orthopoxvirus

Summary

Summary: A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, comprising many species infecting mammals. Viruses of this genus cause generalized infections and a rash in some hosts. The type species is VACCINIA VIRUS.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Microarray assay for detection and discrimination of Orthopoxvirus species
    Vladimir A Ryabinin
    State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology Vector, Novosibirsk Region, Kol tsovo, Russia
    J Med Virol 78:1325-40. 2006
  2. pmc Smallpox vaccines: targets of protective immunity
    Bernard Moss
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 3210, USA
    Immunol Rev 239:8-26. 2011
  3. doi Animal models of orthopoxvirus infection
    J L Chapman
    DVM, Major, US Army, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1425 Porter Street, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Vet Pathol 47:852-70. 2010
  4. pmc Formation of antiviral cytoplasmic granules during orthopoxvirus infection
    M Simpson-Holley
    Department of Microbiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA
    J Virol 85:1581-93. 2011
  5. pmc Genes in the terminal regions of orthopoxvirus genomes experience adaptive molecular evolution
    David J Esteban
    Biology Department, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604, USA
    BMC Genomics 12:261. 2011
  6. pmc A novel highly reproducible and lethal nonhuman primate model for orthopox virus infection
    Marit Kramski
    Robert Koch Institut, Berlin, Germany
    PLoS ONE 5:e10412. 2010
  7. pmc A new inhibitor of apoptosis from vaccinia virus and eukaryotes
    Caroline Gubser
    Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 3:e17. 2007
  8. pmc Recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara provides durable protection against disease caused by an immunodeficiency virus as well as long-term immunity to an orthopoxvirus in a non-human primate
    Patricia L Earl
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Building 33, Room 1E19, 33 North Drive, MSC 3210, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Virology 366:84-97. 2007
  9. pmc A silent enzootic of an orthopoxvirus in Ghana, West Africa: evidence for multi-species involvement in the absence of widespread human disease
    Mary G Reynolds
    Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Mailstop G 43 Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 82:746-54. 2010
  10. ncbi Poxvirus genomes: a phylogenetic analysis
    Caroline Gubser
    Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    J Gen Virol 85:105-17. 2004

Research Grants

  1. N-methanocarbathymidine (N-MCT) for the Treatment of Herpes and Pox Virus Infecti
    Aquilur Rahman; Fiscal Year: 2010
  2. Immune Mechanisms That Control Ectromelia Virus Infection
    Luis J Sigal; Fiscal Year: 2013
  3. Host defense against poxviruses and viral immune evasion
    Liang Deng; Fiscal Year: 2011
  4. Seriodiagnostic arrays for biodefense and emerging infectious diseases
    DAVID HUW DAVIES; Fiscal Year: 2010
  5. Stephen R Walsh; Fiscal Year: 2014
  6. Stage-Specific Inhibitors of Orthopoxviruses
    John H Connor; Fiscal Year: 2012
  7. Small Molecule Inhibitors of the Poxvirus Type I Interferon Binding Protein
    Luis J Sigal; Fiscal Year: 2013
  8. HERVE F AGAISSE; Fiscal Year: 2014
  9. Poxvirus Modulation of Immune Responses
    Janice S Blum; Fiscal Year: 2010
  10. Smallpox vaccine and vaccinia complement control protein
    STUART ISAACS; Fiscal Year: 2009

Detail Information

Publications215 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Microarray assay for detection and discrimination of Orthopoxvirus species
    Vladimir A Ryabinin
    State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology Vector, Novosibirsk Region, Kol tsovo, Russia
    J Med Virol 78:1325-40. 2006
    A microarray method was developed for simultaneous detection and identification of six species of Orthopoxvirus (OPV) including Variola, Monkeypox, Cowpox, Camelpox, Vaccinia, and Ectromelia viruses...
  2. pmc Smallpox vaccines: targets of protective immunity
    Bernard Moss
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 3210, USA
    Immunol Rev 239:8-26. 2011
    ..to vaccine development, describes protein targets of humoral and cellular immunity, compares animal models of orthopoxvirus disease with human smallpox, and considers the status of second- and third-generation smallpox vaccines.
  3. doi Animal models of orthopoxvirus infection
    J L Chapman
    DVM, Major, US Army, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1425 Porter Street, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Vet Pathol 47:852-70. 2010
    ..the global community that either Variola virus (VARV), the causative agent of smallpox, or another species of Orthopoxvirus could be used as agents of bioterrorism...
  4. pmc Formation of antiviral cytoplasmic granules during orthopoxvirus infection
    M Simpson-Holley
    Department of Microbiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA
    J Virol 85:1581-93. 2011
    ..This is a novel finding that supports the hypothesis that the formation of subcellular protein aggregates is an important component of the successful cellular antiviral response...
  5. pmc Genes in the terminal regions of orthopoxvirus genomes experience adaptive molecular evolution
    David J Esteban
    Biology Department, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604, USA
    BMC Genomics 12:261. 2011
    ..Many genes experiencing diversifying selection are involved in host-pathogen interactions, such as antigen-antibody interactions, or the "host-pathogen arms race."..
  6. pmc A novel highly reproducible and lethal nonhuman primate model for orthopox virus infection
    Marit Kramski
    Robert Koch Institut, Berlin, Germany
    PLoS ONE 5:e10412. 2010
    ..Therefore, the calpox virus/marmoset model is a suitable nonhuman primate model for the validation of vaccines and antiviral drugs. Furthermore, this model can help study mechanisms of OPV pathogenesis...
  7. pmc A new inhibitor of apoptosis from vaccinia virus and eukaryotes
    Caroline Gubser
    Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 3:e17. 2007
    ..This study identifies a new regulator of cell death that is highly conserved in evolution from plants to insects, amphibians, mammals, and poxviruses...
  8. pmc Recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara provides durable protection against disease caused by an immunodeficiency virus as well as long-term immunity to an orthopoxvirus in a non-human primate
    Patricia L Earl
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Building 33, Room 1E19, 33 North Drive, MSC 3210, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Virology 366:84-97. 2007
    ..routes (intramuscular, intradermal, or into the palatine tonsil) to protect against immunodeficiency and orthopoxvirus diseases in a non-human primate model...
  9. pmc A silent enzootic of an orthopoxvirus in Ghana, West Africa: evidence for multi-species involvement in the absence of widespread human disease
    Mary G Reynolds
    Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Mailstop G 43 Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 82:746-54. 2010
    ..Animal tissues were examined for the presence of orthopoxvirus (OPXV) DNA using a real-time polymerase chain reaction, and sera were assayed for antibodies against OPXV...
  10. ncbi Poxvirus genomes: a phylogenetic analysis
    Caroline Gubser
    Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    J Gen Virol 85:105-17. 2004
    ..together, with Suipoxvirus and Capripoxvirus sharing a common ancestor, and are distinct from the genus Orthopoxvirus (OPV)...
  11. doi Evolution of the Schlafen genes, a gene family associated with embryonic lethality, meiotic drive, immune processes and orthopoxvirus virulence
    Olivia Bustos
    Department of Biology The University of Texas Arlington, 501 S Nedderman Dr Arlington, TX 76019 0498, USA
    Gene 447:1-11. 2009
    ..This is of particular importance, since orthopoxviruses infect mammals and include variola, the causative agent of smallpox, and monkeypox, an emerging virus of great concern for human health...
  12. pmc Adjuvant-enhanced antibody responses to recombinant proteins correlates with protection of mice and monkeys to orthopoxvirus challenges
    Christiana N Fogg
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Vaccine 25:2787-99. 2007
    ....
  13. pmc Detection of North American orthopoxviruses by real time-PCR
    Nadia F Gallardo-Romero
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Virol J 8:313. 2011
    ..A real time PCR assay was developed to allow for highly sensitive and specific detection of North American orthopoxvirus DNA in animal tissues and bodily fluids...
  14. doi The pathology of experimental poxvirus infection in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): further characterization of a new primate model for orthopoxvirus infections
    K Mätz-Rensing
    German Primate Center DPZ, Gottingen, Germany
    J Comp Pathol 146:230-42. 2012
    Zoonotic orthopoxvirus (OPV) can induce severe disease in man and the virus has potential for use in bioterrorism. New vaccines and therapeutics against OPV infections must be tested in animal models...
  15. ncbi [Biohazards due to Orthopoxvirus: should we re-vaccinate against smallpox?]
    A J Georges
    Centre International de Recherche Medicale de Franceville, Gabon
    Med Trop (Mars) 59:483-7. 1999
    Although the WHO declared global smallpox eradication in 1980, the Orthopoxvirus remains a source of concern for several reasons...
  16. doi Rapid detection of Orthopoxvirus by semi-nested PCR directly from clinical specimens: a useful alternative for routine laboratories
    Jônatas Santos Abrahão
    Laboratorio de Virus, Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
    J Med Virol 82:692-9. 2010
    b>Orthopoxvirus (OPV) has been associated with worldwide exanthematic outbreaks, which have resulted in serious economic losses as well as impact on public health...
  17. pmc An orally bioavailable antipoxvirus compound (ST-246) inhibits extracellular virus formation and protects mice from lethal orthopoxvirus Challenge
    Guang Yang
    ViroPharma, Inc, Exton, Pennsylvania, USA
    J Virol 79:13139-49. 2005
    ..Taken together, these results validate F13L as an antiviral target and demonstrate that an inhibitor of extracellular virus formation can protect mice from orthopoxvirus-induced disease.
  18. pmc Poxvirus CD8+ T-cell determinants and cross-reactivity in BALB/c mice
    David C Tscharke
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Virol 80:6318-23. 2006
    Mouse models of orthopoxvirus disease provide great promise for probing basic questions regarding host responses to this group of pathogens, which includes the causative agents of monkeypox and smallpox...
  19. pmc Rapid and high-throughput pan-Orthopoxvirus detection and identification using PCR and mass spectrometry
    Mark W Eshoo
    Ibis Biosciences, Carlsbad, CA, USA
    PLoS ONE 4:e6342. 2009
    The genus Orthopoxvirus contains several species of related viruses, including the causative agent of smallpox (Variola virus)...
  20. ncbi Feline orthopoxvirus infection transmitted from cat to human
    Thomas Hawranek
    Department of Dermatology, General Hospital Salzburg, Austria
    J Am Acad Dermatol 49:513-8. 2003
    ..degenerated keratinocytes, and virus particles in intermingled phagocytes, leading to the diagnosis of feline Orthopoxvirus (cowpox virus) infection. These results were verified by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing...
  21. ncbi Orthopoxvirus diagnostics
    Hermann Meyer
    Institut fur Mikrobiologie der Bundeswehr, Munchen, Germany
    Methods Mol Biol 269:119-34. 2004
    ..papers from our laboratories with three different methods that should be suitable for the preparation of orthopoxvirus DNA from various sources (e.g...
  22. pmc Camelpox virus encodes a schlafen-like protein that affects orthopoxvirus virulence
    Caroline Gubser
    Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    J Gen Virol 88:1667-76. 2007
    ..In the absence of a small animal model to study CMLV pathogenesis, the contribution of CMLV v-slfn to orthopoxvirus virulence was studied via its expression in an attenuated strain of VACV...
  23. ncbi The first outbreak of camelpox in Syria
    Hiroaki Nishikawa
    Central Laboratory for Disease Diagnosis and Research, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Al Baath University, Hama Syria
    J Vet Med Sci 69:541-3. 2007
    ..The causative agent was identified as camelpox virus by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the hemagglutinin gene...
  24. ncbi Specific inhibition of orthopoxvirus replication by a small interfering RNA targeting the D5R gene
    Solenne Vigne
    Virology Laboratory, Centre de Recherches du Service de Santé des Armées CRSSA Emile Pardé, Grenoble, France
    Antivir Ther 13:357-68. 2008
    ..Currently, there are no effective therapies against smallpox and new treatment strategies are greatly needed...
  25. pmc Potential effect of prior raccoonpox virus infection in raccoons on vaccinia-based rabies immunization
    J Jeffrey Root
    United States Department of Agriculture, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA
    BMC Immunol 9:57. 2008
    ..Wildlife Services cooperative oral rabies vaccination (ORV) program uses a live vaccinia virus-vectored (genus Orthopoxvirus) vaccine, Raboral V-RG (V-RG), to vaccinate specific wildlife species against rabies virus in several regions ..
  26. doi Isolation and characterization of Indian isolates of camel pox virus
    V Bhanuprakash
    Pox Virus Diseases Laboratory, Division of Virology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Mukteswar, 263138, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India
    Trop Anim Health Prod 42:1271-5. 2010
    ..Further, phylogenetic analysis of partial C18L gene sequences have showed that Indian CMLV are clustered together with other reported isolates/strains...
  27. doi Seroprevalence of orthopoxvirus in an Amazonian rural village, Acre, Brazil
    B E F Mota
    Laboratorio de Virus, Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG 31270 901, Brazil
    Arch Virol 155:1139-44. 2010
    ..seroprevalence of orthopoxviruses in a community located in a rural settlement in the Amazon region, where no orthopoxvirus outbreaks have yet been reported. An overall seroprevalence of 27.89% was found, and it was 23...
  28. ncbi Highly attenuated smallpox vaccine protects rabbits and mice against pathogenic orthopoxvirus challenge
    Cyril Empig
    VaxGen Inc, 347 Oyster Point Boulevard, Suite 102, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA
    Vaccine 24:3686-94. 2006
    ..Thus, LC16m8 shows promise as a safe and effective smallpox vaccine with the potential for replacing Dryvax...
  29. ncbi Orthopoxvirus pan-genomic DNA assay
    Yu Li
    Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector Borne, and Enteric Diseases, Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    J Virol Methods 141:154-65. 2007
    ....
  30. ncbi Buffalopox: an emerging and re-emerging zoonosis
    R K Singh
    Division of Virology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Mukteswar 263 138, Nainital District, Uttarakhand, India
    Anim Health Res Rev 8:105-14. 2007
    ..The causative agent buffalopox virus (BPXV) is a member of the Orthopoxvirus, and is closely related to Vaccinia virus (VACV), the type-species of the genus...
  31. pmc Structure and mechanism of IFN-gamma antagonism by an orthopoxvirus IFN-gamma-binding protein
    Anthony A Nuara
    Center for Biophysical Sciences and Engineering, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:1861-6. 2008
    ..The structure, combined with biochemical and cell-based assays, demonstrates that IFN-gammaBP(ECTV) tetramers are required for efficient IFN-gamma antagonism...
  32. ncbi An outbreak of orthopoxvirus-associated disease in horses in southern Brazil
    Mario C S Brum
    DMVP CCR UFSM, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, CEP 97105 900
    J Vet Diagn Invest 22:143-7. 2010
    An outbreak of severe cutaneous disease associated with an orthopoxvirus in horses in southern Brazil is described...
  33. ncbi Progress in the discovery of compounds inhibiting orthopoxviruses in animal models
    Donald F Smee
    Institute for Antiviral Research, Department of Animal, Dairy and Veterinary Sciences, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322, USA
    Antivir Chem Chemother 19:115-24. 2008
    ..of a bioterrorist incident involving either variola or monkeypox virus, or used to treat an occasional serious orthopoxvirus infection, such as disseminated vaccinia complication following exposure to the live virus vaccine...
  34. ncbi Species-specific differences in the structure of orthopoxvirus complement-binding protein
    E A Uvarova
    State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology Vector, Novosibirsk Region 630559, Koltsovo, Russia
    Virus Res 81:39-45. 2001
    ..For this purpose, VCP genes of three MPV strains were sequenced. VCP gene sequences of other human-pathogenic orthopoxvirus species and strains determined earlier were involved in the analysis...
  35. pmc The phylogenetics and ecology of the orthopoxviruses endemic to North America
    Ginny L Emerson
    Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CCID CDC, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    PLoS ONE 4:e7666. 2009
    ..support the North American orthopoxviruses (NA OPXV) in a sister relationship to all other currently described Orthopoxvirus (OPXV) species...
  36. ncbi Potential antiviral therapeutics for smallpox, monkeypox and other orthopoxvirus infections
    Robert O Baker
    Department of Viral Therapeutics, Virology Division, U S Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702 5011, USA
    Antiviral Res 57:13-23. 2003
    ..Preliminary data indicate that nearly all isolates appear to have similar drug sensitivities. These findings are currently being verified and expanded...
  37. ncbi The genome of camelpox virus
    C L Afonso
    Plum Island Animal Disease Center, U S Department of Agriculture, Greenport, New York, 11944, USA
    Virology 295:1-9. 2002
    Camelpox virus (CMLV), a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus in the Poxviridae, is the etiologic agent of a disease of camels. Here we report the CMLV genomic sequence with analysis...
  38. pmc Electrostatic modeling predicts the activities of orthopoxvirus complement control proteins
    Georgia Sfyroera
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Immunol 174:2143-51. 2005
    ..Using two highly related orthopoxvirus proteins, the vaccinia and variola (smallpox) virus complement control proteins, which differ by only 11 aa, ..
  39. pmc Efficacy of delayed treatment with ST-246 given orally against systemic orthopoxvirus infections in mice
    Debra C Quenelle
    University of Alabama at Birmingham, School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, 128 Children s Harbor Building, 1600 6th Avenue South, Birmingham, AL 35233 1711, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:689-95. 2007
    ..Viral replication in target organs of ECTV-infected mice was also reduced...
  40. ncbi Activity of the anti-orthopoxvirus compound ST-246 against vaccinia, cowpox and camelpox viruses in cell monolayers and organotypic raft cultures
    Sophie Duraffour
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Antivir Ther 12:1205-16. 2007
    ..oxo-4,6-ethenocycloprop [f]isoindol-2(1 H)-yl)-benzamide] is an anti-orthopoxvirus compound active against several orthopoxviruses including vaccinia virus (VV), cowpox virus (CPV), camelpox ..
  41. ncbi The genomic sequence analysis of the left and right species-specific terminal region of a cowpox virus strain reveals unique sequences and a cluster of intact ORFs for immunomodulatory and host range proteins
    S N Shchelkunov
    Department of Molecular Biology of Genomes, State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology Vector Koitsovo, Novosibirsk Region, Russia
    Virology 243:432-60. 1998
    ..in the genetic structure of CPV-GRI DNA regions, homologous to fragments of the genomes of the above-mentioned orthopoxvirus strains...
  42. ncbi Detection of poxvirus in cattle associated with human cases in the State of Rio de Janeiro: preliminary report
    H G Schatzmayr
    Departamento de Virologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 95:625-7. 2000
    ..The electron microscopic findings were consistent with parapoxviral and orthopoxviral infection. Orthopoxvirus strains were isolated from human and cow cases...
  43. ncbi Cowpox virus and other members of the orthopoxvirus genus interfere with the regulation of NF-kappaB activation
    K L Oie
    Department of Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Virology 288:175-87. 2001
    ..In this study, the effects of orthopoxvirus infection upon the activation of NF-kappaB were examined...
  44. ncbi Characterization of a vaccinia-like virus isolated in a Brazilian forest
    Flavio G da Fonseca
    Laboratorio de Virus, Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av Antonio Carlos, 6627, caixa postal 2496, CEP 31270 901, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
    J Gen Virol 83:223-8. 2002
    ..Such a relationship was confirmed visually through the drawing of phylogenetic trees. The results point out the occurrence of a VV strain that is possibly in active circulation in the forests of Southeast Brazil...
  45. ncbi Characterization of ATI, TK and IFN-alpha/betaR genes in the genome of the BeAn 58058 virus, a naturally attenuated wild Orthopoxvirus
    J T Marques
    Departamento de Microbiologia, , Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil
    Virus Genes 23:291-301. 2001
    ..The BeAn 58058 virus (BAV) has been recently characterized and proposed to be an Orthopoxvirus. BAV was also shown to be less virulent in animal models than VV Lister...
  46. pmc Enhanced inhibition of orthopoxvirus replication in vitro by alkoxyalkyl esters of cidofovir and cyclic cidofovir
    Earl R Kern
    University of Alabama School of Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 2170, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:991-5. 2002
    ..These compounds have been reported to have activity against orthopoxvirus replication in vitro and in animal models when administered parenterally or by aerosol...
  47. ncbi The sequence of camelpox virus shows it is most closely related to variola virus, the cause of smallpox
    Caroline Gubser
    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RE, UK
    J Gen Virol 83:855-72. 2002
    ..Each comparison gave the same conclusion: CMPV is the closest known virus to variola virus, the cause of smallpox...
  48. ncbi Species-specific differences in organization of orthopoxvirus kelch-like proteins
    Sergei Shchelkunov
    State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology Vector, Koltsovo, Novosibirsk Region, Russia
    Virus Genes 24:157-62. 2002
    Organization of orthopoxvirus proteins of the kelch superfamily and their genes were analyzed and compared...
  49. pmc Detection of smallpox virus DNA by LightCycler PCR
    Mark J Espy
    Division of Clinical Microbiology, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 40:1985-8. 2002
    ..and probes were designed specifically for detection of smallpox virus DNA, but all viruses of the genus Orthopoxvirus tested could be detected by use of the hemagglutinin gene target sequence...
  50. pmc Identification of the orthopoxvirus p4c gene, which encodes a structural protein that directs intracellular mature virus particles into A-type inclusions
    Terry A McKelvey
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Virol 76:11216-25. 2002
    The orthopoxvirus gene p4c has been identified in the genome of the vaccinia virus strain Western Reserve. This gene encodes the 58-kDa structural protein P4c present on the surfaces of the intracellular mature virus (IMV) particles...
  51. pmc Araçatuba virus: a vaccinialike virus associated with infection in humans and cattle
    Giliane de Souza Trindade
    Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brasil
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:155-60. 2003
    ..the virus was done by using polymerase chain reaction amplification, cloning, and DNA sequencing of conserved orthopoxvirus genes such as the vaccinia growth factor (VGF), thymidine kinase (TK), and hemagglutinin...
  52. ncbi In vitro activity of potential anti-poxvirus agents
    Earl R Kern
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama School of Medicine, BBRB 309, 845 19th Street South, Birmingham, AL 35294 2170, USA
    Antiviral Res 57:35-40. 2003
    The potential use of variola or another orthopoxvirus such as monkeypox as a weapon of bioterrorism has stimulated efforts to develop new drugs for treatment of smallpox or other poxvirus infections...
  53. ncbi A review of compounds exhibiting anti-orthopoxvirus activity in animal models
    Donald F Smee
    Department of Animal, Dairy and Veterinary Sciences, Institute for Antiviral Research, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 5600, USA
    Antiviral Res 57:41-52. 2003
    ..models using mice (most frequently), rabbits, or monkeys have been used to identify compounds active against orthopoxvirus infections...
  54. pmc Evaluation of nucleoside phosphonates and their analogs and prodrugs for inhibition of orthopoxvirus replication
    Kathy A Keith
    University of Alabama School of Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama 35233, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:2193-8. 2003
    ..These data indicate that a number of these ANP derivatives have activity against vaccinia virus and cowpox virus in vitro and should be evaluated for their efficacies in animal models...
  55. pmc Smallpox and pan-orthopox virus detection by real-time 3'-minor groove binder TaqMan assays on the roche LightCycler and the Cepheid smart Cycler platforms
    David A Kulesh
    Diagnostic Systems Division, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702 5011
    J Clin Microbiol 42:601-9. 2004
    ..The early detection of a smallpox outbreak is crucial whether the incident is an act of bioterrorism or an accidental occurrence...
  56. pmc Detection of orthopoxvirus DNA by real-time PCR and identification of variola virus DNA by melting analysis
    Andreas Nitsche
    Robert Koch Institut, Zentrum für Biologische Sicherheit, D 13353 Berlin, Germany
    J Clin Microbiol 42:1207-13. 2004
    ..this study a complete set of four hybridization probe-based real-time PCR assays for the specific detection of orthopoxvirus DNA is presented...
  57. pmc Inhibitory activity of alkoxyalkyl and alkyl esters of cidofovir and cyclic cidofovir against orthopoxvirus replication in vitro
    Kathy A Keith
    University of Alabama School of Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama 35233, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:1869-71. 2004
    ..Activity was dependent on number of atoms in the alkyl or alkoxyalkyl chain, the linker moiety, and the presence of a double bond in the alkoxyalkyl chains linked to the phosphonate moiety of CDV...
  58. pmc Real-time PCR system for detection of orthopoxviruses and simultaneous identification of smallpox virus
    Victoria A Olson
    Poxvirus Section, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:1940-6. 2004
    ..PCR primers were designed to detect all Eurasian-African species of the genus ORTHOPOXVIRUS: A single nucleotide mismatch resulting in a unique amino acid substitution in smallpox virus was used to ..
  59. ncbi Cutaneous infections of mice with vaccinia or cowpox viruses and efficacy of cidofovir
    Debra C Quenelle
    The University of Alabama School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, USA
    Antiviral Res 63:33-40. 2004
    ..There is no approved therapy for orthopoxvirus infections; however, cidofovir (CDV) has been approved as an investigational new drug for emergency treatment ..
  60. pmc New class of orthopoxvirus antiviral drugs that block viral maturation
    Chelsea M Byrd
    Department of Microbiology, 220 Nash Hall, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
    J Virol 78:12147-56. 2004
    ..This novel class of inhibitors has potential for development as an efficient antiviral drug against pathogenic orthopoxviruses, including smallpox...
  61. pmc Orthopoxvirus targets for the development of antiviral therapies
    Mark N Prichard
    University of Alabama School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, 1600 6th Avenue South, Birmingham, AL 35233, USA
    Curr Drug Targets Infect Disord 5:17-28. 2005
    ..agent and the endemic presence of monkeypox virus in Africa underscores the need for better therapies for orthopoxvirus infections...
  62. ncbi Evolutionary history of orthopoxvirus proteins similar to human complement regulators
    Emily Ciulla
    Department of Biology and Biotechnology, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA, USA
    Gene 355:40-7. 2005
    ..We employed phylogenetic tree analysis to evaluate the structural relationships among SCRs of orthopoxvirus RCA-like proteins and those of human complement regulators...
  63. ncbi Orthopoxvirus infection transmitted by a domestic cat
    Holger A Haenssle
    Department of Dermatology, Georg August University Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany
    J Am Acad Dermatol 54:S1-4. 2006
    ..by the World Health Organization in 1980 but human infections by cowpox virus, another member of the genus Orthopoxvirus, are still observed, mainly in European countries...
  64. ncbi [The time scale in poxvirus evolution]
    I V Babkin
    Mol Biol (Mosk) 40:20-4. 2006
    ..the ancestor virus to form the modem genera approximately 500 thousand years ago; the ancestor of the genus Orthopoxvirus separated about 300 thousand years ago; and its division into the modem studied species took place ..
  65. ncbi Fatal poxvirus outbreak in a colony of New World monkeys
    K Mätz-Rensing
    German Primate Center, Department of Infectious Pathology, Kellnerweg 4 D 37077 Göttingen, Germany
    Vet Pathol 43:212-8. 2006
    ..Preliminary phylogenetic analyses of two genes revealed closest homology to cowpox viruses. The origin of this poxvirus outbreak remains unexplained, and the strain and genus of the virus need to be determined in detail...
  66. pmc Follow-up on diagnostic proficiency of laboratories equipped to perform orthopoxvirus detection and quantification by PCR: the second international external quality assurance study
    Matthias Niedrig
    Department of Virology, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Bernhard Nocht Str 74, 20359 Hamburg, Germany
    J Clin Microbiol 44:1283-7. 2006
    ..external quality assurance study on bioterrorism-relevant viruses, we have conducted a follow-up study on orthopoxvirus detection by PCR. Thirty-three laboratories (27 European, 4 Austral-Asian, and 2 American) participated...
  67. pmc 5-(Dimethoxymethyl)-2'-deoxyuridine: a novel gem diether nucleoside with anti-orthopoxvirus activity
    Xuesen Fan
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona 86011, USA
    J Med Chem 49:3377-82. 2006
    To provide potential new leads for the treatment of orthopoxvirus infections, the 5-position of the pyrimidine nucleosides have been modified with a gem diether moiety to yield the following new nucleosides: 5-(dimethoxymethyl)-2'-..
  68. pmc Toward orthopoxvirus countermeasures: a novel heteromorphic nucleoside of unusual structure
    Xuesen Fan
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, 86011, USA
    J Med Chem 49:4052-4. 2006
    ..Compound 2 was efficiently phosphorylated by VV TK, establishing that VV TK is more promiscuous than previously believed...
  69. ncbi Short-term, but not post-exposure, protection against lethal orthopoxvirus challenge after immunization with modified vaccinia virus Ankara
    Caroline Staib
    GSF Institute of Molecular Virology and Institute of Virology, Technical University of Munich, 81675 Munchen, Germany
    J Gen Virol 87:2917-21. 2006
    ..These data suggest that, in addition to conventional vaccination, MVA may serve for potent emergency prophylaxis against orthopoxvirus infection.
  70. ncbi Raccoonpox in a Canadian cat
    Julie A Yager
    Yager Best Veterinary Surgical Pathology, Guelph, Ontario, Canada
    Vet Dermatol 17:443-8. 2006
    ..Electron microscopic examination revealed virions of an orthopoxvirus, subsequently identified as raccoonpox by polymerase chain reaction and gene sequencing...
  71. pmc N-(3,3a,4,4a,5,5a,6,6a-Octahydro-1,3-dioxo-4,6- ethenocycloprop[f]isoindol-2-(1H)-yl)carboxamides: Identification of novel orthopoxvirus egress inhibitors
    Thomas R Bailey
    ViroPharma Incorporated, 397 Eagleview Boulevard, Exton, Pennsylvania 19341, USA
    J Med Chem 50:1442-4. 2007
    A series of novel, potent orthopoxvirus egress inhibitors was identified during high-throughput screening of the ViroPharma small molecule collection...
  72. pmc Activities of several classes of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates against camelpox virus replication in different cell culture models
    Sophie Duraffour
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, K U Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, Leuven, Belgium
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:4410-9. 2007
    ..Our results demonstrate that compounds belonging to the newly synthesized ANPs, in addition to cidofovir, represent promising candidates for the treatment of poxvirus infections...
  73. pmc Single-dose safety and pharmacokinetics of ST-246, a novel orthopoxvirus egress inhibitor
    Robert Jordan
    SIGA Technologies, Inc, 4575 SW Research Way, Corvallis, OR 97330, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:1721-7. 2008
    ST-246 is a novel, potent orthopoxvirus egress inhibitor that is being developed to treat pathogenic orthopoxvirus infections of humans...
  74. doi The highly conserved orthopoxvirus 68k ankyrin-like protein is part of a cellular SCF ubiquitin ligase complex
    Karin M Sperling
    Paul Ehrlich Institut, Department of Virology, Paul Ehrlich Strasse 51 59, 63225 Langen, Germany
    Virology 374:234-9. 2008
    ..This interaction was F-box domain dependent and could also be observed in infected cells, indicating that SCF complex formation might be important for the viral life cycle...
  75. pmc Activities of certain 5-substituted 4'-thiopyrimidine nucleosides against orthopoxvirus infections
    Earl R Kern
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama School of Medicine, Birmingham, 35233, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:572-9. 2009
    ..These results indicate that 4'-thioIDU is a potent, nontoxic inhibitor of orthopoxvirus replication in cell culture and experimental animal infections and suggest that it may have potential for use ..
  76. doi Detection of human orthopoxvirus infections and differentiation of smallpox virus with real-time PCR
    Niina Putkuri
    Department of Virology, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    J Med Virol 81:146-52. 2009
    ..Amplification of variola virus sequences could be distinguished from other OPVs by melting curve analysis. We also demonstrated the applicability of the assay in human cases of cowpox and vaccinia virus infections...
  77. ncbi Specific targeting of the F13L protein by ST-246 affects orthopoxvirus production differently
    Sophie Duraffour
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Antivir Ther 13:977-90. 2008
    ..The discrepancy in sensitivities of several orthopoxviruses to ST-246 has raised questions about potential differences in their replicative cycles and/or the presence of another drug target...
  78. ncbi When good vaccines go wild: Feral Orthopoxvirus in developing countries and beyond
    Nissin Moussatche
    Dept Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 0266, USA
    J Infect Dev Ctries 2:156-73. 2008
    ..This review examines the ability of potentially pathogenic orthopoxviruses, including feral versions of vaccinia virus vaccine, to persist in nature and re-emerge for reasons we do not yet understand...
  79. pmc Efficacy of ST-246 versus lethal poxvirus challenge in immunodeficient mice
    Douglas W Grosenbach
    SIGA Technologies Inc, Corvallis, OR 97333, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:838-43. 2010
    ..ST-246, which targets the F13L protein in vaccinia virus and its homologs in other orthopoxvirus species, provides full protection from lethal poxviral disease in numerous animal models and seems to be safe ..
  80. ncbi Gene homology between orf virus and smallpox variola virus
    A A Mercer
    Health Research Council Virus Research Unit, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Virus Genes 13:175-8. 1996
    ..of unknown function reported to be produced by an open reading frame expressed early after infection by the orthopoxvirus Western Reserve vaccinia virus (VAC); the open reading frame is absent from VAC strain Copenhagen...
  81. ncbi Orthopoxvirus IL-18 binding proteins: affinities and antagonist activities
    S Calderara
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland, 20892-0445, USA
    Virology 279:22-6. 2001
    ..The relative affinities of the orthopoxvirus IL-18BPs are consistent with the rodent host range of the viruses.
  82. pmc The vaccinia virus superoxide dismutase-like protein (A45R) is a virion component that is nonessential for virus replication
    F Almazan
    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RE, United Kingdom
    J Virol 75:7018-29. 2001
    ..A45R is unusual in being the first VV core protein described that affects neither virus replication nor virulence...
  83. pmc Inhibition of interferons by ectromelia virus
    Vincent P Smith
    Division of Virology, Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QP, United Kingdom
    J Virol 76:1124-34. 2002
    Ectromelia virus (EV) is an orthopoxvirus (OPV) that causes mousepox, a severe disease of laboratory mice...
  84. ncbi The zoonotic poxviruses
    Susan Lewis-Jones
    Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, Scotland
    Dermatol Nurs 14:79-82, 85-6; quiz 87. 2002
    ..Animal poxviruses occasionally produce human skin disease often associated with systemic illness. Lesions are painful blisters and crusted eschars and are usually self-limiting and rarely fatal. Treatment is generally supportive...
  85. ncbi Antiviral activity of cyclopentenyl nucleosides against orthopox viruses (Smallpox, monkeypox and cowpox)
    C K Chu
    Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Science, College of Pharmacy, The University of Georgia, Athens 30602, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 13:9-12. 2003
    ..Among the synthesized nucleosides, the adenine 2 (Neplanocin A), cytosine 14, and 5-F-cytosine 15 analogues exhibited potent anti-orthopox virus activity, including smallpox virus...
  86. ncbi [Immunomodulatory proteins of orthopoxviruses]
    S N Shchelkunov
    Institute of Molecular Biology, Vector State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Kol tsovo, Novosibirsk Oblast, 630559 Russia
    Mol Biol (Mosk) 37:41-53. 2003
    ..Emphasis was placed on the structure of molecular virulence factors that suppress the inflammatory reactions, immune response, and interferon effects induced by virus infection...
  87. ncbi Rapid detection and differentiation of human pathogenic orthopox viruses by a fluorescence resonance energy transfer real-time PCR assay
    Marcus Panning
    Department of Virology, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg, Germany
    Clin Chem 50:702-8. 2004
    ..PCR is a powerful tool to detect and differentiate orthopox viruses, and real-time PCR has the further advantages of rapid turnaround time, low risk of contamination, capability of strain differentiation, and use of multiplexed probes...
  88. ncbi Nucleic acid test screening of blood donors for orthopoxviruses can potentially prevent dispersion of viral agents in case of bioterrorism
    Michael Schmidt
    Institute of Transfusion Medicine and Immunohematology, German Red Cross, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany
    Transfusion 45:399-403. 2005
    ..Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by melting analysis was developed for fast and safe analysis and allows differentiation of VAR from other orthopoxviruses (OPVs) like vaccinia or camelpox virus...
  89. ncbi Preparation of monoclonal antibodies cross-reactive with orthopoxviruses and their application for direct immunofluorescence test
    Noritoshi Kitamoto
    School of Human Science and Environment, University of Hyogo, Himeji, Japan
    Microbiol Immunol 49:219-25. 2005
    ..virus (smallpox virus), vaccinia virus (VV), cowpox virus (CPV) and ectromelia virus (EV) belong to the genus Orthopoxvirus of the family Poxviridae...
  90. ncbi Combinatorial optimization of isatin-beta-thiosemicarbazones as anti-poxvirus agents
    Michael C Pirrung
    Department of Chemistry, Levine Science Research Center, Box 90317, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 0317, USA
    J Med Chem 48:3045-50. 2005
    ..Potent and much more selective N-aminomethyl-isatin-beta-thiosemicarbazones were discovered...
  91. ncbi The gene of the complement-binding protein, an important anti-inflammatory factor of orthopoxviruses, is deleted from the genome of Western African strains of monkeypox virus
    E A Uvarova
    Vector Scientific and Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology, Kol tsovo, Novosibirsk Oblast, 630559 Russia
    Dokl Biochem Biophys 400:14-6. 2005
  92. ncbi Inhibitory efficacy of cyclosal-nucleoside monophosphates of aciclovir and brivudin on DNA synthesis of orthopoxvi ruses
    Andreas Sauerbrei
    Institute of Virology and Antiviral Therapy, University of Jena, Jena, Germany
    Antivir Chem Chemother 17:25-31. 2006
    ..The high inhibitory efficacy on both replication of viral DNA and infectious viral particles in cell cultures makes these compounds promising candidates for in vivo experiments...
  93. ncbi Protection induced in mice against a lethal orthopox virus by the Lister strain of vaccinia virus and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)
    Ihab Abdalrhman
    Department of Virology, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, P O Box 12272, Jerusalem 91120, Israel
    Vaccine 24:4152-60. 2006
    ..Significant protection against a lethal dose of an orthopoxvirus was obtained in mice following immunization with the Lister strain, while larger doses and repeated ..
  94. ncbi FK506, a secondary metabolite produced by Streptomyces, presents a novel antiviral activity against Orthopoxvirus infection in cell culture
    S A Reis
    Laboratório de Biologia Molecular de Vírus, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, CCS, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
    J Appl Microbiol 100:1373-80. 2006
    To investigate the antiviral potential of the macrolide FK506, produced by Streptomyces tsukubaensis, against Orthopoxvirus infection in cell culture, and determine the replicative stage of viral cycle affected by the treatment.
  95. pmc Use of internally controlled real-time genome amplification for detection of variola virus and other orthopoxviruses infecting humans
    C G Fedele
    Alerts and Emergencies Unit, National Center of Microbiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Ctra Pozuelo Majadahonda Km 2, 28220 Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain
    J Clin Microbiol 44:4464-70. 2006
    Smallpox, once a devastating disease caused by Variola virus, a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus, was eradicated in 1980...
  96. ncbi Comparative study of pathological changes in the mouse viscera in infection caused by two orthopoxviruses
    I V Vinogradov
    Vector State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology, Novosibirsk
    Bull Exp Biol Med 141:448-52. 2006
    ..Differences in the types of cells replicating the viruses and in the type of visceral injuries were detected. The studies showed a local type of strain EP-2 cowpox infection and dissemination of ectromelia strain K-1...
  97. ncbi Smallpox vaccines: Past, present, and future
    Janie Parrino
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 3017, USA
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 118:1320-6. 2006
    ....
  98. ncbi Understanding orthopoxvirus interference with host immune responses to inform novel vaccine design
    David J Pickup
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, and Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Box 3020, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 USA
    Expert Rev Vaccines 6:87-95. 2007
    Jenner's original vaccine used cowpox virus. Cowpox virus and, subsequently, vaccinia virus, a closely related Orthopoxvirus, provided the means to eradicate smallpox...
  99. ncbi B5r gene based sequence analysis of Indian buffalopox virus isolates in relation to other orthopoxviruses
    R K Singh
    Indian Veterinary Research Institute IVRI, Mukteswar, Nainital District, Uttaranchal, India
    Acta Virol 51:47-50. 2007
    ..199.7%) or other orthopoxviruses (95.699.2%) showed highly conserved nature of this protein and a closer relationship of BPXV isolates to VACV than to other orthopoxviruses...
  100. ncbi Long-lasting stability of vaccinia virus (orthopoxvirus) in food and environmental samples
    S Essbauer
    Bundeswehr Institute of Microbiology, Neuherbergstr 11, 80539 Munich, Germany
    Zoonoses Public Health 54:118-24. 2007
    ..Samples were titrated in MA 104 cells and the presence of viral DNA was demonstrated by orthopoxvirus-specific PCRs...
  101. pmc Synergistic efficacy of the combination of ST-246 with CMX001 against orthopoxviruses
    Debra C Quenelle
    Department of Pediatrics, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35233 1711, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:4118-24. 2007
    ..synergistic both in vitro and in vivo and suggest that combination therapy using ST-246 and CMX001 for treatment of orthopoxvirus disease in humans or animals may provide an additional benefit over the use of the two drugs by themselves.

Research Grants56

  1. N-methanocarbathymidine (N-MCT) for the Treatment of Herpes and Pox Virus Infecti
    Aquilur Rahman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..N-MCT), a promising antiviral drug that has shown potent and selective activity against the Herpes and Orthopoxvirus families...
  2. Immune Mechanisms That Control Ectromelia Virus Infection
    Luis J Sigal; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..None of this is true for vaccinia virus (VACV), an orthopoxvirus of unknown origin, frequently used in mouse models of immunity, and made all the more suspect by preliminary ..
  3. Host defense against poxviruses and viral immune evasion
    Liang Deng; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..strategies to minimize vaccine-associated complications, such as eczema vaccinatum, and the reimmergence of orthopoxvirus infections in humans such as monkeypox...
  4. Seriodiagnostic arrays for biodefense and emerging infectious diseases
    DAVID HUW DAVIES; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the head of a product pipeline will be serodiagnostic immunostrips that will be evaluated for discriminating orthopoxvirus infections from clinically similar rash infections and for diagnosing TORCH infections associated with ..
  5. Stephen R Walsh; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..to: 1) Investigate the effect that route of administration of MVA has on the induction of dermatotropic orthopoxvirus-specific T cells;2) Determine the kinetics, magnitude, and trafficking marker expression of orthopoxvirus-..
  6. Stage-Specific Inhibitors of Orthopoxviruses
    John H Connor; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Vaccinia is the prototypical orthopoxvirus which was used in the world-wide vaccination program that eradicated smallpox...
  7. Small Molecule Inhibitors of the Poxvirus Type I Interferon Binding Protein
    Luis J Sigal; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The genus Orthopoxvirus (OPV) includes, among others, the human pathogen variola virus (VARV), the zoonotic viruses monkeypox (MPXV) and cowpox virus (CPXV)~ the vaccine species vaccinia virus (VAC) ..
  8. HERVE F AGAISSE; Fiscal Year: 2014
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The Orthopoxvirus genus of the family Poxviridae includes both the causative agent of smallpox, variola virus, and the vaccine strain used for smallpox eradication, Vaccinia virus...
  9. Poxvirus Modulation of Immune Responses
    Janice S Blum; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In this resubmitted Program Project application, vaccinia virus will be used as a model for orthopoxvirus infection and to study the induction of host immunity...
  10. Smallpox vaccine and vaccinia complement control protein
    STUART ISAACS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Define the protection conferred by vaccinations with viruses containing modified VCP in the context of both orthopoxvirus and heterologous challenge models...
  11. INNATE IMMUNE RECEPTOR ANTAGONISM BY ORTHOPOXVIRUS PROTEINS
    Anthony R French; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): We have identified a secreted orthopoxvirus-encoded protein, termed OMCP, which binds two receptors on innate immune effector cells. The first is NKG2D - an activating receptor of NK and T cells...
  12. Luis J Sigal; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..The Orthopoxvirus Ectromelia virus (ECTV), the agent of mousepox, is an outstanding model of natural infections and serves as ..
  13. ST-246 treatment of smallpox vaccine-related adverse events
    Douglas W Grosenbach; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..in more than 30 animal studies that ST-246 is safe and very effective for the prevention or treatment of orthopoxvirus infection, including variola, the causative agent of smallpox...
  14. Bertram L Jacobs; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Yet one of the major determinants of orthopoxvirus virulence, the E3L gene, differs significantly between these two closely related viruses...
  15. Poxvirus adverse effects on cardiac cells and the heart
    Barbara Sherry; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Cowpox virus contains the full complement of known orthopoxvirus accessory genes that affect immune responses, while DryVax (the current vaccine strain of vaccinia virus) ..
  16. NUCLEOSIDES AS ANTI-ORTHOPOXVIRUS AGENTS
    JOHN SECRIST; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Dr. Stewart Shuman of the Sloan Kettering Research Institute will be helping us by concentrating on the mechanism of action of the N1-aralkyloxyadenosine analogs. ..
  17. Dose Optimization, Production & Tox Testing of Replicon-Vaccines for Smallpox
    Kurt Kamrud; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Orthopoxviruses remain a concern for a number of reasons. Naturally occurring orthopoxvirus disease and the threat of Orthopoxviruses used as biological weapons are just two examples...
  18. Development of an VEE Replicon Vaccine Against Smallpox
    Kurt Kamrud; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..posed by Orthopoxviruses could be eliminated by vaccination; however, because the smallpox vaccine is a live orthopoxvirus, the vaccine itself can pose serious health risks to both immunocompetent and especially immunocompromised ..
  19. DEVELOPMENT OF POXVIRUS PROTEINASE INHIBITORS
    Dennis Hruby; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The subsequent 40 years have produced a population that is immunologically naive and highly susceptible to orthopoxvirus infection...
  20. Therapeutics for Pox, Filo and Other Viral Pathogens
    STEWART SCHNELLER; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Because of the extensive collaborations that have been ongoing for some time by this group of chemists and virologists, it can be expected that promising anti-orthopoxvirus and anti-filovirus agents will be uncovered.
  21. REGULATORY FUNCTIONS OF PROTEIN NUCLEIC ACID INTERACTION
    WOLFGANG JOKLIK; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..A. We propose to examine the mechanisms involved in the generation of spontaneous rearrangements of the orthopoxvirus genome, focusing in particular on the factors that determine the extent, the sites and the frequency of such ..
  22. Variola Virus G1L:An Antiviral Drug Target
    Dennis Hruby; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Our current research seeks to develop effective anti-orthopoxvirus drug(s), which is designated as a high priority biodefense project...
  23. ANTI-ORTHOPOXVIRUS DRUG DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT
    STEWART SCHNELLER; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..A consortium of three chemists and two virologists as project leaders, and a virologist consultant, has been put into place for this purpose. ..
  24. Rapid Diagnosis of Monkeypox and Smallpox Infections
    MARK SLIFKA; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Development of these reagents will serve as independent confirmation of a recent orthopoxvirus outbreak and will also provide valuable information that is relevant to future vaccine design and treatment of ..
  25. Pox Proteomics
    Dennis Hruby; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..To advance our understanding of the replication cycle of the VV and other more pathogenic members of the orthopoxvirus family and to discover proteins that may become targets for a new antiviral drugs or antigens for a new ..
  26. ORTHOPOXVIRUS GENOMIC AND BIOINFORMATICS RESOURCE CENTER
    ELLIOT LEFKOWITZ; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..the potential use of orthopoxviruses such as variola virus as a terrorist weapon, we propose to establish an Orthopoxvirus Genetic and Bioinformatics Resource Center that will collect, catalog, annotate, and analyze genetic ..
  27. BIACORE 2000 OPTICAL BIOSENSOR
    Sheldon Schuster; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..the regions of rhodopsin that bind to arrestin, Role of adhesion related molecules in Corneal Epithelial Integrity, and The properties of beta- chemokine binding to the orthopoxvirus encoded, secreted 35 kDa protein.
  28. DEVELOPMENT OF A LIVE ATTENUATED HSV-2 VACCINE
    Mark Prichard; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..In addition further in vitro characterization will enable high quality clinical trial material to be produced for IND enabling primate studies and early Phase I human trials. PROPOSED COMMERCIAL APPLICATION: Not Available ..
  29. Novel inhibitors of the replication of poxviruses
    Johan Neyts; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The final goal of this application is to advance a compound for the treatment of (systemic or cutaneous) poxvirus infections to the initial stages of development, i.e., selecting an IND candidate. ..
  30. CHEMISTRY-BIOLOGY INTERFACE TRAINING PROGRAM
    Michael Pirrung; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..It is intended to train future leaders in pharmaceutical, medical, and biotechnological research to serve in academia, government, and industry. ..
  31. WORLD REFERENCE CENTER FOR ARBOVIRUSES
    Robert Tesh; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  32. BIOORGANIC CHEMISTRY OF ANTIBACTERIALS
    Michael Pirrung; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..An ancillary benefit of this project will be the development of novel techniques in solid phase synthesis through the total synthesis of natural products. ..
  33. POXVIRUS SCR-CONTAINING PROTEINS AS THERAPEUTIC TARGETS
    STUART ISAACS; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..In addition, because both VCP and BSR are present in variola virus, these new therapies may be effective against smallpox infection. ..
  34. Immunodominant epitopes of a smallpox vaccine in humans
    R Buller; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The Specific Aims are to: 1. Characterize the antibody responses to immunodominant vaccinia virus proteins and 2. Identify the epitope specificity of representative vaccinia virus-specific T cell clones. ..
  35. COMBINATORIAL APPROACHES TO ANTI-SMALLPOX AGENTS
    Michael Pirrung; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  36. Anti-interferon Activity of the Arenavirus Nucleoprotein
    JUAN DE LA TORRE; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  37. ORTHOPOXVIRUS GENOMICS AND BIOINFORMATICS RESOURCE CENTE
    R Buller; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..This proposal will support the acquisition and analysis of orthopoxvirus genomic information to facilitate its application to the development of therapies and improved vaccines for ..
  38. Novel Approaches to the Inhibition of Anthrax Toxin
    ANDREW ARTENSTEIN; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  39. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF BORNA DISEASE VIRUS (BDV)
    JUAN DE LA TORRE; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Conditions required for reconstitution of BDV transcription and RNA replication by intracellular coexpression of BDV minigenome and BDV proteins from separated plasmids will be determined. ..
  40. Biology of Animal Nuclear Mononegaviruses
    JUAN DE LA TORRE; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  41. GENE REGULATION OF MAMMALIAN DNA VIRUSES
    Richard Moyer; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Their studies are intended to provide an understanding of how poxvirus serpins function by detailing their interactions with proteinases and with other cellular and viral proteins. ..
  42. Novel Antiviral Strategy to Combat Arenaviruses
    JUAN DE LA TORRE; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  43. CD8+ T cell specificity in mouse models of smallpox vaccination and challenge
    David Tscharke; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This study will provide basic information about the immune response to poxviruses and will help us know how best to use immunological knowledge and tools to design and test new smallpox: vaccines. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  44. Poxvirus proteins involved in virion binding, membrane fusion, & entry into cells
    Richard Moyer; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Our studies are intended to provide an understanding of how poxvirus serpins function by detailing their interactions with proteinases and with other cellular and viral proteins. ..
  45. Neuroimmunologic Disorders Induced by Chronic Viral Infection
    JUAN DE LA TORRE; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  46. Protein Interactions Involved in Poxvirus Envelopment
    Brian Ward; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  47. Medicinal Chemistry and Biology of Oral Insulin Mimics
    Michael Pirrung; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..They would therefore increase the reliability of diabetes management, particularly for children. ..
  48. Identification of Borna Disease Virus Receptor Proteins
    JUAN DE LA TORRE; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..G*/p56; 3) Determination of expression pattern of BDV candidate receptors in vivo. ..
  49. Synthesis/Biological evaluation of Anti-HIV Nucleosides
    David Chu; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This is the first such studies demonstrating the potential of this molecular modeling approach. ..
  50. Study of monkeypox virus in rodents
    R Buller; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  51. Epidemiology of Yellow Fever in the Americas
    Robert Tesh; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Most of the work will be done in laboratories at the University of Texas Medical Branch, Center for Tropical Diseases; but a small portion will be done at the Evandro Chagas Institute in Belem, Brazil. ..
  52. VACCINIA B5R PROTEIN IN SPREAD IMMUNE EVASION, VACCINES
    STUART ISAACS; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  53. Immune cell dynamics during central nervous system viral infection
    Juan C de la Torre; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  54. Aminoglycoside Antivirals to Combat Arenaviruses
    JUAN DE LA TORRE; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Emergence of resistant variants will be assessed based on production of infectious virus and intracellular levels of virus RNA synthesis during serial passages in the presence of aminoglycosides with anti-LCMV activity. ..
  55. REVERSE GENETICS OF ARENAVIRUSES
    JUAN DE LA TORRE; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We will use biochemical, genetics and functional assays to assess the relevance in Arenavirus biology of candidates initially identified by TAP/MS. ..
  56. Pathogenesis and Gene Regulation of Entomopoxvirus
    Richard Moyer; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Each gene will be evaluated for biochemical function. Collectively, the proposed experiments will elucidate added diversity by which viruses counter the defenses of host organisms. ..