sebaceous glands

Summary

Summary: Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.

Top Publications

  1. Horsley V, O Carroll D, Tooze R, Ohinata Y, Saitou M, Obukhanych T, et al. Blimp1 defines a progenitor population that governs cellular input to the sebaceous gland. Cell. 2006;126:597-609 pubmed
    ....
  2. Giraudeau M, Czirják G, Duval C, Bretagnolle V, Gutierrez C, Guillon N, et al. Effect of preen oil on plumage bacteria: an experimental test with the mallard. Behav Processes. 2013;92:1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Second, preen gland deprivation may have affected only a small portion of the feather-degrading bacterial community. Third, ducks and passerine oils might have different bactericidal properties...
  3. Tagliolatto S, Alchorne M, Enokihara M. Sebaceous hyperplasia: a pilot study to correlate this skin disease with circulating androgen levels. An Bras Dermatol. 2011;86:917-23 pubmed
    The sebaceous glands are susceptible to the effects of androgens. A benign proliferation of these hormones, i.e. hyperplasia, occurs with age.
  4. Petersson M, Brylka H, Kraus A, John S, Rappl G, Schettina P, et al. TCF/Lef1 activity controls establishment of diverse stem and progenitor cell compartments in mouse epidermis. EMBO J. 2011;30:3004-18 pubmed publisher
    Mammalian epidermis consists of the interfollicular epidermis, hair follicles (HFs) and associated sebaceous glands (SGs)...
  5. Zouboulis C, Chen W, Thornton M, Qin K, Rosenfield R. Sexual hormones in human skin. Horm Metab Res. 2007;39:85-95 pubmed
    ..upon the expression of each of the androgen- and estrogen-synthesizing enzymes in each cell type, with sebaceous glands and sweat glands being the major contributors...
  6. Toth B, Olah A, Szöllosi A, Czifra G, Biro T. "Sebocytes' makeup": novel mechanisms and concepts in the physiology of the human sebaceous glands. Pflugers Arch. 2011;461:593-606 pubmed publisher
    ....
  7. Dugu L, Takahara M, Tsuji G, Iwashita Y, Liu X, Furue M. Abundant expression of neuronatin in normal eccrine, apocrine and sebaceous glands and their neoplasms. J Dermatol. 2010;37:846-8 pubmed publisher
  8. Silva Vargas V, Lo Celso C, Giangreco A, Ofstad T, Prowse D, Braun K, et al. Beta-catenin and Hedgehog signal strength can specify number and location of hair follicles in adult epidermis without recruitment of bulge stem cells. Dev Cell. 2005;9:121-31 pubmed
    ..we show that short-term, low-level beta-catenin activation stimulates de novo hair follicle formation from sebaceous glands and interfollicular epidermis, while only sustained, high-level activation induces new follicles from ..
  9. Han G, Li A, Liang Y, Owens P, He W, Lu S, et al. Smad7-induced beta-catenin degradation alters epidermal appendage development. Dev Cell. 2006;11:301-12 pubmed
    ..Coexpression of the Smurf2 and Smad7 transgenes exacerbated Smad7-induced abnormalities in hair follicles and sebaceous glands. Conversely, when endogenous Smad7 was knocked down, keratinocytes exhibited increased beta-catenin protein ..
  10. Cao T, Racz P, Szauter K, Groma G, Nakamatsu G, Fogelgren B, et al. Mutation in Mpzl3, a novel [corrected] gene encoding a predicted [corrected] adhesion protein, in the rough coat (rc) mice with severe skin and hair abnormalities. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:1375-86 pubmed
    ..Results from this study identified a novel gene encoding a predicted adhesion protein whose mutation in the rc/rc mice likely caused the rc phenotype...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Horsley V, O Carroll D, Tooze R, Ohinata Y, Saitou M, Obukhanych T, et al. Blimp1 defines a progenitor population that governs cellular input to the sebaceous gland. Cell. 2006;126:597-609 pubmed
    ....
  2. Giraudeau M, Czirják G, Duval C, Bretagnolle V, Gutierrez C, Guillon N, et al. Effect of preen oil on plumage bacteria: an experimental test with the mallard. Behav Processes. 2013;92:1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Second, preen gland deprivation may have affected only a small portion of the feather-degrading bacterial community. Third, ducks and passerine oils might have different bactericidal properties...
  3. Tagliolatto S, Alchorne M, Enokihara M. Sebaceous hyperplasia: a pilot study to correlate this skin disease with circulating androgen levels. An Bras Dermatol. 2011;86:917-23 pubmed
    The sebaceous glands are susceptible to the effects of androgens. A benign proliferation of these hormones, i.e. hyperplasia, occurs with age.
  4. Petersson M, Brylka H, Kraus A, John S, Rappl G, Schettina P, et al. TCF/Lef1 activity controls establishment of diverse stem and progenitor cell compartments in mouse epidermis. EMBO J. 2011;30:3004-18 pubmed publisher
    Mammalian epidermis consists of the interfollicular epidermis, hair follicles (HFs) and associated sebaceous glands (SGs)...
  5. Zouboulis C, Chen W, Thornton M, Qin K, Rosenfield R. Sexual hormones in human skin. Horm Metab Res. 2007;39:85-95 pubmed
    ..upon the expression of each of the androgen- and estrogen-synthesizing enzymes in each cell type, with sebaceous glands and sweat glands being the major contributors...
  6. Toth B, Olah A, Szöllosi A, Czifra G, Biro T. "Sebocytes' makeup": novel mechanisms and concepts in the physiology of the human sebaceous glands. Pflugers Arch. 2011;461:593-606 pubmed publisher
    ....
  7. Dugu L, Takahara M, Tsuji G, Iwashita Y, Liu X, Furue M. Abundant expression of neuronatin in normal eccrine, apocrine and sebaceous glands and their neoplasms. J Dermatol. 2010;37:846-8 pubmed publisher
  8. Silva Vargas V, Lo Celso C, Giangreco A, Ofstad T, Prowse D, Braun K, et al. Beta-catenin and Hedgehog signal strength can specify number and location of hair follicles in adult epidermis without recruitment of bulge stem cells. Dev Cell. 2005;9:121-31 pubmed
    ..we show that short-term, low-level beta-catenin activation stimulates de novo hair follicle formation from sebaceous glands and interfollicular epidermis, while only sustained, high-level activation induces new follicles from ..
  9. Han G, Li A, Liang Y, Owens P, He W, Lu S, et al. Smad7-induced beta-catenin degradation alters epidermal appendage development. Dev Cell. 2006;11:301-12 pubmed
    ..Coexpression of the Smurf2 and Smad7 transgenes exacerbated Smad7-induced abnormalities in hair follicles and sebaceous glands. Conversely, when endogenous Smad7 was knocked down, keratinocytes exhibited increased beta-catenin protein ..
  10. Cao T, Racz P, Szauter K, Groma G, Nakamatsu G, Fogelgren B, et al. Mutation in Mpzl3, a novel [corrected] gene encoding a predicted [corrected] adhesion protein, in the rough coat (rc) mice with severe skin and hair abnormalities. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:1375-86 pubmed
    ..Results from this study identified a novel gene encoding a predicted adhesion protein whose mutation in the rc/rc mice likely caused the rc phenotype...
  11. Zouboulis C, Baron J, Bohm M, Kippenberger S, Kurzen H, Reichrath J, et al. Frontiers in sebaceous gland biology and pathology. Exp Dermatol. 2008;17:542-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These multiple homeostatic functions award the sebaceous gland the role 'brain of the skin' and the most important cutaneous endocrine gland...
  12. Fuchs E. Scratching the surface of skin development. Nature. 2007;445:834-42 pubmed
    ..to commit to a particular differentiation programme and generate a stratified epidermis, hair follicles or sebaceous glands. Exciting recent developments have focused on how adult skin epithelia maintain populations of stem cells for ..
  13. Alestas T, Ganceviciene R, Fimmel S, Muller Decker K, Zouboulis C. Enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of leukotriene B4 and prostaglandin E2 are active in sebaceous glands. J Mol Med (Berl). 2006;84:75-87 pubmed
    ..signalling pathways, of interleukins 6 and 8 and of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in sebaceous glands of acne-involved facial skin was compared with those of non-involved skin of acne patients and of healthy ..
  14. Zouboulis C. Sebaceous glands and the prostaglandin pathway--key stones of an exciting mosaic. J Invest Dermatol. 2005;125:x-xi pubmed
  15. Harrison W, Bull J, Seltmann H, Zouboulis C, Philpott M. Expression of lipogenic factors galectin-12, resistin, SREBP-1, and SCD in human sebaceous glands and cultured sebocytes. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:1309-17 pubmed
    ....
  16. Nelson A, Gilliland K, Cong Z, Thiboutot D. 13-cis Retinoic acid induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human SEB-1 sebocytes. J Invest Dermatol. 2006;126:2178-89 pubmed
    ..Taken together these data indicate that 13-cis RA causes cell cycle arrest and induces apoptosis in SEB-1 sebocytes by a RAR-independent mechanism, which contributes to its sebosuppressive effect and the resolution of acne...
  17. Zouboulis C. Propionibacterium acnes and sebaceous lipogenesis: a love-hate relationship?. J Invest Dermatol. 2009;129:2093-6 pubmed publisher
    ..acnes with sebaceous lipogenesis, inflammation, and innate immunity, and points out the concurrent evidence that P. acnes-induced lipids may represent a recruitment of allies and/or enemies of the human skin...
  18. Snippert H, Haegebarth A, Kasper M, Jaks V, van Es J, Barker N, et al. Lgr6 marks stem cells in the hair follicle that generate all cell lineages of the skin. Science. 2010;327:1385-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Adult Lgr6+ cells executed long-term wound repair, including the formation of new hair follicles. We conclude that Lgr6 marks the most primitive epidermal stem cell...
  19. House J, Zhu S, Ranjan R, Linder K, Smart R. C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta are required for Sebocyte differentiation and stratified squamous differentiation in adult mouse skin. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9837 pubmed publisher
    ..and C/EBPbeta are bZIP transcription factors that are highly expressed in the interfollicular epidermis and sebaceous glands of skin and yet germ line deletion of either family member alone has only mild or no effect on keratinocyte ..
  20. Ju Q, Fimmel S, Hinz N, Stahlmann R, Xia L, Zouboulis C. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin alters sebaceous gland cell differentiation in vitro. Exp Dermatol. 2011;20:320-5 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the activity of dioxins on human sebaceous glands is still unclear...
  21. Czirják G, Pap P, Vágási C, Giraudeau M, Mureşan C, Mirleau P, et al. Preen gland removal increases plumage bacterial load but not that of feather-degrading bacteria. Naturwissenschaften. 2013;100:145-51 pubmed publisher
    ....
  22. Iinuma K, Sato T, Akimoto N, Noguchi N, Sasatsu M, Nishijima S, et al. Involvement of Propionibacterium acnes in the augmentation of lipogenesis in hamster sebaceous glands in vivo and in vitro. J Invest Dermatol. 2009;129:2113-9 pubmed publisher
    ..acnes directly influences lipogenesis in sebaceous glands. In this study, we showed that a culture medium of P. acnes (acnes-CM) and formalin-killed P...
  23. Lo Celso C, Berta M, Braun K, Frye M, Lyle S, Zouboulis C, et al. Characterization of bipotential epidermal progenitors derived from human sebaceous gland: contrasting roles of c-Myc and beta-catenin. Stem Cells. 2008;26:1241-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies provide evidence for a bipotential epidermal stem cell population in an in vitro model of human epidermal lineage selection and highlight the importance of Myc as a regulator of sebocyte differentiation...
  24. Krause K, Schnitger A, Fimmel S, Glass E, Zouboulis C. Corticotropin-releasing hormone skin signaling is receptor-mediated and is predominant in the sebaceous glands. Horm Metab Res. 2007;39:166-70 pubmed
    ..However, further investigations into the downstream effects of CRH and Uct are required to elucidate the mechanism by which these neuropeptides could establish a stress-related pathophysiological condition in the skin...
  25. Sellheyer K, Krahl D. Blimp-1: a marker of terminal differentiation but not of sebocytic progenitor cells. J Cutan Pathol. 2010;37:362-70 pubmed publisher
    ....
  26. Bosen F, Schütz M, Beinhauer A, Strenzke N, Franz T, Willecke K. The Clouston syndrome mutation connexin30 A88V leads to hyperproliferation of sebaceous glands and hearing impairments in mice. FEBS Lett. 2014;588:1795-801 pubmed publisher
    ..Homozygous Cx30A88V mice reveal hyperproliferative and enlarged sebaceous glands as well as a mild palmoplantar hyperkeratosis...
  27. Nagy I, Pivarcsi A, Kis K, Koreck A, Bodai L, McDowell A, et al. Propionibacterium acnes and lipopolysaccharide induce the expression of antimicrobial peptides and proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines in human sebocytes. Microbes Infect. 2006;8:2195-205 pubmed publisher
    ..acnes vary in their capacity to stimulate an inflammatory response within the pilosebaceous follicle...
  28. Wang W, Wang W, Tsai Y. Multiple tiny ectopic sebaceous glands discovered throughout entire esophageal tract. Dig Dis Sci. 2009;54:2754-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient's blood and serum findings were unremarkable. Our final diagnosis was multiple tiny ectopic sebaceous glands in the esophagus...
  29. Wei I, Chang C, Fang C, Hsieh C, Wang J, Lou H, et al. Education and imaging. Gastrointestinal: ectopic sebaceous glands in the esophagus. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;23:338 pubmed publisher
  30. Jensen U, Yan X, Triel C, Woo S, Christensen R, Owens D. A distinct population of clonogenic and multipotent murine follicular keratinocytes residing in the upper isthmus. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:609-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These cells are non-quiescent and possess a unique transcript profile compared with bulge stem cells and may represent a distinct reservoir of epidermal stem or progenitor cells...
  31. Lee D, Yamasaki K, Rudsil J, Zouboulis C, Park G, Yang J, et al. Sebocytes express functional cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides and can act to kill propionibacterium acnes. J Invest Dermatol. 2008;128:1863-6 pubmed publisher
  32. Smith K, Thiboutot D. Thematic review series: skin lipids. Sebaceous gland lipids: friend or foe?. J Lipid Res. 2008;49:271-81 pubmed
    b>Sebaceous glands are intriguing glands that are found throughout the human body except on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet...
  33. Drake D, Brogden K, Dawson D, Wertz P. Thematic review series: skin lipids. Antimicrobial lipids at the skin surface. J Lipid Res. 2008;49:4-11 pubmed
    ..and are carried to the surface as cells differentiate, whereas others are secreted onto the surface from the sebaceous glands. One such group, free sphingoid bases, are known to have broad antimicrobial activity, and our previous ..
  34. Ekanayake Mudiyanselage S, Thiele J. [Sebaceous glands as transporters of vitamin E]. Hautarzt. 2006;57:291-6 pubmed
    Human sebum is produced by sebaceous glands and reaches the skin surface via secretion through the hair shaft...
  35. Rowe J, Welsh C, Pena R, Wolf C, Brown K, Whitelaw C. Illuminating role of CYP1A1 in skin function. J Invest Dermatol. 2008;128:1866-8 pubmed publisher
  36. Azzi L, El Alfy M, Labrie F. Gender differences and effects of sex steroids and dehydroepiandrosterone on androgen and oestrogen alpha receptors in mouse sebaceous glands. Br J Dermatol. 2006;154:21-7 pubmed
    ..It is generally believed that the sebaceous gland is an intracrine organ which synthesizes its own active hormones to meet its local needs...
  37. Whittaker D, Soini H, Gerlach N, Posto A, Novotny M, Ketterson E. Role of testosterone in stimulating seasonal changes in a potential avian chemosignal. J Chem Ecol. 2011;37:1349-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that testosterone levels likely interact with other seasonally induced physiological changes to affect volatile compound amounts in preen oil...
  38. Zouboulis C. [The sebaceous gland]. Hautarzt. 2010;61:467-8, 4704, 476-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Among other lipid fractions, sebaceous glands have been shown to synthesize considerable amounts of free fatty acids without exogenous influence...
  39. Gu L, Coulombe P. Hedgehog signaling, keratin 6 induction, and sebaceous gland morphogenesis: implications for pachyonychia congenita and related conditions. Am J Pathol. 2008;173:752-61 pubmed publisher
    ..expressed Gli2, a Hedgehog (Hh) signal effector, to show that K6a expression correlates with duct fate in sebaceous glands (SGs)...
  40. Niemann C, Horsley V. Development and homeostasis of the sebaceous gland. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2012;23:928-36 pubmed publisher
    ..normal development and maintenance of the sebaceous gland are required for skin homeostasis since atrophic sebaceous glands and disturbances in sebaceous lipid composition result in major defects of the physiological barrier and ..
  41. Iwata C, Akimoto N, Sato T, Morokuma Y, Ito A. Augmentation of lipogenesis by 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 in hamster sebaceous glands: identification of cytochrome P-450-mediated 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 production. J Invest Dermatol. 2005;125:865-72 pubmed
    ..Similarly, topical administration of indomethacin to hamster auricles caused the development of sebaceous glands with the augmentation of sebum deposition in vivo...
  42. Nelson A, Zhao W, Gilliland K, Zaenglein A, Liu W, Thiboutot D. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin mediates 13-cis retinoic acid-induced apoptosis of human sebaceous gland cells. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:1468-78 pubmed publisher
    ..It is known that the drug induces apoptosis in cells cultured from human sebaceous glands, but its mechanism of action has not been determined...
  43. Fuchs E, Horsley V. More than one way to skin . . . Genes Dev. 2008;22:976-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding how these stem cells maintain normal homeostasis and wound repair in the skin is particularly important, as these mechanisms, when defective, lead to skin tissue diseases including cancers...
  44. Chen W, Yang C, Liao C, Hung C, Tsai S, Chen K, et al. Expression of sex-determining genes in human sebaceous glands and their possible role in the pathogenesis of acne. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2006;20:846-52 pubmed
    ..Factors regulating cutaneous steroidogenesis associated with disease status remain largely unknown...
  45. Choi J, Park M, Lee H, Yoon D, Lim Y, Hyun J, et al. TNF-α increases lipogenesis via JNK and PI3K/Akt pathways in SZ95 human sebocytes. J Dermatol Sci. 2012;65:179-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is an important pathophysiologic factor involved in the development of acne. However, its role is unclear...
  46. Reichelt J, Breiden B, Sandhoff K, Magin T. Loss of keratin 10 is accompanied by increased sebocyte proliferation and differentiation. Eur J Cell Biol. 2004;83:747-59 pubmed
    ....
  47. Zheng Y, Eilertsen K, Ge L, Zhang L, Sundberg J, Prouty S, et al. Scd1 is expressed in sebaceous glands and is disrupted in the asebia mouse. Nat Genet. 1999;23:268-70 pubmed
  48. Tobin D, Foitzik K, Reinheckel T, Mecklenburg L, Botchkarev V, Peters C, et al. The lysosomal protease cathepsin L is an important regulator of keratinocyte and melanocyte differentiation during hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling. Am J Pathol. 2002;160:1807-21 pubmed
    ..Principal target tissues that may contain protein substrate(s) for this cysteine protease include the developing hair cone, inner root sheath, anchoring apparatus of the telogen club, and organelles of lysosomal origin (eg, melanosomes)...
  49. Toyoda M, Nakamura M, Makino T, Kagoura M, Morohashi M. Sebaceous glands in acne patients express high levels of neutral endopeptidase. Exp Dermatol. 2002;11:241-7 pubmed
    ..of acne, we used immunohistochemistry to compare the distribution of SP-containing nerve fibers around sebaceous glands and the expression of neutral endopeptidase in sebaceous acini of the facial skin of acne patients and of ..
  50. Downie M, Sanders D, Kealey T. Modelling the remission of individual acne lesions in vitro. Br J Dermatol. 2002;147:869-78 pubmed
    ..We have previously described the cytokines that will promote in vitro the lesions of acne...
  51. Ge L, Gordon J, Hsuan C, Stenn K, Prouty S. Identification of the delta-6 desaturase of human sebaceous glands: expression and enzyme activity. J Invest Dermatol. 2003;120:707-14 pubmed
    ..This work identifies Delta-6 desaturase/FADS2 as the major fatty acid desaturase in human sebaceous glands and suggests that the environment of the sebaceous gland permits catalysis of the sebaceous-type reaction and ..
  52. Chiang C, Swan R, Grachtchouk M, Bolinger M, Litingtung Y, Robertson E, et al. Essential role for Sonic hedgehog during hair follicle morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 1999;205:1-9 pubmed
    ..Our findings reveal an essential role for Shh during hair follicle morphogenesis, where it is required for normal advancement beyond the hair germ stage of development...
  53. Andersson A, Merza M, Venables P, Ponten F, Sundstrom J, Cohen M, et al. Elevated levels of the endogenous retrovirus ERV3 in human sebaceous glands. J Invest Dermatol. 1996;106:125-8 pubmed
    ..We found high levels expression of ERV3 env mRNA in human sebaceous glands in normal skin and dermoid cysts of the ovary...
  54. Zouboulis C, Seltmann H, Neitzel H, Orfanos C. Establishment and characterization of an immortalized human sebaceous gland cell line (SZ95). J Invest Dermatol. 1999;113:1011-20 pubmed
    ..Thus SZ95 is an immortalized human sebaceous gland cell line that shows the morphologic, phenotypic and functional characteristics of normal human sebocytes...
  55. Thiboutot D, Sivarajah A, Gilliland K, Cong Z, Clawson G. The melanocortin 5 receptor is expressed in human sebaceous glands and rat preputial cells. J Invest Dermatol. 2000;115:614-9 pubmed
    ..Lipid metabolism in sebaceous glands and preputial glands of rodents is regulated by alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone, the major agonist for ..
  56. Zheng Y, Prouty S, Harmon A, Sundberg J, Stenn K, Parimoo S. Scd3--a novel gene of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase family with restricted expression in skin. Genomics. 2001;71:182-91 pubmed
    ..Scd3 expression changes during the mouse hair cycle but not as dramatically as Scd1. The tissue-specific and sex-dependent expression of Scd3 suggests the presence of gene- and hormonal-specific control mechanisms...
  57. Chen H, Smith S, Tow B, Elias P, Farese R. Leptin modulates the effects of acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase deficiency on murine fur and sebaceous glands. J Clin Invest. 2002;109:175-81 pubmed
    ..Here we report the effects of DGAT1 deficiency on fur and sebaceous glands. Adult Dgat(-/-) mice had dry fur and hair loss, which were associated with atrophic sebaceous glands and fur ..
  58. Niemann C, Watt F. Designer skin: lineage commitment in postnatal epidermis. Trends Cell Biol. 2002;12:185-92 pubmed
    ..cells that produce daughters that differentiate to form the interfollicular epidermis, hair follicles and sebaceous glands. Diffusible factors, cell-cell contact and extracellular matrix proteins are all important components of the ..
  59. Westerberg R, Tvrdik P, Unden A, Månsson J, Norlen L, Jakobsson A, et al. Role for ELOVL3 and fatty acid chain length in development of hair and skin function. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:5621-9 pubmed
    ..of very long chain fatty acids, revealed a distinct expression in the skin that was restricted to the sebaceous glands and the epithelial cells of the hair follicles...
  60. Schröder H, Ziegler M, Nickisch K, Kaufmann J, El Etreby M. Effects of topically applied antiandrogenic compounds on sebaceous glands of hamster ears and flank organs. J Invest Dermatol. 1989;92:769-73 pubmed
    Growth of sebaceous glands in the ears and flank organs of castrated male hamsters is dependent on androgen substitution...
  61. Porter A. Why do we have apocrine and sebaceous glands?. J R Soc Med. 2001;94:236-7 pubmed
    ..In colder conditions sebum changes its nature and repels rain from skin and hair...
  62. Deplewski D, Rosenfield R. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factors have different effects on sebaceous cell growth and differentiation. Endocrinology. 1999;140:4089-94 pubmed
    ..These data are consistent with the concept that increases in GH and IGF production contribute in complementary ways to the increase in sebum production during puberty and in acromegaly...