    The Chinese equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) donkey-leukocyte attenuated vaccine (DLV) provides a unique natural model system to study the attenuation mechanism and immunological control of lentivirus replication...
  23. Hines R, Sorensen B, Shea M, Maury W. PU.1 binding to ets motifs within the equine infectious anemia virus long terminal repeat (LTR) enhancer: regulation of LTR activity and virus replication in macrophages. J Virol. 2004;78:3407-18 pubmed
    ..The long terminal repeat (LTR) of macrophage-tropic strains of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) contains three PU...
  24. Belshan M, Baccam P, Oaks J, Sponseller B, Murphy S, Cornette J, et al. Genetic and biological variation in equine infectious anemia virus Rev correlates with variable stages of clinical disease in an experimentally infected pony. Virology. 2001;279:185-200 pubmed
    Genetic and biological variation in the regulatory protein Rev of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) were examined throughout a clinically dynamic disease course of an experimentally infected pony...
  25. Reis J, Craigo J, Cook S, Issel C, Montelaro R. Characterization of EIAV LTR variability and compartmentalization in various reservoir tissues of long-term inapparent carrier ponies. Virology. 2003;311:169-80 pubmed
    ..in changes in envelope antigenicity has been established as a fundamental mechanism of persistence by equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), as observed with other lentiviruses, including HIV-1...
  26. Fisher R, Chung H, Zhai Q, Robinson H, Sundquist W, Hill C. Structural and biochemical studies of ALIX/AIP1 and its role in retrovirus budding. Cell. 2007;128:841-52 pubmed
    ..ALIX therefore serves as a flexible, extended scaffold that connects retroviral Gag proteins to ESCRT-III and other cellular-budding machinery...
  27. Brindley M, Maury W. Endocytosis and a low-pH step are required for productive entry of equine infectious anemia virus. J Virol. 2005;79:14482-8 pubmed
    ..The entry mechanism of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) has yet to be examined...
  28. Chung H -, Derse D. Binding sites for Rev and ASF/SF2 map to a 55-nucleotide purine-rich exonic element in equine infectious anemia virus RNA. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:18960-7 pubmed
    The equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) Rev protein (ERev) negatively regulates its own synthesis by inducing alternative splicing of its mRNA...
  29. Nagarajan M, Simard C. Detection of horses infected naturally with equine infectious anemia virus by nested polymerase chain reaction. J Virol Methods. 2001;94:97-109 pubmed
    A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifying a region of the gag gene of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) was developed for the rapid and direct detection of proviral DNA from the peripheral blood of naturally infected horses ..
  30. Howe L, Craigo J, Issel C, Montelaro R. Specificity of serum neutralizing antibodies induced by transient immune suppression of inapparent carrier ponies infected with a neutralization-resistant equine infectious anemia virus envelope strain. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:139-49 pubmed
    ..of ponies experimentally infected with a highly neutralization resistant envelope variant of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), designated EIAV(DeltaPND), resulted in the appearance of type-specific serum antibodies to the ..
  31. Craigo J, Li F, Steckbeck J, Durkin S, Howe L, Cook S, et al. Discerning an effective balance between equine infectious anemia virus attenuation and vaccine efficacy. J Virol. 2005;79:2666-77 pubmed
    ..We previously reported that an experimental live attenuated vaccine for equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), based on mutation of the viral S2 accessory gene, elicited protection from detectable ..
  32. Craigo J, Leroux C, Howe L, Steckbeck J, Cook S, Issel C, et al. Transient immune suppression of inapparent carriers infected with a principal neutralizing domain-deficient equine infectious anaemia virus induces neutralizing antibodies and lowers steady-state virus replication. J Gen Virol. 2002;83:1353-9 pubmed
  33. Craigo J, Sturgeon T, Cook S, Issel C, Leroux C, Montelaro R. Apparent elimination of EIAV ancestral species in a long-term inapparent carrier. Virology. 2006;344:340-53 pubmed
    b>Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) envelope variation produces newly dominant quasispecies with each sequential disease cycle; new populations arise, and previous plasma quasispecies, including the original inoculum, become ..
  34. Jin S, Zhang B, Weisz O, Montelaro R. Receptor-mediated entry by equine infectious anemia virus utilizes a pH-dependent endocytic pathway. J Virol. 2005;79:14489-97 pubmed
    ..specificity of lentiviral entry mechanisms, we have in the current study examined the entry pathway of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) during infection of its natural target, equine macrophages, permissive equine fibroblastic cell ..
  35. Li F, Chen C, Puffer B, Montelaro R. Functional replacement and positional dependence of homologous and heterologous L domains in equine infectious anemia virus replication. J Virol. 2002;76:1569-77 pubmed
    We have previously demonstrated by Gag polyprotein budding assays that the Gag p9 protein of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) utilizes a unique YPDL motif as a late assembly domain (L domain) to facilitate release of the budding ..
  36. Fraser D, Leib S, Zhang B, Mealey R, Brown W, McGuire T. Lymphocyte proliferation responses induced to broadly reactive Th peptides did not protect against equine infectious anemia virus challenge. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2005;12:983-93 pubmed
    ..containing T-helper (Th) epitopes and two with both Th and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes, on equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) challenge was evaluated...
  37. Kawakami T, Sherman L, Dahlberg J, Gazit A, Yaniv A, Tronick S, et al. Nucleotide sequence analysis of equine infectious anemia virus proviral DNA. Virology. 1987;158:300-12 pubmed
    The nucleotide sequence of the integrated form of the genome of the equine infectious anemia virus was determined...
  38. Chen C, Montelaro R. Characterization of RNA elements that regulate gag-pol ribosomal frameshifting in equine infectious anemia virus. J Virol. 2003;77:10280-7 pubmed
  39. McGuire T, Leib S, Mealey R, Fraser D, Prieur D. Presentation and binding affinity of equine infectious anemia virus CTL envelope and matrix protein epitopes by an expressed equine classical MHC class I molecule. J Immunol. 2003;171:1984-93 pubmed
    Control of a naturally occurring lentivirus, equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), occurs in most infected horses and involves MHC class I-restricted, virus-specific CTL...
  40. Sparks W, Dorman K, Liu S, Carpenter S. Naturally arising point mutations in non-essential domains of equine infectious anemia virus Rev alter Rev-dependent nuclear-export activity. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:1043-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) exhibits a high rate of genetic variation in vivo, and results in a clinically variable disease in infected horses...
  41. Craigo J, Zhang B, Barnes S, Tagmyer T, Cook S, Issel C, et al. Envelope variation as a primary determinant of lentiviral vaccine efficacy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:15105-10 pubmed
    ..We previously reported that a successful experimental attenuated equine infectious anemia virus vaccine, derived by mutation of the viral S2 accessory gene, provided 100% protection from disease ..
  42. Chen C, Li F, Montelaro R. Functional roles of equine infectious anemia virus Gag p9 in viral budding and infection. J Virol. 2001;75:9762-70 pubmed
    Previous studies utilizing Gag polyprotein budding assays with transfected cells reveal that the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) Gag p9 protein provides a late assembly function mediated by a critical Y(23)P(24)D(25)L(26) motif (L-..
  43. Hatanaka H, Iourin O, Rao Z, Fry E, Kingsman A, Stuart D. Structure of equine infectious anemia virus matrix protein. J Virol. 2002;76:1876-83 pubmed
    ..The 2.8-A resolution crystal structure of MA of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), a lentivirus, reveals that, despite showing no sequence similarity, more than half of the ..
  44. Cherepanov P. LEDGF/p75 interacts with divergent lentiviral integrases and modulates their enzymatic activity in vitro. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:113-24 pubmed publisher
    ..INs examined, including those from bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), maedi-visna virus (MVV) and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) readily interacted with LEDGF...
  45. Taylor S, Leib S, Carpenter S, Mealey R. Selection of a rare neutralization-resistant variant following passive transfer of convalescent immune plasma in equine infectious anemia virus-challenged SCID horses. J Virol. 2010;84:6536-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we determined that convalescent immune plasma from a horse persistently infected with equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) neutralized homologous virus and several envelope variants containing heterologous principal ..
  46. Payne S, Pei X, Jia B, Fagerness A, Fuller F. Influence of long terminal repeat and env on the virulence phenotype of equine infectious anemia virus. J Virol. 2004;78:2478-85 pubmed
    The molecular clones pSPeiav19 and p19/wenv17 of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) differ in env and long terminal repeats (LTRs) and produce viruses (EIAV(19) and EIAV(17), respectively) of dramatically different virulence phenotypes...
  47. Brindley M, Maury W. Equine infectious anemia virus entry occurs through clathrin-mediated endocytosis. J Virol. 2008;82:1628-37 pubmed
    Entry of wild-type lentivirus equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) into cells requires a low-pH step. This low-pH constraint implicates endocytosis in EIAV entry...
  48. Liao H, Baker C, Princler G, Derse D. cis-Acting and trans-acting modulation of equine infectious anemia virus alternative RNA splicing. Virology. 2004;323:131-40 pubmed
    b>Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), a lentivirus distantly related to HIV-1, encodes regulatory proteins, EIAV Tat (ETat) and Rev (ERev), from a four-exon mRNA...
  49. Nord J, Larsson G, Kvassman J, Rosengren A, Nyman P. dUTPase from the retrovirus equine infectious anemia virus: specificity, turnover and inhibition. FEBS Lett. 1997;414:271-4 pubmed
    The kinetic properties of dUTPase from equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) were investigated. K(M) (1.1 +/- 0.1 microM) and k(cat) (25 s(-1)) were found to be independent of pH in the neutral pH range. Above pH 8...
  50. Oaks J, McGuire T, Ulibarri C, Crawford T. Equine infectious anemia virus is found in tissue macrophages during subclinical infection. J Virol. 1998;72:7263-9 pubmed
    The equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) often results in lifelong subclinical infection following early episodes of clinical disease...
  51. Tanzi G, Piefer A, Bates P. Equine infectious anemia virus utilizes host vesicular protein sorting machinery during particle release. J Virol. 2003;77:8440-7 pubmed
    ..b>Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is unique among enveloped viruses studied to date because it utilizes a novel motif, YPDL in ..
  52. Ridgely S, Zhang B, McGuire T. Response of ELA-A1 horses immunized with lipopeptide containing an equine infectious anemia virus ELA-A1-restricted CTL epitope to virus challenge. Vaccine. 2003;21:491-506 pubmed
    ..Results indicate that lipopeptide immunization had a protective effect against development of clinical disease following virus challenge...
  53. Jin S, Chen C, Montelaro R. Equine infectious anemia virus Gag p9 function in early steps of virus infection and provirus production. J Virol. 2005;79:8793-801 pubmed
    We have previously reported that serial truncation of the Gag p9 protein of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) revealed a progressive loss in replication phenotypes in transfected cells, such that a proviral mutant (E32) expressing the ..
  54. Roberts M, Oroszlan S. The preparation and biochemical characterization of intact capsids of equine infectious anemia virus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1989;160:486-94 pubmed
    Capsids of equine infectious anemia virus have been isolated as cone-shaped particles 60 x 120 nm in size...
  55. Zielonka J, Bravo I, Marino D, Conrad E, Perkovi M, Battenberg M, et al. Restriction of equine infectious anemia virus by equine APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases. J Virol. 2009;83:7547-59 pubmed publisher
    ..activity of the equine and of several of the human and nonprimate A3 proteins against the Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), the Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and the Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2)...
  56. Cook R, Cook S, Berger S, Leroux C, Ghabrial N, Gantz M, et al. Enhancement of equine infectious anemia virus virulence by identification and removal of suboptimal nucleotides. Virology. 2003;313:588-603 pubmed
    Pathogenicity was reportedly restored to an avirulent molecular clone of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) by substitution of 3' sequences from the pathogenic variant strain (EIAV(PV))...
  57. Sponseller B, Sparks W, Wannemuehler Y, Li Y, Antons A, Oaks J, et al. Immune selection of equine infectious anemia virus env variants during the long-term inapparent stage of disease. Virology. 2007;363:156-65 pubmed
    The principal neutralizing domain (PND) of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is located in the V3 region of SU...
  58. Mealey R, Fraser D, Oaks J, Cantor G, McGuire T. Immune reconstitution prevents continuous equine infectious anemia virus replication in an Arabian foal with severe combined immunodeficiency: lessons for control of lentiviruses. Clin Immunol. 2001;101:237-47 pubmed
    Acute infection with equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), a lentivirus of horses, results in a persistent high-level viremia in Arabian foals affected with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)...
  59. Cook R, Cook S, Li F, Montelaro R, Issel C. Development of a multiplex real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). J Virol Methods. 2002;105:171-9 pubmed
    ..RT-PCR) using a fluorogenic real-time PCR detection method is described for the quantitation of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) RNA in the plasma of equids...
  60. Jin J, Sturgeon T, Chen C, Watkins S, Weisz O, Montelaro R. Distinct intracellular trafficking of equine infectious anemia virus and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag during viral assembly and budding revealed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays. J Virol. 2007;81:11226-35 pubmed publisher
    ..While there may be a general assumption that lentiviruses share common assembly mechanisms, studies of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) have indicated alternative cellular pathways and cofactors employed among lentiviruses for ..
  61. Brindley M, Zhang B, Montelaro R, Maury W. An equine infectious anemia virus variant superinfects cells through novel receptor interactions. J Virol. 2008;82:9425-32 pubmed publisher
    Wild-type strains of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) prevent superinfection of previously infected cells...
  62. Tagmyer T, Craigo J, Cook S, Even D, Issel C, Montelaro R. Envelope determinants of equine infectious anemia virus vaccine protection and the effects of sequence variation on immune recognition. J Virol. 2008;82:4052-63 pubmed publisher
    A highly effective attenuated equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) vaccine (EIAV(D9)) capable of protecting 100% of horses from disease induced by a homologous Env challenge strain (EIAV(PV)) was recently tested in ponies to determine ..
  63. Chen C, Vincent O, Jin J, Weisz O, Montelaro R. Functions of early (AP-2) and late (AIP1/ALIX) endocytic proteins in equine infectious anemia virus budding. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:40474-80 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the YPDL L domain of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is apparently unique in its reported ability to interact both with the mu2 subunit of the AP-2 ..
  64. Li F, Craigo J, Howe L, Steckbeck J, Cook S, Issel C, et al. A live attenuated equine infectious anemia virus proviral vaccine with a modified S2 gene provides protection from detectable infection by intravenous virulent virus challenge of experimentally inoculated horses. J Virol. 2003;77:7244-53 pubmed
    Previous evaluations of inactivated whole-virus and envelope subunit vaccines to equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) have revealed a broad spectrum of efficacy ranging from highly type-specific protection to severe enhancement of viral ..
  65. Lee J, Murphy S, Belshan M, Sparks W, Wannemuehler Y, Liu S, et al. Characterization of functional domains of equine infectious anemia virus Rev suggests a bipartite RNA-binding domain. J Virol. 2006;80:3844-52 pubmed
    b>Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) Rev is an essential regulatory protein that facilitates expression of viral mRNAs encoding structural proteins and genomic RNA and regulates alternative splicing of the bicistronic tat/rev mRNA...
  66. Baccam P, Thompson R, Li Y, Sparks W, Belshan M, Dorman K, et al. Subpopulations of equine infectious anemia virus Rev coexist in vivo and differ in phenotype. J Virol. 2003;77:12122-31 pubmed
    ..lentivirus regulatory protein, Rev, over the course of disease in ponies experimentally infected with equine infectious anemia virus. As observed with other lentivirus data, the Rev variants exhibited a quasispecies character...
  67. Howe L, Leroux C, Issel C, Montelaro R. Equine infectious anemia virus envelope evolution in vivo during persistent infection progressively increases resistance to in vitro serum antibody neutralization as a dominant phenotype. J Virol. 2002;76:10588-97 pubmed
    b>Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infection of horses is characterized by well-defined waves of viremia associated with the sequential evolution of distinct viral populations displaying extensive envelope gp90 variation; however, a ..
  68. O Rourke J, Newbound G, Kohn D, Olsen J, Bunnell B. Comparison of gene transfer efficiencies and gene expression levels achieved with equine infectious anemia virus- and human immunodeficiency virus type 1-derived lentivirus vectors. J Virol. 2002;76:1510-5 pubmed
    ..as well as durations and levels of gene expression for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) lentiviral vectors in a variety of human cell types in vitro...
  69. Hines R, Maury W. DH82 cells: a macrophage cell line for the replication and study of equine infectious anemia virus. J Virol Methods. 2001;95:47-56 pubmed
    In vivo, tissue macrophages have been implicated as an important cell for the replication of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)...
  70. Craigo J, Durkin S, Sturgeon T, Tagmyer T, Cook S, Issel C, et al. Immune suppression of challenged vaccinates as a rigorous assessment of sterile protection by lentiviral vaccines. Vaccine. 2007;25:834-45 pubmed
    We previously reported that an experimental live-attenuated equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) vaccine, containing a mutated S2 accessory gene, provided protection from disease and detectable infection after virulent virus (EIAV(PV)) ..
  71. Fagerness A, Flaherty M, Perry S, Jia B, Payne S, Fuller F. The S2 accessory gene of equine infectious anemia virus is essential for expression of disease in ponies. Virology. 2006;349:22-30 pubmed
    b>Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a macrophage-tropic lentivirus that persistently infects horses and causes a disease that is characterized by periodic episodes of fever, thrombocytopenia, and viremia...
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    ..Using equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), we now demonstrate differential effects of cellular actin dynamics at distinct stages of ..
  73. Priel E, Showalter S, Roberts M, Oroszlan S, Segal S, Aboud M, et al. Topoisomerase I activity associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) particles and equine infectious anemia virus core. EMBO J. 1990;9:4167-72 pubmed
    ..a topoisomerase I (topo I) activity in two strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) particles...
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    ..In this study, the nucleotide sequence of the gag and pol genes of an equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) proviral DNA clone was determined...