respirovirus infections

Summary

Summary: Infections with viruses of the genus RESPIROVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. Host cell infection occurs by adsorption, via HEMAGGLUTININ, to the cell surface.

Top Publications

  1. Matsuse H, Kondo Y, Saeki S, Nakata H, Fukushima C, Mizuta Y, et al. Naturally occurring parainfluenza virus 3 infection in adults induces mild exacerbation of asthma associated with increased sputum concentrations of cysteinyl leukotrienes. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2005;138:267-72 pubmed
    ..Viral respiratory tract infections represent the most frequent cause of asthma exacerbation in both children and adults, but the precise mechanism of such exacerbation remains unknown...
  2. Luque L, Bridges O, Mason J, Boyd K, Portner A, Russell C. Residues in the heptad repeat a region of the fusion protein modulate the virulence of Sendai virus in mice. J Virol. 2010;84:810-21 pubmed publisher
    ..An understanding of how the F protein contributes to infection and inflammation in vivo may assist in the development of antiviral therapies against respiratory paramyxoviruses...
  3. Hall C, Douglas R, Schnabel K, Geiman J. Infectivity of respiratory syncytial virus by various routes of inoculation. Infect Immun. 1981;33:779-83 pubmed
    ..In comparison, the mouth appears to be an insensitive route of inoculation. This is of potential import in infection control procedures and in the development of vaccines or other prophylactic measures...
  4. Sakaguchi T, Kiyotani K, Watanabe H, Huang C, Fukuhara N, Fujii Y, et al. Masking of the contribution of V protein to Sendai virus pathogenesis in an infection model with a highly virulent field isolate. Virology. 2003;313:581-7 pubmed
    ..The V protein therefore seems to be potentially functional in the highly virulent Hamamatsu strain and to be prominent if virus replication is restricted...
  5. LOPEZ C, Moltedo B, Alexopoulou L, Bonifaz L, Flavell R, Moran T. TLR-independent induction of dendritic cell maturation and adaptive immunity by negative-strand RNA viruses. J Immunol. 2004;173:6882-9 pubmed
    ..The revelation of this pathway should stimulate invigorating research into the mechanism for virus-induced DC maturation and immunity...
  6. Miyamae T. Differential invasion by Sendai virus of abdominal parenchymal organs and brain tissues in cortisone- and cyclophosphamide-based immunosuppressed mice. J Vet Med Sci. 2005;67:369-77 pubmed
    ..Blood-brain barrier disruption was caused by virulence of the MN strain. Half the infected mice in two groups treated with CO once and CY twice succumbed to delayed hypersensitivity, suggested by cerebro-microvascular nodulation...
  7. Kato A, Kiyotani K, Kubota T, Yoshida T, Tashiro M, Nagai Y. Importance of the anti-interferon capacity of Sendai virus C protein for pathogenicity in mice. J Virol. 2007;81:3264-71 pubmed
    ..Conversely, the results show that the innate immunity contributed to elimination of SeV in early stages of infection in the absence of anti-IFN capacity...
  8. Fink K, Duval A, Martel A, Soucy Faulkner A, Grandvaux N. Dual role of NOX2 in respiratory syncytial virus- and sendai virus-induced activation of NF-kappaB in airway epithelial cells. J Immunol. 2008;180:6911-22 pubmed
    ..These results illustrate a previously unrecognized dual role of NOX2 in the regulation of NF-kappaB in response to RSV and Sendai virus in human AEC...
  9. Horwood P, Gravel J, Mahony T. Identification of two distinct bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 genotypes. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:1643-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These newly identified genotypes have implications for the development of BPIV-3 molecular detection methods and may also impact on BPIV-3 vaccine formulations...
  10. Peters K, Chattopadhyay S, Sen G. IRF-3 activation by Sendai virus infection is required for cellular apoptosis and avoidance of persistence. J Virol. 2008;82:3500-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrated that in our model system, IRF-3 controlled the fate of the SeV-infected cells by promoting apoptosis and preventing persistence...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Matsuse H, Kondo Y, Saeki S, Nakata H, Fukushima C, Mizuta Y, et al. Naturally occurring parainfluenza virus 3 infection in adults induces mild exacerbation of asthma associated with increased sputum concentrations of cysteinyl leukotrienes. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2005;138:267-72 pubmed
    ..Viral respiratory tract infections represent the most frequent cause of asthma exacerbation in both children and adults, but the precise mechanism of such exacerbation remains unknown...
  2. Luque L, Bridges O, Mason J, Boyd K, Portner A, Russell C. Residues in the heptad repeat a region of the fusion protein modulate the virulence of Sendai virus in mice. J Virol. 2010;84:810-21 pubmed publisher
    ..An understanding of how the F protein contributes to infection and inflammation in vivo may assist in the development of antiviral therapies against respiratory paramyxoviruses...
  3. Hall C, Douglas R, Schnabel K, Geiman J. Infectivity of respiratory syncytial virus by various routes of inoculation. Infect Immun. 1981;33:779-83 pubmed
    ..In comparison, the mouth appears to be an insensitive route of inoculation. This is of potential import in infection control procedures and in the development of vaccines or other prophylactic measures...
  4. Sakaguchi T, Kiyotani K, Watanabe H, Huang C, Fukuhara N, Fujii Y, et al. Masking of the contribution of V protein to Sendai virus pathogenesis in an infection model with a highly virulent field isolate. Virology. 2003;313:581-7 pubmed
    ..The V protein therefore seems to be potentially functional in the highly virulent Hamamatsu strain and to be prominent if virus replication is restricted...
  5. LOPEZ C, Moltedo B, Alexopoulou L, Bonifaz L, Flavell R, Moran T. TLR-independent induction of dendritic cell maturation and adaptive immunity by negative-strand RNA viruses. J Immunol. 2004;173:6882-9 pubmed
    ..The revelation of this pathway should stimulate invigorating research into the mechanism for virus-induced DC maturation and immunity...
  6. Miyamae T. Differential invasion by Sendai virus of abdominal parenchymal organs and brain tissues in cortisone- and cyclophosphamide-based immunosuppressed mice. J Vet Med Sci. 2005;67:369-77 pubmed
    ..Blood-brain barrier disruption was caused by virulence of the MN strain. Half the infected mice in two groups treated with CO once and CY twice succumbed to delayed hypersensitivity, suggested by cerebro-microvascular nodulation...
  7. Kato A, Kiyotani K, Kubota T, Yoshida T, Tashiro M, Nagai Y. Importance of the anti-interferon capacity of Sendai virus C protein for pathogenicity in mice. J Virol. 2007;81:3264-71 pubmed
    ..Conversely, the results show that the innate immunity contributed to elimination of SeV in early stages of infection in the absence of anti-IFN capacity...
  8. Fink K, Duval A, Martel A, Soucy Faulkner A, Grandvaux N. Dual role of NOX2 in respiratory syncytial virus- and sendai virus-induced activation of NF-kappaB in airway epithelial cells. J Immunol. 2008;180:6911-22 pubmed
    ..These results illustrate a previously unrecognized dual role of NOX2 in the regulation of NF-kappaB in response to RSV and Sendai virus in human AEC...
  9. Horwood P, Gravel J, Mahony T. Identification of two distinct bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 genotypes. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:1643-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These newly identified genotypes have implications for the development of BPIV-3 molecular detection methods and may also impact on BPIV-3 vaccine formulations...
  10. Peters K, Chattopadhyay S, Sen G. IRF-3 activation by Sendai virus infection is required for cellular apoptosis and avoidance of persistence. J Virol. 2008;82:3500-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrated that in our model system, IRF-3 controlled the fate of the SeV-infected cells by promoting apoptosis and preventing persistence...
  11. Cortez K, Erdman D, Peret T, Gill V, Childs R, Barrett A, et al. Outbreak of human parainfluenza virus 3 infections in a hematopoietic stem cell transplant population. J Infect Dis. 2001;184:1093-7 pubmed
    ..A chain of transmission within the outpatient clinic appeared to have occurred in 4 outpatients and to have extended to 2 hospitalized patients. Molecular epidemiology was useful in discerning routes of transmission in this outbreak...
  12. Hermesh T, Moltedo B, Moran T, LOPEZ C. Antiviral instruction of bone marrow leukocytes during respiratory viral infections. Cell Host Microbe. 2010;7:343-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings show that appropriate instruction of cells during their development in the bone marrow is needed for effective control of infection...
  13. Faisca P, Anh D, Desmecht D. Sendai virus-induced alterations in lung structure/function correlate with viral loads and reveal a wide resistance/susceptibility spectrum among mouse strains. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2005;289:L777-87 pubmed
    ..The results unambiguously suggest that BALB/c (resistant) and 129Sv (susceptible) strains should be used in crossing experiments aimed at identifying the genes involved in resistance to Paramyxoviridae by the positional cloning approach...
  14. Aguilar J, Pérez Breña M, Garcia M, Cruz N, Erdman D, Echevarria J. Detection and identification of human parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, 3, and 4 in clinical samples of pediatric patients by multiplex reverse transcription-PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:1191-5 pubmed
    ..Also, HPIV-4 was more frequently detected than HPIV-2 in this study, suggesting that it may have been underestimated as a lower respiratory tract pathogen because of the insensitivity of cell culture...
  15. Rudraraju R, Surman S, Jones B, Sealy R, Woodland D, Hurwitz J. Phenotypes and functions of persistent Sendai virus-induced antibody forming cells and CD8+ T cells in diffuse nasal-associated lymphoid tissue typify lymphocyte responses of the gut. Virology. 2011;410:429-436 pubmed publisher
    ..Phenotypic analyses of virus-specific T cells revealed striking similarities with pathogen-specific immune responses in the intestine, highlighting some key features of adaptive immunity at a mucosal site...
  16. Slobod K, Shenep J, Lujan Zilbermann J, Allison K, Brown B, Scroggs R, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of intranasal murine parainfluenza virus type 1 (Sendai virus) in healthy human adults. Vaccine. 2004;22:3182-6 pubmed
    ..Results encourage future trials to evaluate the efficacy of Sendai virus in preventing human PIV-1 infection in infants and children...
  17. Bousse T, Chambers R, Scroggs R, Portner A, Takimoto T. Human parainfluenza virus type 1 but not Sendai virus replicates in human respiratory cells despite IFN treatment. Virus Res. 2006;121:23-32 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that SeV is less effective than hPIV1 in overcoming antiviral activity in human cells, which could be one of the factors that restrict the host range of SeV...
  18. Zhu Y, Shi H, Gao Y, Xin J, Liu N, Xiang W, et al. Isolation and genetic characterization of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 from cattle in China. Vet Microbiol. 2011;149:446-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first study to report the isolation and genetic characterization of BPIV3 from cattle in China...
  19. Roberts A, Woodland D. Cutting edge: effector memory CD8+ T cells play a prominent role in recall responses to secondary viral infection in the lung. J Immunol. 2004;172:6533-7 pubmed
    ..These data contrast with other studies indicating that central memory CD8(+) T cells are the prominent contributors to systemic virus infections...
  20. Newman J, Riggs J, Surman S, McAuliffe J, Mulaikal T, Collins P, et al. Generation of recombinant human parainfluenza virus type 1 vaccine candidates by importation of temperature-sensitive and attenuating mutations from heterologous paramyxoviruses. J Virol. 2004;78:2017-28 pubmed
    ..Thus, importation of attenuating mutations from heterologous viruses is an effective means for rapidly identifying mutations that attenuate HPIV1 and for generating live-attenuated HPIV1 vaccine candidates...
  21. Itoh M, Hotta H, Homma M. Increased induction of apoptosis by a Sendai virus mutant is associated with attenuation of mouse pathogenicity. J Virol. 1998;72:2927-34 pubmed
    ..The C protein was shown to have the capacity to induce apoptosis, and the increased level of the C protein in MVC11-infected cells was considered to account partly, if not entirely, for the induction of apoptosis...
  22. Russell T, Yan Q, Fan G, Khalifah A, Bishop D, Brody S, et al. IL-12 p40 homodimer-dependent macrophage chemotaxis and respiratory viral inflammation are mediated through IL-12 receptor beta 1. J Immunol. 2003;171:6866-74 pubmed
    ..Thus, Rbeta1 mediates p80-dependent macrophage chemotaxis and inhibition of the p80-Rbeta1 interaction may provide a novel anti-inflammatory strategy to manipulate the inflammation associated with asthma and respiratory viral infection...
  23. Karron R, Belshe R, Wright P, Thumar B, Burns B, Newman F, et al. A live human parainfluenza type 3 virus vaccine is attenuated and immunogenic in young infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003;22:394-405 pubmed
    ..Parainfluenza type 3 virus (PIV-3) infections cause lower respiratory tract illness in children throughout the world. A licensed PIV-3 vaccine is not yet available...
  24. Woodland D, Hogan R, Zhong W. Cellular immunity and memory to respiratory virus infections. Immunol Res. 2001;24:53-67 pubmed
    ..A thorough understanding of the cellular immune response to infection in the lungs is essential for future vaccine development...
  25. Henrickson K. Parainfluenza viruses. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2003;16:242-64 pubmed
    ..HPIV are closely related to recently discovered megamyxoviruses (Hendra and Nipah viruses) and metapneumovirus...
  26. Cauley L, Cookenham T, Miller T, Adams P, Vignali K, Vignali D, et al. Cutting edge: virus-specific CD4+ memory T cells in nonlymphoid tissues express a highly activated phenotype. J Immunol. 2002;169:6655-8 pubmed
    ..Differences in CD25 and CD11a expression indicate that the CD4(+) cells from the lung airways and parenchyma are distinct memory populations...
  27. Burke C, Mason J, Surman S, Jones B, Dalloneau E, Hurwitz J, et al. Illumination of parainfluenza virus infection and transmission in living animals reveals a tissue-specific dichotomy. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002134 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these results reveal a dichotomy between PIV infection in the URT and trachea versus the lungs and define a new model for studies of pathogenesis, development of live virus vaccines, and testing of antiviral therapies...
  28. Shornick L, Wells A, Zhang Y, Patel A, Huang G, Takami K, et al. Airway epithelial versus immune cell Stat1 function for innate defense against respiratory viral infection. J Immunol. 2008;180:3319-28 pubmed
    ..These findings provide some of the most definitive evidence to date for the critical role of barrier epithelial cells in innate immunity to common pathogens, particularly in controlling viral replication...
  29. Yount J, Gitlin L, Moran T, LOPEZ C. MDA5 participates in the detection of paramyxovirus infection and is essential for the early activation of dendritic cells in response to Sendai Virus defective interfering particles. J Immunol. 2008;180:4910-8 pubmed
    ..The unique mechanism by which DI particles trigger the maturation of DCs represents a novel strategy that could be further exploited for the development of potent adjuvant molecules...
  30. Counihan M, Shay D, Holman R, Lowther S, Anderson L. Human parainfluenza virus-associated hospitalizations among children less than five years of age in the United States. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2001;20:646-53 pubmed
    ..Human parainfluenza viruses 1 through 3 (HPIV-1-3) are important causes of respiratory tract infections in young children. This study sought to provide current estimates of HPIV-1-3-associated hospitalizations among US children...
  31. Hogan R, Zhong W, Usherwood E, Cookenham T, Roberts A, Woodland D. Protection from respiratory virus infections can be mediated by antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells that persist in the lungs. J Exp Med. 2001;193:981-6 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data demonstrate that activated memory CD4(+) T cells persisting at mucosal sites play a critical role in mediating protective cellular immunity...
  32. Seth R, Sun L, Ea C, Chen Z. Identification and characterization of MAVS, a mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein that activates NF-kappaB and IRF 3. Cell. 2005;122:669-82 pubmed
    ..The transmembrane domain targets MAVS to the mitochondria, implicating a new role of mitochondria in innate immunity...
  33. Bousse T, Matrosovich T, Portner A, Kato A, Nagai Y, Takimoto T. The long noncoding region of the human parainfluenza virus type 1 f gene contributes to the read-through transcription at the m-f gene junction. J Virol. 2002;76:8244-51 pubmed
    ..These phenotypes seem to be responsible for the extended survival of mice infected with rSVhMFjCG...
  34. Kiyotani K, Sakaguchi T, Fujii Y, Yoshida T. Attenuation of a field Sendai virus isolate through egg-passages is associated with an impediment of viral genome replication in mouse respiratory cells. Arch Virol. 2001;146:893-908 pubmed
    ....
  35. Weinberg G, Hall C, Iwane M, Poehling K, Edwards K, Griffin M, et al. Parainfluenza virus infection of young children: estimates of the population-based burden of hospitalization. J Pediatr. 2009;154:694-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the population-based inpatient disease burden of parainfluenza virus in children <5 years of age...
  36. McAuliffe J, Surman S, Newman J, Riggs J, Collins P, Murphy B, et al. Codon substitution mutations at two positions in the L polymerase protein of human parainfluenza virus type 1 yield viruses with a spectrum of attenuation in vivo and increased phenotypic stability in vitro. J Virol. 2004;78:2029-36 pubmed
    ..These findings identify the use of alternative codon substitution mutations as a method that can be used to generate candidate vaccine viruses with increased genetic stability and/or a modified level of attenuation...
  37. Grandvaux N, Gaboriau F, Harris J, tenOever B, Lin R, Hiscott J. Regulation of arginase II by interferon regulatory factor 3 and the involvement of polyamines in the antiviral response. FEBS J. 2005;272:3120-31 pubmed
    ..These results show for the first time that the ArgII gene is an early IRF-3-regulated gene, which participates in the IFN-independent antiviral response through polyamine production and induction of apoptosis...
  38. Bartlett E, Amaro Carambot E, Surman S, Newman J, Collins P, Murphy B, et al. Human parainfluenza virus type I (HPIV1) vaccine candidates designed by reverse genetics are attenuated and efficacious in African green monkeys. Vaccine. 2005;23:4631-46 pubmed
    ..One genetically and phenotypically stable vaccine candidate, rC(R84G/F170S)L(Y942A/L992C), was attenuated and efficacious in AGMs and is a promising live attenuated intranasal HPIV1 vaccine candidate suitable for clinical evaluation...
  39. Moscona A. Entry of parainfluenza virus into cells as a target for interrupting childhood respiratory disease. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:1688-98 pubmed
    ..There are several steps during the process of binding, triggering, and fusion that are now understood at the molecular level, and each of these steps represents potential targets for interrupting infection...
  40. Melchjorsen J, Jensen S, Malmgaard L, Rasmussen S, Weber F, Bowie A, et al. Activation of innate defense against a paramyxovirus is mediated by RIG-I and TLR7 and TLR8 in a cell-type-specific manner. J Virol. 2005;79:12944-51 pubmed
    ..Therefore, there appears to be a large degree of cell-type specificity in the mechanisms used by the host to recognize infecting viruses...
  41. Sealy R, Jones B, Surman S, Hurwitz J. Robust IgA and IgG-producing antibody forming cells in the diffuse-NALT and lungs of Sendai virus-vaccinated cotton rats associate with rapid protection against human parainfluenza virus-type 1. Vaccine. 2010;28:6749-56 pubmed publisher
    ....
  42. Templeton K, Scheltinga S, Beersma M, Kroes A, Claas E. Rapid and sensitive method using multiplex real-time PCR for diagnosis of infections by influenza a and influenza B viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, 3, and 4. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:1564-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, results can be obtained within 6 h, which increases clinical relevance. Therefore, use of this real-time PCR assay would improve patient management and infection control...
  43. Akk A, Simmons P, Chan H, Agapov E, Holtzman M, Grayson M, et al. Dipeptidyl peptidase I-dependent neutrophil recruitment modulates the inflammatory response to Sendai virus infection. J Immunol. 2008;180:3535-42 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that DPPI and neutrophils play a critical role in Sendai virus-induced asthma phenotype as a result of a DPPI-dependent neutrophil recruitment and cytokine response...
  44. Gunsten S, Mikols C, Grayson M, Schwendener R, Agapov E, Tidwell R, et al. IL-12 p80-dependent macrophage recruitment primes the host for increased survival following a lethal respiratory viral infection. Immunology. 2009;126:500-13 pubmed publisher
    ....
  45. Kim E, Battaile J, Patel A, You Y, Agapov E, Grayson M, et al. Persistent activation of an innate immune response translates respiratory viral infection into chronic lung disease. Nat Med. 2008;14:633-40 pubmed publisher
    ....
  46. Simon A, Moritoh K, Torigoe D, Asano A, Sasaki N, Agui T. Multigenic control of resistance to Sendai virus infection in mice. Infect Genet Evol. 2009;9:1253-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings revealed a novel gene interactions controlling SeV resistance in mice and will enable the identification of resistance genes encoded within these loci...
  47. Ely K, Roberts A, Woodland D. Cutting edge: effector memory CD8+ T cells in the lung airways retain the potential to mediate recall responses. J Immunol. 2003;171:3338-42 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that lung airway memory CD8(+) T cells are not terminally differentiated cells and retain the capacity to mediate recall responses to infection...
  48. Skiadopoulos M, Surman S, Riggs J, Elkins W, St Claire M, Nishio M, et al. Sendai virus, a murine parainfluenza virus type 1, replicates to a level similar to human PIV1 in the upper and lower respiratory tract of African green monkeys and chimpanzees. Virology. 2002;297:153-60 pubmed
    ..Its ability to efficiently replicate in nonhuman primates suggests that MPIV1 lacks a significant host range restriction in primates and could theoretically cause zoonotic disease in humans...
  49. Walter M, Kajiwara N, Karanja P, Castro M, Holtzman M. Interleukin 12 p40 production by barrier epithelial cells during airway inflammation. J Exp Med. 2001;193:339-51 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest a novel role for epithelial-derived IL-12 p40 in modifying the level of airway inflammation during mucosal defense and disease...
  50. Fujii Y, Sakaguchi T, Kiyotani K, Huang C, Fukuhara N, Egi Y, et al. Involvement of the leader sequence in Sendai virus pathogenesis revealed by recovery of a pathogenic field isolate from cDNA. J Virol. 2002;76:8540-7 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that leader mutations of SeV affect virus pathogenesis by altering virus replication in a host-dependent manner...
  51. Lei C, Zhong B, Zhang Y, Zhang J, Wang S, Shu H. Glycogen synthase kinase 3β regulates IRF3 transcription factor-mediated antiviral response via activation of the kinase TBK1. Immunity. 2010;33:878-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that GSK3β plays important roles in virus-triggered IRF3 activation by promoting TBK1 activation and provide new insights to the molecular mechanisms of cellular antiviral response...
  52. Hogan R, Usherwood E, Zhong W, Roberts A, Dutton R, Harmsen A, et al. Activated antigen-specific CD8+ T cells persist in the lungs following recovery from respiratory virus infections. J Immunol. 2001;166:1813-22 pubmed
    ..The kinetics of persistence of Ag-specific CD8(+) T cells in the lung suggests that they play a key role in protective cellular immunity to respiratory virus infections...
  53. Wathelet M, Lin C, Parekh B, Ronco L, Howley P, Maniatis T. Virus infection induces the assembly of coordinately activated transcription factors on the IFN-beta enhancer in vivo. Mol Cell. 1998;1:507-18 pubmed
    ..These observations provide a unique example of the coordinate activation of multiple transcriptional activator proteins and their highly cooperative assembly into a transcriptional enhancer complex in vivo...
  54. Jalal H, Bibby D, Bennett J, Sampson R, Brink N, Mackinnon S, et al. Molecular investigations of an outbreak of parainfluenza virus type 3 and respiratory syncytial virus infections in a hematology unit. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:1690-6 pubmed
    ....
  55. Zhan X, Slobod K, Krishnamurthy S, Luque L, Takimoto T, Jones B, et al. Sendai virus recombinant vaccine expressing hPIV-3 HN or F elicits protective immunity and combines with a second recombinant to prevent hPIV-1, hPIV-3 and RSV infections. Vaccine. 2008;26:3480-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Results encourage the continued development of the candidate recombinant SeV vaccines to combat serious respiratory infections of children...
  56. Look D, Walter M, Williamson M, Pang L, You Y, Sreshta J, et al. Effects of paramyxoviral infection on airway epithelial cell Foxj1 expression, ciliogenesis, and mucociliary function. Am J Pathol. 2001;159:2055-69 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these model systems of paramyxoviral respiratory infection mimic human pathology and identify epithelial cell Foxj1 expression as an early marker of epithelial cell differentiation, recovery, and function...
  57. Kiyotani K, Sakaguchi T, Kato A, Nagai Y, Yoshida T. Paramyxovirus Sendai virus V protein counteracts innate virus clearance through IRF-3 activation, but not via interferon, in mice. Virology. 2007;359:82-91 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that SeV V protein counteracts IRF-3-mediated innate antiviral immunity for efficient virus replication and pathogenesis in mice, but it is not IFN...
  58. Walter M, Morton J, Kajiwara N, Agapov E, Holtzman M. Viral induction of a chronic asthma phenotype and genetic segregation from the acute response. J Clin Invest. 2002;110:165-75 pubmed
    ..These two phenotypes can be segregated by their dependence on the ICAM-1 gene and so depend on distinct controls that appear critical for the development of lifelong airway diseases such as asthma...
  59. Ottolini M, Porter D, Blanco J, Prince G. A cotton rat model of human parainfluenza 3 laryngotracheitis: virus growth, pathology, and therapy. J Infect Dis. 2002;186:1713-7 pubmed
    ..Topical glucocorticoid therapy, with or without concurrent topical immunotherapy with antibody to PIV3, did not lead to a rebound of viral replication...
  60. Lawrence M, Borg N, Streltsov V, Pilling P, Epa V, Varghese J, et al. Structure of the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase from human parainfluenza virus type III. J Mol Biol. 2004;335:1343-57 pubmed
    ..However, in contrast to the NDV structures, we observe no ligand-induced structural changes that extend beyond the active site and modify the dimer interface...
  61. Villenave R, Touzelet O, Thavagnanam S, Sarlang S, Parker J, Skibinski G, et al. Cytopathogenesis of Sendai virus in well-differentiated primary pediatric bronchial epithelial cells. J Virol. 2010;84:11718-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Alternatively, such robust responses might constitute appropriate normal host responses to viral infection and be a prerequisite for the induction of efficient immune responses...
  62. Alymova I, Portner A, Takimoto T, Boyd K, Babu Y, McCullers J. The novel parainfluenza virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase inhibitor BCX 2798 prevents lethal synergism between a paramyxovirus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:398-405 pubmed
    ..Prophylaxis of parainfluenza virus infections with antivirals might be an effective strategy for prevention of secondary bacterial complications in humans...