orthopoxvirus

Summary

Summary: A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, comprising many species infecting mammals. Viruses of this genus cause generalized infections and a rash in some hosts. The type species is VACCINIA VIRUS.

Top Publications

  1. Ryabinin V, Shundrin L, Kostina E, Laassri M, Chizhikov V, Shchelkunov S, et al. Microarray assay for detection and discrimination of Orthopoxvirus species. J Med Virol. 2006;78:1325-40 pubmed
    A microarray method was developed for simultaneous detection and identification of six species of Orthopoxvirus (OPV) including Variola, Monkeypox, Cowpox, Camelpox, Vaccinia, and Ectromelia viruses...
  2. Shchelkunov S, Totmenin A, Kolosova I. Species-specific differences in organization of orthopoxvirus kelch-like proteins. Virus Genes. 2002;24:157-62 pubmed
    Organization of orthopoxvirus proteins of the kelch superfamily and their genes were analyzed and compared...
  3. Empig C, Kenner J, Perret Gentil M, Youree B, Bell E, Chen A, et al. Highly attenuated smallpox vaccine protects rabbits and mice against pathogenic orthopoxvirus challenge. Vaccine. 2006;24:3686-94 pubmed
    ..Thus, LC16m8 shows promise as a safe and effective smallpox vaccine with the potential for replacing Dryvax. ..
  4. Duraffour S, Vigne S, Vermeire K, Garcel A, Vanstreels E, Daelemans D, et al. Specific targeting of the F13L protein by ST-246 affects orthopoxvirus production differently. Antivir Ther. 2008;13:977-90 pubmed
  5. Meyer H, Damon I, Esposito J. Orthopoxvirus diagnostics. Methods Mol Biol. 2004;269:119-34 pubmed
    ..papers from our laboratories with three different methods that should be suitable for the preparation of orthopoxvirus DNA from various sources (e.g...
  6. Hawranek T, Tritscher M, Muss W, Jecel J, Nowotny N, Kolodziejek J, et al. Feline orthopoxvirus infection transmitted from cat to human. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003;49:513-8 pubmed
    ..degenerated keratinocytes, and virus particles in intermingled phagocytes, leading to the diagnosis of feline Orthopoxvirus (cowpox virus) infection. These results were verified by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing...
  7. Abrahão J, Drumond B, Trindade G, da Silva Fernandes A, Ferreira J, Alves P, et al. Rapid detection of Orthopoxvirus by semi-nested PCR directly from clinical specimens: a useful alternative for routine laboratories. J Med Virol. 2010;82:692-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Orthopoxvirus (OPV) has been associated with worldwide exanthematic outbreaks, which have resulted in serious economic losses as well as impact on public health...
  8. Uvarova E, Shchelkunov S. Species-specific differences in the structure of orthopoxvirus complement-binding protein. Virus Res. 2001;81:39-45 pubmed
    ..For this purpose, VCP genes of three MPV strains were sequenced. VCP gene sequences of other human-pathogenic orthopoxvirus species and strains determined earlier were involved in the analysis...
  9. Keith K, Hitchcock M, Lee W, Holy A, Kern E. Evaluation of nucleoside phosphonates and their analogs and prodrugs for inhibition of orthopoxvirus replication. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:2193-8 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that a number of these ANP derivatives have activity against vaccinia virus and cowpox virus in vitro and should be evaluated for their efficacies in animal models. ..
  10. Schatzmayr H, Lemos E, Mazur C, Schubach A, Majerowicz S, Rozental T, et al. Detection of poxvirus in cattle associated with human cases in the State of Rio de Janeiro: preliminary report. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2000;95:625-7 pubmed
    ..The electron microscopic findings were consistent with parapoxviral and orthopoxviral infection. Orthopoxvirus strains were isolated from human and cow cases...

Detail Information

Publications83

  1. Ryabinin V, Shundrin L, Kostina E, Laassri M, Chizhikov V, Shchelkunov S, et al. Microarray assay for detection and discrimination of Orthopoxvirus species. J Med Virol. 2006;78:1325-40 pubmed
    A microarray method was developed for simultaneous detection and identification of six species of Orthopoxvirus (OPV) including Variola, Monkeypox, Cowpox, Camelpox, Vaccinia, and Ectromelia viruses...
  2. Shchelkunov S, Totmenin A, Kolosova I. Species-specific differences in organization of orthopoxvirus kelch-like proteins. Virus Genes. 2002;24:157-62 pubmed
    Organization of orthopoxvirus proteins of the kelch superfamily and their genes were analyzed and compared...
  3. Empig C, Kenner J, Perret Gentil M, Youree B, Bell E, Chen A, et al. Highly attenuated smallpox vaccine protects rabbits and mice against pathogenic orthopoxvirus challenge. Vaccine. 2006;24:3686-94 pubmed
    ..Thus, LC16m8 shows promise as a safe and effective smallpox vaccine with the potential for replacing Dryvax. ..
  4. Duraffour S, Vigne S, Vermeire K, Garcel A, Vanstreels E, Daelemans D, et al. Specific targeting of the F13L protein by ST-246 affects orthopoxvirus production differently. Antivir Ther. 2008;13:977-90 pubmed
  5. Meyer H, Damon I, Esposito J. Orthopoxvirus diagnostics. Methods Mol Biol. 2004;269:119-34 pubmed
    ..papers from our laboratories with three different methods that should be suitable for the preparation of orthopoxvirus DNA from various sources (e.g...
  6. Hawranek T, Tritscher M, Muss W, Jecel J, Nowotny N, Kolodziejek J, et al. Feline orthopoxvirus infection transmitted from cat to human. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003;49:513-8 pubmed
    ..degenerated keratinocytes, and virus particles in intermingled phagocytes, leading to the diagnosis of feline Orthopoxvirus (cowpox virus) infection. These results were verified by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing...
  7. Abrahão J, Drumond B, Trindade G, da Silva Fernandes A, Ferreira J, Alves P, et al. Rapid detection of Orthopoxvirus by semi-nested PCR directly from clinical specimens: a useful alternative for routine laboratories. J Med Virol. 2010;82:692-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Orthopoxvirus (OPV) has been associated with worldwide exanthematic outbreaks, which have resulted in serious economic losses as well as impact on public health...
  8. Uvarova E, Shchelkunov S. Species-specific differences in the structure of orthopoxvirus complement-binding protein. Virus Res. 2001;81:39-45 pubmed
    ..For this purpose, VCP genes of three MPV strains were sequenced. VCP gene sequences of other human-pathogenic orthopoxvirus species and strains determined earlier were involved in the analysis...
  9. Keith K, Hitchcock M, Lee W, Holy A, Kern E. Evaluation of nucleoside phosphonates and their analogs and prodrugs for inhibition of orthopoxvirus replication. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:2193-8 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that a number of these ANP derivatives have activity against vaccinia virus and cowpox virus in vitro and should be evaluated for their efficacies in animal models. ..
  10. Schatzmayr H, Lemos E, Mazur C, Schubach A, Majerowicz S, Rozental T, et al. Detection of poxvirus in cattle associated with human cases in the State of Rio de Janeiro: preliminary report. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2000;95:625-7 pubmed
    ..The electron microscopic findings were consistent with parapoxviral and orthopoxviral infection. Orthopoxvirus strains were isolated from human and cow cases...
  11. Fan X, Zhang X, Zhou L, Keith K, Prichard M, Kern E, et al. Toward orthopoxvirus countermeasures: a novel heteromorphic nucleoside of unusual structure. J Med Chem. 2006;49:4052-4 pubmed
    ..Compound 2 was efficiently phosphorylated by VV TK, establishing that VV TK is more promiscuous than previously believed. ..
  12. Nuara A, Walter L, Logsdon N, Yoon S, Jones B, Schriewer J, et al. Structure and mechanism of IFN-gamma antagonism by an orthopoxvirus IFN-gamma-binding protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:1861-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The structure, combined with biochemical and cell-based assays, demonstrates that IFN-gammaBP(ECTV) tetramers are required for efficient IFN-gamma antagonism. ..
  13. Baker R, Bray M, Huggins J. Potential antiviral therapeutics for smallpox, monkeypox and other orthopoxvirus infections. Antiviral Res. 2003;57:13-23 pubmed
    ..Preliminary data indicate that nearly all isolates appear to have similar drug sensitivities. These findings are currently being verified and expanded...
  14. Gallardo Romero N, Velasco Villa A, Weiss S, Emerson G, Carroll D, Hughes C, et al. Detection of North American orthopoxviruses by real time-PCR. Virol J. 2011;8:313 pubmed publisher
    ..A real time PCR assay was developed to allow for highly sensitive and specific detection of North American orthopoxvirus DNA in animal tissues and bodily fluids...
  15. Tscharke D, Woo W, Sakala I, Sidney J, Sette A, Moss D, et al. Poxvirus CD8+ T-cell determinants and cross-reactivity in BALB/c mice. J Virol. 2006;80:6318-23 pubmed
    Mouse models of orthopoxvirus disease provide great promise for probing basic questions regarding host responses to this group of pathogens, which includes the causative agents of monkeypox and smallpox...
  16. Afonso C, Tulman E, Lu Z, Zsak L, Sandybaev N, Kerembekova U, et al. The genome of camelpox virus. Virology. 2002;295:1-9 pubmed
    Camelpox virus (CMLV), a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus in the Poxviridae, is the etiologic agent of a disease of camels. Here we report the CMLV genomic sequence with analysis...
  17. Prichard M, Kern E. Orthopoxvirus targets for the development of antiviral therapies. Curr Drug Targets Infect Disord. 2005;5:17-28 pubmed
    ..agent and the endemic presence of monkeypox virus in Africa underscores the need for better therapies for orthopoxvirus infections...
  18. Kramski M, Mätz Rensing K, Stahl Hennig C, Kaup F, Nitsche A, Pauli G, et al. A novel highly reproducible and lethal nonhuman primate model for orthopox virus infection. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10412 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the calpox virus/marmoset model is a suitable nonhuman primate model for the validation of vaccines and antiviral drugs. Furthermore, this model can help study mechanisms of OPV pathogenesis...
  19. Yager J, Hutchison L, Barrett J. Raccoonpox in a Canadian cat. Vet Dermatol. 2006;17:443-8 pubmed
    ..Electron microscopic examination revealed virions of an orthopoxvirus, subsequently identified as raccoonpox by polymerase chain reaction and gene sequencing...
  20. Quenelle D, Collins D, Kern E. Cutaneous infections of mice with vaccinia or cowpox viruses and efficacy of cidofovir. Antiviral Res. 2004;63:33-40 pubmed
    ..There is no approved therapy for orthopoxvirus infections; however, cidofovir (CDV) has been approved as an investigational new drug for emergency treatment ..
  21. Georges A, Georges Courbot M. [Biohazards due to Orthopoxvirus: should we re-vaccinate against smallpox?]. Med Trop (Mars). 1999;59:483-7 pubmed
    Although the WHO declared global smallpox eradication in 1980, the Orthopoxvirus remains a source of concern for several reasons...
  22. Kern E. In vitro activity of potential anti-poxvirus agents. Antiviral Res. 2003;57:35-40 pubmed
    The potential use of variola or another orthopoxvirus such as monkeypox as a weapon of bioterrorism has stimulated efforts to develop new drugs for treatment of smallpox or other poxvirus infections...
  23. Quenelle D, Buller R, Parker S, Keith K, Hruby D, Jordan R, et al. Efficacy of delayed treatment with ST-246 given orally against systemic orthopoxvirus infections in mice. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:689-95 pubmed
    ..Viral replication in target organs of ECTV-infected mice was also reduced...
  24. Gubser C, Goodbody R, Ecker A, Brady G, O Neill L, Jacobs N, et al. Camelpox virus encodes a schlafen-like protein that affects orthopoxvirus virulence. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:1667-76 pubmed
    ..In the absence of a small animal model to study CMLV pathogenesis, the contribution of CMLV v-slfn to orthopoxvirus virulence was studied via its expression in an attenuated strain of VACV...
  25. Emerson G, Li Y, Frace M, Olsen Rasmussen M, Khristova M, Govil D, et al. The phylogenetics and ecology of the orthopoxviruses endemic to North America. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7666 pubmed publisher
    ..support the North American orthopoxviruses (NA OPXV) in a sister relationship to all other currently described Orthopoxvirus (OPXV) species...
  26. Staib C, Suezer Y, Kisling S, Kalinke U, Sutter G. Short-term, but not post-exposure, protection against lethal orthopoxvirus challenge after immunization with modified vaccinia virus Ankara. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:2917-21 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that, in addition to conventional vaccination, MVA may serve for potent emergency prophylaxis against orthopoxvirus infection.
  27. Schriewer J, Buller R, Owens G. Mouse models for studying orthopoxvirus respiratory infections. Methods Mol Biol. 2004;269:289-308 pubmed
    ..The popular small-animal orthopoxvirus models employ the inbred mouse as the host, the respiratory tract as the site of virus inoculation, and ..
  28. Oie K, Pickup D. Cowpox virus and other members of the orthopoxvirus genus interfere with the regulation of NF-kappaB activation. Virology. 2001;288:175-87 pubmed
    ..In this study, the effects of orthopoxvirus infection upon the activation of NF-kappaB were examined...
  29. Gubser C, Hue S, Kellam P, Smith G. Poxvirus genomes: a phylogenetic analysis. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:105-17 pubmed
    ..together, with Suipoxvirus and Capripoxvirus sharing a common ancestor, and are distinct from the genus Orthopoxvirus (OPV)...
  30. Chapman J, Nichols D, Martinez M, Raymond J. Animal models of orthopoxvirus infection. Vet Pathol. 2010;47:852-70 pubmed publisher
    ..the global community that either Variola virus (VARV), the causative agent of smallpox, or another species of Orthopoxvirus could be used as agents of bioterrorism...
  31. Root J, McLean R, Slate D, MacCarthy K, Osorio J. Potential effect of prior raccoonpox virus infection in raccoons on vaccinia-based rabies immunization. BMC Immunol. 2008;9:57 pubmed publisher
    ..Wildlife Services cooperative oral rabies vaccination (ORV) program uses a live vaccinia virus-vectored (genus Orthopoxvirus) vaccine, Raboral V-RG (V-RG), to vaccinate specific wildlife species against rabies virus in several regions ..
  32. Bengali Z, Satheshkumar P, Moss B. Orthopoxvirus species and strain differences in cell entry. Virology. 2012;433:506-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Sequence comparisons, gene deletions and gene swapping experiments indicated that viral determinants, other than or in addition to the A26 and A25 "fusion-suppressor" proteins, impact entry properties...
  33. Babkin I, Shchelkunov S. [The time scale in poxvirus evolution]. Mol Biol (Mosk). 2006;40:20-4 pubmed
    ..the ancestor virus to form the modem genera approximately 500 thousand years ago; the ancestor of the genus Orthopoxvirus separated about 300 thousand years ago; and its division into the modem studied species took place ..
  34. Li Y, Ropp S, Zhao H, Damon I, Esposito J. Orthopoxvirus pan-genomic DNA assay. J Virol Methods. 2007;141:154-65 pubmed
  35. Niedrig M, Meyer H, Panning M, Drosten C. Follow-up on diagnostic proficiency of laboratories equipped to perform orthopoxvirus detection and quantification by PCR: the second international external quality assurance study. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:1283-7 pubmed
    ..external quality assurance study on bioterrorism-relevant viruses, we have conducted a follow-up study on orthopoxvirus detection by PCR. Thirty-three laboratories (27 European, 4 Austral-Asian, and 2 American) participated...
  36. da Fonseca F, Trindade G, Silva R, Bonjardim C, Ferreira P, Kroon E. Characterization of a vaccinia-like virus isolated in a Brazilian forest. J Gen Virol. 2002;83:223-8 pubmed
    ..Such a relationship was confirmed visually through the drawing of phylogenetic trees. The results point out the occurrence of a VV strain that is possibly in active circulation in the forests of Southeast Brazil...
  37. Kulesh D, Baker R, Loveless B, Norwood D, Zwiers S, Mucker E, et al. Smallpox and pan-orthopox virus detection by real-time 3'-minor groove binder TaqMan assays on the roche LightCycler and the Cepheid smart Cycler platforms. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:601-9 pubmed
    ..The early detection of a smallpox outbreak is crucial whether the incident is an act of bioterrorism or an accidental occurrence...
  38. Fan X, Zhang X, Zhou L, Keith K, Kern E, Torrence P. 5-(Dimethoxymethyl)-2'-deoxyuridine: a novel gem diether nucleoside with anti-orthopoxvirus activity. J Med Chem. 2006;49:3377-82 pubmed
    To provide potential new leads for the treatment of orthopoxvirus infections, the 5-position of the pyrimidine nucleosides have been modified with a gem diether moiety to yield the following new nucleosides: 5-(dimethoxymethyl)-2'-..
  39. Earl P, Americo J, Wyatt L, Eller L, Montefiori D, Byrum R, et al. Recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara provides durable protection against disease caused by an immunodeficiency virus as well as long-term immunity to an orthopoxvirus in a non-human primate. Virology. 2007;366:84-97 pubmed
    ..routes (intramuscular, intradermal, or into the palatine tonsil) to protect against immunodeficiency and orthopoxvirus diseases in a non-human primate model...
  40. Kern E, Prichard M, Quenelle D, Keith K, Tiwari K, Maddry J, et al. Activities of certain 5-substituted 4'-thiopyrimidine nucleosides against orthopoxvirus infections. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:572-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that 4'-thioIDU is a potent, nontoxic inhibitor of orthopoxvirus replication in cell culture and experimental animal infections and suggest that it may have potential for use ..
  41. Putkuri N, Piiparinen H, Vaheri A, Vapalahti O. Detection of human orthopoxvirus infections and differentiation of smallpox virus with real-time PCR. J Med Virol. 2009;81:146-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Amplification of variola virus sequences could be distinguished from other OPVs by melting curve analysis. We also demonstrated the applicability of the assay in human cases of cowpox and vaccinia virus infections...
  42. Mota B, Trindade G, Diniz T, da Silva Nunes M, Braga E, Urbano Ferreira M, et al. Seroprevalence of orthopoxvirus in an Amazonian rural village, Acre, Brazil. Arch Virol. 2010;155:1139-44 pubmed publisher
    ..seroprevalence of orthopoxviruses in a community located in a rural settlement in the Amazon region, where no orthopoxvirus outbreaks have yet been reported. An overall seroprevalence of 27.89% was found, and it was 23...
  43. Eshoo M, Whitehouse C, Nalca A, Zoll S, Ecker J, Hall T, et al. Rapid and high-throughput pan-Orthopoxvirus detection and identification using PCR and mass spectrometry. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6342 pubmed publisher
    The genus Orthopoxvirus contains several species of related viruses, including the causative agent of smallpox (Variola virus)...
  44. Smee D, Sidwell R. A review of compounds exhibiting anti-orthopoxvirus activity in animal models. Antiviral Res. 2003;57:41-52 pubmed
    ..models using mice (most frequently), rabbits, or monkeys have been used to identify compounds active against orthopoxvirus infections...
  45. Moussatche N, Damaso C, McFadden G. When good vaccines go wild: Feral Orthopoxvirus in developing countries and beyond. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2008;2:156-73 pubmed
    ..This review examines the ability of potentially pathogenic orthopoxviruses, including feral versions of vaccinia virus vaccine, to persist in nature and re-emerge for reasons we do not yet understand...
  46. Grosenbach D, Berhanu A, King D, Mosier S, Jones K, Jordan R, et al. Efficacy of ST-246 versus lethal poxvirus challenge in immunodeficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:838-43 pubmed publisher
    ..ST-246, which targets the F13L protein in vaccinia virus and its homologs in other orthopoxvirus species, provides full protection from lethal poxviral disease in numerous animal models and seems to be safe ..
  47. Marques J, Trindade G, Da Fonseca F, Dos Santos J, Bonjardim C, Ferreira P, et al. Characterization of ATI, TK and IFN-alpha/betaR genes in the genome of the BeAn 58058 virus, a naturally attenuated wild Orthopoxvirus. Virus Genes. 2001;23:291-301 pubmed
    ..The BeAn 58058 virus (BAV) has been recently characterized and proposed to be an Orthopoxvirus. BAV was also shown to be less virulent in animal models than VV Lister...
  48. Singh R, Hosamani M, Balamurugan V, Bhanuprakash V, Rasool T, Yadav M. Buffalopox: an emerging and re-emerging zoonosis. Anim Health Res Rev. 2007;8:105-14 pubmed
    ..The causative agent buffalopox virus (BPXV) is a member of the Orthopoxvirus, and is closely related to Vaccinia virus (VACV), the type-species of the genus...
  49. Bhanuprakash V, Balamurugan V, Hosamani M, Venkatesan G, Chauhan B, Srinivasan V, et al. Isolation and characterization of Indian isolates of camel pox virus. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2010;42:1271-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, phylogenetic analysis of partial C18L gene sequences have showed that Indian CMLV are clustered together with other reported isolates/strains...
  50. Smee D. Progress in the discovery of compounds inhibiting orthopoxviruses in animal models. Antivir Chem Chemother. 2008;19:115-24 pubmed
    ..of a bioterrorist incident involving either variola or monkeypox virus, or used to treat an occasional serious orthopoxvirus infection, such as disseminated vaccinia complication following exposure to the live virus vaccine...
  51. Reynolds M, Carroll D, Olson V, Hughes C, Galley J, Likos A, et al. A silent enzootic of an orthopoxvirus in Ghana, West Africa: evidence for multi-species involvement in the absence of widespread human disease. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;82:746-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Animal tissues were examined for the presence of orthopoxvirus (OPXV) DNA using a real-time polymerase chain reaction, and sera were assayed for antibodies against OPXV...
  52. Simpson Holley M, Kedersha N, Dower K, Rubins K, Anderson P, Hensley L, et al. Formation of antiviral cytoplasmic granules during orthopoxvirus infection. J Virol. 2011;85:1581-93 pubmed publisher
    ..This is a novel finding that supports the hypothesis that the formation of subcellular protein aggregates is an important component of the successful cellular antiviral response...
  53. Prichard M, Kern E. Orthopoxvirus targets for the development of new antiviral agents. Antiviral Res. 2012;94:111-25 pubmed publisher
    Investments in the development of new drugs for orthopoxvirus infections have fostered new avenues of research, provided an improved understanding of orthopoxvirus biology and yielded new therapies that are currently progressing through ..
  54. Nitsche A, Ellerbrok H, Pauli G. Detection of orthopoxvirus DNA by real-time PCR and identification of variola virus DNA by melting analysis. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:1207-13 pubmed
    ..this study a complete set of four hybridization probe-based real-time PCR assays for the specific detection of orthopoxvirus DNA is presented...
  55. Al Zi abi O, Nishikawa H, Meyer H. The first outbreak of camelpox in Syria. J Vet Med Sci. 2007;69:541-3 pubmed
    ..The causative agent was identified as camelpox virus by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the hemagglutinin gene...
  56. Walsh S, Seaman M, Grandpre L, Charbonneau C, Yanosick K, Metch B, et al. Impact of anti-orthopoxvirus neutralizing antibodies induced by a heterologous prime-boost HIV-1 vaccine on insert-specific immune responses. Vaccine. 2012;31:114-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The controls used in this study were the empty vectors (MVA and FPV)...
  57. Olson V, Laue T, Laker M, Babkin I, Drosten C, Shchelkunov S, et al. Real-time PCR system for detection of orthopoxviruses and simultaneous identification of smallpox virus. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:1940-6 pubmed
    ..PCR primers were designed to detect all Eurasian-African species of the genus ORTHOPOXVIRUS: A single nucleotide mismatch resulting in a unique amino acid substitution in smallpox virus was used to ..
  58. Sfyroera G, Katragadda M, Morikis D, Isaacs S, Lambris J. Electrostatic modeling predicts the activities of orthopoxvirus complement control proteins. J Immunol. 2005;174:2143-51 pubmed
    ..Using two highly related orthopoxvirus proteins, the vaccinia and variola (smallpox) virus complement control proteins, which differ by only 11 aa, ..
  59. McKelvey T, Andrews S, Miller S, Ray C, Pickup D. Identification of the orthopoxvirus p4c gene, which encodes a structural protein that directs intracellular mature virus particles into A-type inclusions. J Virol. 2002;76:11216-25 pubmed
    The orthopoxvirus gene p4c has been identified in the genome of the vaccinia virus strain Western Reserve. This gene encodes the 58-kDa structural protein P4c present on the surfaces of the intracellular mature virus (IMV) particles...
  60. Vigne S, Germi R, Duraffour S, Larrat S, Andrei G, Snoeck R, et al. Specific inhibition of orthopoxvirus replication by a small interfering RNA targeting the D5R gene. Antivir Ther. 2008;13:357-68 pubmed
    ..Currently, there are no effective therapies against smallpox and new treatment strategies are greatly needed...
  61. Gubser C, Bergamaschi D, Hollinshead M, Lu X, van Kuppeveld F, Smith G. A new inhibitor of apoptosis from vaccinia virus and eukaryotes. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3:e17 pubmed
    ..This study identifies a new regulator of cell death that is highly conserved in evolution from plants to insects, amphibians, mammals, and poxviruses...
  62. de Souza Trindade G, da Fonseca F, Marques J, Nogueira M, Mendes L, Borges A, et al. Araçatuba virus: a vaccinialike virus associated with infection in humans and cattle. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:155-60 pubmed
    ..the virus was done by using polymerase chain reaction amplification, cloning, and DNA sequencing of conserved orthopoxvirus genes such as the vaccinia growth factor (VGF), thymidine kinase (TK), and hemagglutinin...
  63. Duraffour S, Snoeck R, Krečmerová M, van den Oord J, De Vos R, Holy A, et al. Activities of several classes of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates against camelpox virus replication in different cell culture models. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:4410-9 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that compounds belonging to the newly synthesized ANPs, in addition to cidofovir, represent promising candidates for the treatment of poxvirus infections...
  64. Brum M, Anjos B, Nogueira C, Amaral L, Weiblen R, Flores E. An outbreak of orthopoxvirus-associated disease in horses in southern Brazil. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2010;22:143-7 pubmed
    An outbreak of severe cutaneous disease associated with an orthopoxvirus in horses in southern Brazil is described...
  65. Haenssle H, Kiessling J, Kempf V, Fuchs T, Neumann C, Emmert S. Orthopoxvirus infection transmitted by a domestic cat. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006;54:S1-4 pubmed
    ..by the World Health Organization in 1980 but human infections by cowpox virus, another member of the genus Orthopoxvirus, are still observed, mainly in European countries...
  66. Mätz Rensing K, Ellerbrok H, Ehlers B, Pauli G, Floto A, Alex M, et al. Fatal poxvirus outbreak in a colony of New World monkeys. Vet Pathol. 2006;43:212-8 pubmed
    ..Preliminary phylogenetic analyses of two genes revealed closest homology to cowpox viruses. The origin of this poxvirus outbreak remains unexplained, and the strain and genus of the virus need to be determined in detail...
  67. Tryland M, Okeke M, Af Segerstad C, Mörner T, Traavik T, Ryser Degiorgis M. Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian lynx, Sweden. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:626-32 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Orthopoxvirus (OPV) DNA was detected in tissues (lung, kidney, spleen) in 24 (9%) of 263 free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx ..
  68. Gubser C, Smith G. The sequence of camelpox virus shows it is most closely related to variola virus, the cause of smallpox. J Gen Virol. 2002;83:855-72 pubmed
    ..Each comparison gave the same conclusion: CMPV is the closest known virus to variola virus, the cause of smallpox...
  69. Espy M, Cockerill III F, Meyer R, Bowen M, Poland G, Hadfield T, et al. Detection of smallpox virus DNA by LightCycler PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:1985-8 pubmed
    ..and probes were designed specifically for detection of smallpox virus DNA, but all viruses of the genus Orthopoxvirus tested could be detected by use of the hemagglutinin gene target sequence...
  70. Kurth A, Achenbach J, Miller L, Mackay I, Pauli G, Nitsche A. Orthopoxvirus detection in environmental specimens during suspected bioterror attacks: inhibitory influences of common household products. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:32-7 pubmed
    ..Confirmatory methods include virus isolation followed by an agent-specific immunofluorescence assay to confirm the presence of replication-competent particles...
  71. Moss B. Smallpox vaccines: targets of protective immunity. Immunol Rev. 2011;239:8-26 pubmed publisher
    ..to vaccine development, describes protein targets of humoral and cellular immunity, compares animal models of orthopoxvirus disease with human smallpox, and considers the status of second- and third-generation smallpox vaccines.
  72. Duraffour S, Snoeck R, De Vos R, van den Oord J, Crance J, Garin D, et al. Activity of the anti-orthopoxvirus compound ST-246 against vaccinia, cowpox and camelpox viruses in cell monolayers and organotypic raft cultures. Antivir Ther. 2007;12:1205-16 pubmed
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