hypocotyl

Summary

Summary: The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)

Top Publications

  1. Willige B, Ahlers S, Zourelidou M, Barbosa I, Demarsy E, Trevisan M, et al. D6PK AGCVIII kinases are required for auxin transport and phototropic hypocotyl bending in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2013;25:1674-88 pubmed publisher
    Phototropic hypocotyl bending in response to blue light excitation is an important adaptive process that helps plants to optimize their exposure to light...
  2. Xiao C, Chen F, Yu X, Lin C, Fu Y. Over-expression of an AT-hook gene, AHL22, delays flowering and inhibits the elongation of the hypocotyl in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Mol Biol. 2009;71:39-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Further analysis showed that AHL22 controlled flowering and hypocotyl elongation might result from primarily the regulation of FT and PIF4 expression, respectively.
  3. Greenham K, Santner A, Castillejo C, Mooney S, Sairanen I, Ljung K, et al. The AFB4 auxin receptor is a negative regulator of auxin signaling in seedlings. Curr Biol. 2011;21:520-5 pubmed publisher
    ..AFB4 results in a range of growth defects that are consistent with auxin hypersensitivity, including increased hypocotyl and petiole elongation and increased numbers of lateral roots...
  4. de Lucas M, Davière J, Rodríguez Falcón M, Pontin M, Iglesias Pedraz J, Lorrain S, et al. A molecular framework for light and gibberellin control of cell elongation. Nature. 2008;451:480-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Light induces photomorphogenesis, leading to inhibition of hypocotyl growth, whereas GAs promote etiolated growth, characterized by increased hypocotyl elongation...
  5. Kwon Y, Kim J, Nguyen H, Jikumaru Y, Kamiya Y, Hong S, et al. A novel Arabidopsis MYB-like transcription factor, MYBH, regulates hypocotyl elongation by enhancing auxin accumulation. J Exp Bot. 2013;64:3911-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The overexpression of one MYB gene, MYBH, significantly increased hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown in the light, and the expression of this gene increased markedly ..
  6. Wang X, Zhang J, Yuan M, Ehrhardt D, Wang Z, Mao T. Arabidopsis microtubule destabilizing protein40 is involved in brassinosteroid regulation of hypocotyl elongation. Plant Cell. 2012;24:4012-25 pubmed publisher
    ..BR) phytohormones play crucial roles in regulating plant cell growth and morphogenesis, particularly in hypocotyl cell elongation...
  7. Zhang Y, Liu Z, Wang L, Zheng S, Xie J, Bi Y. Sucrose-induced hypocotyl elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings in darkness depends on the presence of gibberellins. J Plant Physiol. 2010;167:1130-6 pubmed publisher
    In this study, the effects of sucrose on hypocotyl elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings in light and in dark were investigated...
  8. Nagashima A, Uehara Y, Sakai T. The ABC subfamily B auxin transporter AtABCB19 is involved in the inhibitory effects of N-1-naphthyphthalamic acid on the phototropic and gravitropic responses of Arabidopsis hypocotyls. Plant Cell Physiol. 2008;49:1250-5 pubmed publisher
    ..show that a defect in the ABC subfamily B auxin transporter AtABCB19 suppresses the inhibitory effects of NPA on hypocotyl phototropism and gravitropism, but not on hypocotyl elongation...
  9. Ding Z, Galvan Ampudia C, Demarsy E, Łangowski Ł, Kleine Vehn J, Fan Y, et al. Light-mediated polarization of the PIN3 auxin transporter for the phototropic response in Arabidopsis. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:447-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that light polarizes the cellular localization of the auxin efflux carrier PIN3 in hypocotyl endodermis cells, resulting in changes in auxin distribution and differential growth...
  10. Wu G, Cameron J, Ljung K, Spalding E. A role for ABCB19-mediated polar auxin transport in seedling photomorphogenesis mediated by cryptochrome 1 and phytochrome B. Plant J. 2010;62:179-91 pubmed publisher
    During seedling establishment, blue and red light suppress hypocotyl growth through the cryptochrome 1 (cry1) and phytochrome B (phyB) photosensory pathways, respectively...

Detail Information

Publications80

  1. Willige B, Ahlers S, Zourelidou M, Barbosa I, Demarsy E, Trevisan M, et al. D6PK AGCVIII kinases are required for auxin transport and phototropic hypocotyl bending in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2013;25:1674-88 pubmed publisher
    Phototropic hypocotyl bending in response to blue light excitation is an important adaptive process that helps plants to optimize their exposure to light...
  2. Xiao C, Chen F, Yu X, Lin C, Fu Y. Over-expression of an AT-hook gene, AHL22, delays flowering and inhibits the elongation of the hypocotyl in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Mol Biol. 2009;71:39-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Further analysis showed that AHL22 controlled flowering and hypocotyl elongation might result from primarily the regulation of FT and PIF4 expression, respectively.
  3. Greenham K, Santner A, Castillejo C, Mooney S, Sairanen I, Ljung K, et al. The AFB4 auxin receptor is a negative regulator of auxin signaling in seedlings. Curr Biol. 2011;21:520-5 pubmed publisher
    ..AFB4 results in a range of growth defects that are consistent with auxin hypersensitivity, including increased hypocotyl and petiole elongation and increased numbers of lateral roots...
  4. de Lucas M, Davière J, Rodríguez Falcón M, Pontin M, Iglesias Pedraz J, Lorrain S, et al. A molecular framework for light and gibberellin control of cell elongation. Nature. 2008;451:480-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Light induces photomorphogenesis, leading to inhibition of hypocotyl growth, whereas GAs promote etiolated growth, characterized by increased hypocotyl elongation...
  5. Kwon Y, Kim J, Nguyen H, Jikumaru Y, Kamiya Y, Hong S, et al. A novel Arabidopsis MYB-like transcription factor, MYBH, regulates hypocotyl elongation by enhancing auxin accumulation. J Exp Bot. 2013;64:3911-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The overexpression of one MYB gene, MYBH, significantly increased hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown in the light, and the expression of this gene increased markedly ..
  6. Wang X, Zhang J, Yuan M, Ehrhardt D, Wang Z, Mao T. Arabidopsis microtubule destabilizing protein40 is involved in brassinosteroid regulation of hypocotyl elongation. Plant Cell. 2012;24:4012-25 pubmed publisher
    ..BR) phytohormones play crucial roles in regulating plant cell growth and morphogenesis, particularly in hypocotyl cell elongation...
  7. Zhang Y, Liu Z, Wang L, Zheng S, Xie J, Bi Y. Sucrose-induced hypocotyl elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings in darkness depends on the presence of gibberellins. J Plant Physiol. 2010;167:1130-6 pubmed publisher
    In this study, the effects of sucrose on hypocotyl elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings in light and in dark were investigated...
  8. Nagashima A, Uehara Y, Sakai T. The ABC subfamily B auxin transporter AtABCB19 is involved in the inhibitory effects of N-1-naphthyphthalamic acid on the phototropic and gravitropic responses of Arabidopsis hypocotyls. Plant Cell Physiol. 2008;49:1250-5 pubmed publisher
    ..show that a defect in the ABC subfamily B auxin transporter AtABCB19 suppresses the inhibitory effects of NPA on hypocotyl phototropism and gravitropism, but not on hypocotyl elongation...
  9. Ding Z, Galvan Ampudia C, Demarsy E, Łangowski Ł, Kleine Vehn J, Fan Y, et al. Light-mediated polarization of the PIN3 auxin transporter for the phototropic response in Arabidopsis. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:447-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that light polarizes the cellular localization of the auxin efflux carrier PIN3 in hypocotyl endodermis cells, resulting in changes in auxin distribution and differential growth...
  10. Wu G, Cameron J, Ljung K, Spalding E. A role for ABCB19-mediated polar auxin transport in seedling photomorphogenesis mediated by cryptochrome 1 and phytochrome B. Plant J. 2010;62:179-91 pubmed publisher
    During seedling establishment, blue and red light suppress hypocotyl growth through the cryptochrome 1 (cry1) and phytochrome B (phyB) photosensory pathways, respectively...
  11. Keuskamp D, Pollmann S, Voesenek L, Peeters A, Pierik R. Auxin transport through PIN-FORMED 3 (PIN3) controls shade avoidance and fitness during competition. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:22740-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Seedlings of the pin3-3 mutant lack this low R:FR-induced increase of endogenous auxin in the hypocotyl and, accordingly, have no elongation response to low R:FR...
  12. Yang S, Jang I, Henriques R, Chua N. FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL1 and FHY1-LIKE associate with the Arabidopsis transcription factors LAF1 and HFR1 to transmit phytochrome A signals for inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. Plant Cell. 2009;21:1341-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutant analyses have identified more than 10 positive components acting downstream of phyA to inhibit hypocotyl elongation. However, their sites of action and their hierarchical relationships are poorly understood...
  13. Sato A, Yamamoto K. Overexpression of the non-canonical Aux/IAA genes causes auxin-related aberrant phenotypes in Arabidopsis. Physiol Plant. 2008;133:397-405 pubmed publisher
    ..severe defects: Some of them showed a semi-dwarf phenotype; gravitropic growth orientation was often affected in hypocotyl and root; vasculature of cotyledons was malformed; the primary root stopped growing soon after germination ..
  14. Bergougnoux V, Zalabák D, Jandová M, Novak O, Wiese Klinkenberg A, Fellner M. Effect of blue light on endogenous isopentenyladenine and endoreduplication during photomorphogenesis and de-etiolation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45255 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study showed for the first time that iP (isopentenyladenine) is the CK accumulated in the tomato hypocotyl upon BL exposure, suggesting its specific role in photomorphogenesis...
  15. Nusinow D, Helfer A, Hamilton E, King J, Imaizumi T, Schultz T, et al. The ELF4-ELF3-LUX complex links the circadian clock to diurnal control of hypocotyl growth. Nature. 2011;475:398-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Light and the circadian clock interact to consolidate the phase of hypocotyl cell elongation to peak at dawn under diurnal cycles in Arabidopsis thaliana...
  16. Kneissl J, Shinomura T, Furuya M, Bolle C. A rice phytochrome A in Arabidopsis: The Role of the N-terminus under red and far-red light. Mol Plant. 2008;1:84-102 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, the WT rice phyA could complement VLFR and LFR responses such as inhibition of hypocotyl elongation under pulses of FR or continuous R light, induction of flowering and leaf expansion, whereas the phyA ..
  17. Kumar S, Yoshizumi T, Hongo H, Yoneda A, Hara H, Hamasaki H, et al. Arabidopsis mitochondrial protein TIM50 affects hypocotyl cell elongation through intracellular ATP level. Plant Sci. 2012;183:212-7 pubmed publisher
    The plant hypocotyl is an excellent model for the analysis of cell elongation. We have characterized a knockout mutant of the Arabidopsis TIM50 gene that showed a reduction in the hypocotyls length of etiolated seedlings...
  18. van Esse G, van Mourik S, Stigter H, Ten Hove C, Molenaar J, de Vries S. A mathematical model for BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1-mediated signaling in root growth and hypocotyl elongation. Plant Physiol. 2012;160:523-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Root growth and hypocotyl elongation are convenient downstream physiological outputs of BR signaling...
  19. Irshad M, Canut H, Borderies G, Pont Lezica R, Jamet E. A new picture of cell wall protein dynamics in elongating cells of Arabidopsis thaliana: confirmed actors and newcomers. BMC Plant Biol. 2008;8:94 pubmed publisher
    ..A proteomic study was performed on etiolated hypocotyls of Arabidopsis used as model of cells undergoing elongation followed by growth arrest within a short time...
  20. Chaki M, Valderrama R, Fern ndez Oca a A, Carreras A, G mez Rodr guez M, L pez Jaramillo J, et al. High temperature triggers the metabolism of S-nitrosothiols in sunflower mediating a process of nitrosative stress which provokes the inhibition of ferredoxin-NADP reductase by tyrosine nitration. Plant Cell Environ. 2011;34:1803-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that HT augments SNOs, which appear to mediate protein tyrosine nitration, inhibiting FNR, which is involved in the photosynthesis process...
  21. Wan Y, Eisinger W, Ehrhardt D, Kubitscheck U, Baluska F, Briggs W. The subcellular localization and blue-light-induced movement of phototropin 1-GFP in etiolated seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana. Mol Plant. 2008;1:103-17 pubmed publisher
    ..protein is expressed strongly in the abaxial tissues of the cotyledons and in the elongating regions of the hypocotyl. It is moderately expressed in the shoot/root transition zone and in cells near the root apex...
  22. Gendron J, Haque A, Gendron N, Chang T, Asami T, Wang Z. Chemical genetic dissection of brassinosteroid-ethylene interaction. Mol Plant. 2008;1:368-79 pubmed publisher
    ..From a chemical library of 10,000 small molecules, one compound was found to inhibit hypocotyl length and activate the expression of a BR-repressed reporter gene (CPD::GUS) in Arabidopsis, and it was named ..
  23. Sauret Güeto S, Calder G, Harberd N. Transient gibberellin application promotes Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyl cell elongation without maintaining transverse orientation of microtubules on the outer tangential wall of epidermal cells. Plant J. 2012;69:628-39 pubmed publisher
    ..that pulsed application of GA to the relatively slowly growing cells of the unexpanded light-grown Arabidopsis hypocotyl results in a transient burst of anisotropic cellular growth...
  24. Feng S, Martinez C, Gusmaroli G, Wang Y, Zhou J, Wang F, et al. Coordinated regulation of Arabidopsis thaliana development by light and gibberellins. Nature. 2008;451:475-9 pubmed publisher
    ..its target gene promoters and regulating gene expression, and therefore abrogate PIF3-mediated light control of hypocotyl elongation...
  25. Liu X, Cohen J, Gardner G. Low-fluence red light increases the transport and biosynthesis of auxin. Plant Physiol. 2011;157:891-904 pubmed publisher
    ..We further found that the free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) level in hypocotyl regions below the hook was increased by red light, while the level of conjugated IAA was unchanged...
  26. Schepens I, Boccalandro H, Kami C, Casal J, Fankhauser C. PHYTOCHROME KINASE SUBSTRATE4 modulates phytochrome-mediated control of hypocotyl growth orientation. Plant Physiol. 2008;147:661-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Light perceived by phytochromes leads to seedling deetiolation, which includes the deviation from vertical hypocotyl growth and promotes hypocotyl phototropism...
  27. Takahashi K, Hayashi K, Kinoshita T. Auxin activates the plasma membrane H+-ATPase by phosphorylation during hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2012;159:632-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Early-phase auxin-induced hypocotyl elongation, on the other hand, has long been explained by the acid-growth theory, for which proton extrusion by ..
  28. Crowell E, Timpano H, Desprez T, Franssen Verheijen T, Emons A, Hofte H, et al. Differential regulation of cellulose orientation at the inner and outer face of epidermal cells in the Arabidopsis hypocotyl. Plant Cell. 2011;23:2592-605 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study highlights the previously underestimated complexity of cortical microtubule organization in the shoot epidermis and underscores a role for the inner tissues in the regulation of growth anisotropy...
  29. Liu X, Qin T, Ma Q, Sun J, Liu Z, Yuan M, et al. Light-regulated hypocotyl elongation involves proteasome-dependent degradation of the microtubule regulatory protein WDL3 in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2013;25:1740-55 pubmed publisher
    Light significantly inhibits hypocotyl cell elongation, and dark-grown seedlings exhibit elongated, etiolated hypocotyls...
  30. Ragni L, Nieminen K, Pacheco Villalobos D, Sibout R, Schwechheimer C, Hardtke C. Mobile gibberellin directly stimulates Arabidopsis hypocotyl xylem expansion. Plant Cell. 2011;23:1322-36 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that flowering-dependent hypocotyl xylem expansion is a general feature of herbaceous plants with a rosette growth habit...
  31. Kim K, Shin J, Lee S, Kweon H, Maloof J, Choi G. Phytochromes inhibit hypocotyl negative gravitropism by regulating the development of endodermal amyloplasts through phytochrome-interacting factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:1729-34 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the less-understood roles of phytochromes is the inhibition of hypocotyl negative gravitropism, which refers to the loss of hypocotyl gravitropism and resulting random growth direction ..
  32. Soy J, Leivar P, González Schain N, Sentandreu M, Prat S, Quail P, et al. Phytochrome-imposed oscillations in PIF3 protein abundance regulate hypocotyl growth under diurnal light/dark conditions in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2012;71:390-401 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the possible role of PIF3 in this process, we have analyzed hypocotyl responses and marker gene expression in pif single- and higher-order mutants...
  33. Jamet E, Roujol D, San Clemente H, Irshad M, Soubigou Taconnat L, Renou J, et al. Cell wall biogenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana elongating cells: transcriptomics complements proteomics. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:505 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to understand cell wall biogenesis during cell elongation, mRNA profiling was made on half- (active elongation) and fully-grown (after growth arrest) etiolated hypocotyls...
  34. Verboven P, Pedersen O, Herremans E, Ho Q, Nicolaï B, Colmer T, et al. Root aeration via aerenchymatous phellem: three-dimensional micro-imaging and radial O2 profiles in Melilotus siculus. New Phytol. 2012;193:420-31 pubmed publisher
    ....
  35. Sun J, Qi L, Li Y, Chu J, Li C. PIF4-mediated activation of YUCCA8 expression integrates temperature into the auxin pathway in regulating arabidopsis hypocotyl growth. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002594 pubmed publisher
    ..factor 4 (PIF4) and the phytohormone auxin are involved in the regulation of high temperature-induced hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis...
  36. Wang L, Uilecan I, Assadi A, Kozmik C, Spalding E. HYPOTrace: image analysis software for measuring hypocotyl growth and shape demonstrated on Arabidopsis seedlings undergoing photomorphogenesis. Plant Physiol. 2009;149:1632-7 pubmed publisher
    ..components analysis to extract a set of ordered midline points (medial axis) from images of the seedling hypocotyl. Pixel intensity is weighted to avoid the medial axis being diverted by the cotyledons in areas where the two ..
  37. Coluccio M, Sanchez S, Kasulin L, Yanovsky M, Botto J. Genetic mapping of natural variation in a shade avoidance response: ELF3 is the candidate gene for a QTL in hypocotyl growth regulation. J Exp Bot. 2011;62:167-76 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that a wide range of genetic variation for hypocotyl elongation in response to an FR pulse at the end of day (EOD), a light signal that simulates natural shade, ..
  38. Rakusová H, Gallego Bartolome J, Vanstraelen M, Robert H, Alabadi D, Blázquez M, et al. Polarization of PIN3-dependent auxin transport for hypocotyl gravitropic response in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 2011;67:817-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we provide insights into the mechanism for hypocotyl gravitropic growth...
  39. Wang Q, Zeng J, Deng K, Tu X, Zhao X, Tang D, et al. DBB1a, involved in gibberellin homeostasis, functions as a negative regulator of blue light-mediated hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis. Planta. 2011;233:13-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of hypocotyl growth of these lines indicated that DBB1a promoted hypocotyl elongation under blue light condition...
  40. Gallego Bartolome J, Kami C, Fankhauser C, Alabadi D, Blázquez M. A hormonal regulatory module that provides flexibility to tropic responses. Plant Physiol. 2011;156:1819-25 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that the interplay between auxin and GAs may be particularly important for plant orientation under competing tropic stimuli...
  41. Street I, Shah P, Smith A, Avery N, Neff M. The AT-hook-containing proteins SOB3/AHL29 and ESC/AHL27 are negative modulators of hypocotyl growth in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2008;54:1-14 pubmed
    ..AT-hook motif containing protein, was identified from an activation-tagging screen for suppressors of the long-hypocotyl phenotype of a weak phyB allele, phyB-4...
  42. Jing Y, Zhang D, Wang X, Tang W, Wang W, Huai J, et al. Arabidopsis chromatin remodeling factor PICKLE interacts with transcription factor HY5 to regulate hypocotyl cell elongation. Plant Cell. 2013;25:242-56 pubmed publisher
    ..process that involves light-mediated transcriptome changes, histone modifications, and inhibition of hypocotyl growth. However, the chromatin-based regulatory mechanism underlying this process remains largely unknown...
  43. Sambade A, Pratap A, Buschmann H, Morris R, Lloyd C. The influence of light on microtubule dynamics and alignment in the Arabidopsis hypocotyl. Plant Cell. 2012;24:192-201 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests a mechanism in which the light-signaling pathway modifies the dynamics of microtubules and their ability to switch between orthogonal axes...
  44. Chae K, Isaacs C, Reeves P, Maloney G, Muday G, Nagpal P, et al. Arabidopsis SMALL AUXIN UP RNA63 promotes hypocotyl and stamen filament elongation. Plant J. 2012;71:684-97 pubmed publisher
    ..constructs (aMIR-SAUR-A or -B) that target a SAUR subfamily (SAUR61-SAUR68 and SAUR75) had slightly reduced hypocotyl and stamen filament elongation...
  45. Jeong Y, Shang Y, Kim B, Kim S, Song J, Lee J, et al. BAK7 displays unequal genetic redundancy with BAK1 in brassinosteroid signaling and early senescence in Arabidopsis. Mol Cells. 2010;29:259-66 pubmed publisher
    ..However, root and hypocotyl elongation patterns of transgenic plants overexpressing BAK1 or BAK7 appeared to be different from the patterns ..
  46. Sliwinska E, Bassel G, Bewley J. Germination of Arabidopsis thaliana seeds is not completed as a result of elongation of the radicle but of the adjacent transition zone and lower hypocotyl. J Exp Bot. 2009;60:3587-94 pubmed publisher
    ..This region, identifiable as the lower hypocotyl and hypocotyl-radicle transition zone, is also definable by accumulation of carbohydrate-containing bodies ..
  47. Keuskamp D, Sasidharan R, Vos I, Peeters A, Voesenek L, Pierik R. Blue-light-mediated shade avoidance requires combined auxin and brassinosteroid action in Arabidopsis seedlings. Plant J. 2011;67:208-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that both auxin and brassinosteroids (BR) play an important role in the regulation of enhanced hypocotyl elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings in response to blue light depletion...
  48. Zhao Q, Yuan S, Wang X, Zhang Y, Zhu H, Lu C. Restoration of mature etiolated cucumber hypocotyl cell wall susceptibility to expansin by pretreatment with fungal pectinases and EGTA in vitro. Plant Physiol. 2008;147:1874-85 pubmed publisher
    ..cannot restore the mature wall's extensibility, we can conclude that the pectin network, especially calcium-pectate bridges, may be the primary factor that determines cucumber hypocotyl mature cell walls' unresponsiveness to expansin.
  49. Effendi Y, Rietz S, Fischer U, Scherer G. The heterozygous abp1/ABP1 insertional mutant has defects in functions requiring polar auxin transport and in regulation of early auxin-regulated genes. Plant J. 2011;65:282-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The length of the main root, the lateral root density and the hypocotyl length were little altered in the mutant in response to auxin...
  50. Robinson D, Langhans M, Saint Jore Dupas C, Hawes C. BFA effects are tissue and not just plant specific. Trends Plant Sci. 2008;13:405-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to its range of morphological effects on the Golgi apparatus in a variety of plant tissues, we believe that there is more to the BFA response than the primary molecular targets so far identified...
  51. Deslauriers S, Larsen P. FERONIA is a key modulator of brassinosteroid and ethylene responsiveness in Arabidopsis hypocotyls. Mol Plant. 2010;3:626-40 pubmed publisher
    ..From this, a mutant was identified as having a dark-grown hypocotyl that is indistinguishable from Col-0 wt in the presence of the ethylene perception inhibitor AgNO₃, yet has ..
  52. Christians M, Robles L, Zeller S, Larsen P. The eer5 mutation, which affects a novel proteasome-related subunit, indicates a prominent role for the COP9 signalosome in resetting the ethylene-signaling pathway in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2008;55:467-77 pubmed publisher
    ....
  53. Zhou Y, Ni M. SHORT HYPOCOTYL UNDER BLUE1 truncations and mutations alter its association with a signaling protein complex in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2010;22:703-15 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously isolated SHORT HYPOCOTYL UNDER BLUE1 (SHB1), a putative transcriptional coactivator in light signaling...
  54. Oh S, Warnasooriya S, Montgomery B. Downstream effectors of light- and phytochrome-dependent regulation of hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Mol Biol. 2013;81:627-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Cotyledon and leaf growth and the accumulation of photosynthetic pigments are promoted by light, whereas hypocotyl growth is inhibited...
  55. Cosio C, Vuillemin L, De Meyer M, Kevers C, Penel C, Dunand C. An anionic class III peroxidase from zucchini may regulate hypocotyl elongation through its auxin oxidase activity. Planta. 2009;229:823-36 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that APRX participates in the negative feedback regulation of auxin level and consequently terminates the hypocotyl elongation process.
  56. Zhao J, Favero D, Peng H, Neff M. Arabidopsis thaliana AHL family modulates hypocotyl growth redundantly by interacting with each other via the PPC/DUF296 domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E4688-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Seedlings lacking both SOB3/AHL29 and ESC/AHL27 confer a subtle long-hypocotyl phenotype compared with the WT or either single-null mutant...
  57. Xu C, Gao X, Sun X, Wen C. The basal level ethylene response is important to the wall and endomembrane structure in the hypocotyl cells of etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings. J Integr Plant Biol. 2012;54:434-55 pubmed publisher
    ..cell elongation were characterized by examining the ultra-structure of etiolated Arabidopsis seedling hypocotyl cells...
  58. Warnasooriya S, Montgomery B. Detection of spatial-specific phytochrome responses using targeted expression of biliverdin reductase in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2009;149:424-33 pubmed publisher
    ..A number of FR high irradiance responses were disrupted in CAB::pBVR lines, including FR-dependent inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and stimulation of anthocyanin accumulation...
  59. Oh E, Zhu J, Wang Z. Interaction between BZR1 and PIF4 integrates brassinosteroid and environmental responses. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:802-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that the BZR1-PIF4 interaction controls a core transcription network, enabling plant growth co-regulation by the steroid and environmental signals...
  60. Niwa Y, Yamashino T, Mizuno T. The circadian clock regulates the photoperiodic response of hypocotyl elongation through a coincidence mechanism in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Physiol. 2009;50:838-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that the promotion of hypocotyl elongation is in fact dependent on changes in photoperiods in such a way that an accelerated hypocotyl ..
  61. Lewis D, Muday G. Measurement of auxin transport in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nat Protoc. 2009;4:437-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These methods allow investigation of genetic and environmental factors that control auxin transport...
  62. Nanjo Y, Maruyama K, Yasue H, Yamaguchi Shinozaki K, Shinozaki K, Komatsu S. Transcriptional responses to flooding stress in roots including hypocotyl of soybean seedlings. Plant Mol Biol. 2011;77:129-44 pubmed publisher
    To understand the transcriptional responses to flooding stress in roots including hypocotyl of soybean seedlings, genome-wide changes in gene expression were analyzed using a soybean microarray chip containing 42,034 60-mer ..
  63. Sun X, Ni M. HYPOSENSITIVE TO LIGHT, an alpha/beta fold protein, acts downstream of ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 to regulate seedling de-etiolation. Mol Plant. 2011;4:116-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Both htl-1 and htl-2 alleles displayed a long hypocotyl phenotype under red, far-red, and blue light, whereas overexpression of HTL caused a short hypocotyl phenotype ..
  64. Brüx A, Liu T, Krebs M, Stierhof Y, Lohmann J, Miersch O, et al. Reduced V-ATPase activity in the trans-Golgi network causes oxylipin-dependent hypocotyl growth Inhibition in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2008;20:1088-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we provide evidence that the reduced hypocotyl cell expansion in det3 is conditional and due to active, hormone-mediated growth inhibition caused by a cell ..
  65. Sibout R, Plantegenet S, Hardtke C. Flowering as a condition for xylem expansion in Arabidopsis hypocotyl and root. Curr Biol. 2008;18:458-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The factors that control this transition are unknown. We observed natural variation in Arabidopsis hypocotyl secondary growth and its coordination with root secondary growth...
  66. Stanga J, Boonsirichai K, Sedbrook J, Otegui M, Masson P. A role for the TOC complex in Arabidopsis root gravitropism. Plant Physiol. 2009;149:1896-905 pubmed publisher
    ..They saltate like the wild type and sediment at wild-type rates upon gravistimulation. These data point to a role for the plastidic TOC complex in gravity signal transduction within the statocytes...
  67. Atta R, Laurens L, Boucheron Dubuisson E, Guivarc h A, Carnero E, Giraudat Pautot V, et al. Pluripotency of Arabidopsis xylem pericycle underlies shoot regeneration from root and hypocotyl explants grown in vitro. Plant J. 2009;57:626-44 pubmed publisher
    We have established a detailed framework for the process of shoot regeneration from Arabidopsis root and hypocotyl explants grown in vitro...
  68. Lu S, Webb C, Knowles S, Kim S, Wang Z, Tobin E. CCA1 and ELF3 Interact in the control of hypocotyl length and flowering time in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2012;158:1079-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Arabidopsis thaliana), the circadian clock regulates a wide variety of physiological processes, including hypocotyl elongation and flowering time...
  69. Chaki M, Valderrama R, Fernández Ocaña A, Carreras A, Lopez Jaramillo J, Luque F, et al. Protein targets of tyrosine nitration in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hypocotyls. J Exp Bot. 2009;60:4221-34 pubmed publisher
    ..When the hypocotyl extracts were exposed to 0...
  70. Kunihiro A, Yamashino T, Nakamichi N, Niwa Y, Nakanishi H, Mizuno T. Phytochrome-interacting factor 4 and 5 (PIF4 and PIF5) activate the homeobox ATHB2 and auxin-inducible IAA29 genes in the coincidence mechanism underlying photoperiodic control of plant growth of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Physiol. 2011;52:1315-29 pubmed publisher
    ..The time of day-specific and photoperiodic control of hypocotyl elongation is best explained by the accumulation of the PIF4 and PIF5 proteins during night-time before dawn, ..
  71. Cole B, Kay S, Chory J. Automated analysis of hypocotyl growth dynamics during shade avoidance in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2011;65:991-1000 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report the development of a new software-based tool, called HyDE (Hypocotyl Determining Engine) to measure hypocotyl lengths of time-resolved image stacks of Arabidopsis wild-type and ..
  72. Michael T, Breton G, Hazen S, Priest H, Mockler T, Kay S, et al. A morning-specific phytohormone gene expression program underlying rhythmic plant growth. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e225 pubmed publisher
    ..In plants, growth rates of the embryonic stem (hypocotyl) are maximal at different times of day, depending on external photoperiod and the internal circadian clock...
  73. Liang X, Wang H, Mao L, Hu Y, Dong T, Zhang Y, et al. Involvement of COP1 in ethylene- and light-regulated hypocotyl elongation. Planta. 2012;236:1791-802 pubmed publisher
    ..Application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC, an ethylene precursor) suppresses the hypocotyl elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings in dark, but stimulates it in light...
  74. Elsner J. Effect of steady torque twisting on the orientation of cortical microtubules in the epidermis of the sunflower hypocotyl. Plant Biol (Stuttg). 2008;10:422-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The data provide additional evidence that changes in tissue stress can be reorganized by cortical microtubules...
  75. Paynel F, Schaumann A, Arkoun M, Douchiche O, Morvan C. Temporal regulation of cell-wall pectin methylesterase and peroxidase isoforms in cadmium-treated flax hypocotyl. Ann Bot. 2009;104:1363-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to examine the involvement of pectin methylesterase (PME) and peroxidase (PER) in this cadmium-induced CW remodelling...
  76. Liu Z, Zhang Y, Liu R, Hao H, Wang Z, Bi Y. Phytochrome interacting factors (PIFs) are essential regulators for sucrose-induced hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis. J Plant Physiol. 2011;168:1771-9 pubmed publisher
    ..a subfamily of basic helix-loop-helix transcript factors and have been proposed to act as positive regulators of hypocotyl elongation under normal condition...
  77. Wang G, Xu Y. Hypocotyl-based Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of soybean (Glycine max) and application for RNA interference. Plant Cell Rep. 2008;27:1177-84 pubmed publisher
    ..5 to 81.9%. Our study demonstrates that this transgenic approach could be efficiently used to improve soybean quality and productivity through functional genomics...