- The power of two: protein dimerization in biology
Neelan J Marianayagam
School of Molecular and Microbial Biosciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
Trends Biochem Sci 29:618-25. 2004
..Recent structural and biophysical studies show that protein dimerization or oligomerization is a key factor in the regulation of proteins such as enzymes, ion channels, receptors and ..
- ERK nuclear translocation is dimerization-independent but controlled by the rate of phosphorylation
Diane S Lidke
Laboratory of Cellular Dynamics, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, 37077 Gottingen, Germany
J Biol Chem 285:3092-102. 2010
..b>Dimerization of ERK has been proposed as a requirement for nuclear translocation...
- Inference of macromolecular assemblies from crystalline state
European Bioinformatics Institute, Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK
J Mol Biol 372:774-97. 2007
..The method is implemented as a public WWW service...
- Partitioning of lipid-modified monomeric GFPs into membrane microdomains of live cells
David A Zacharias
Department of Pharmacology, Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program, and, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0647, USA
Science 296:913-6. 2002
..Thus the nature of the lipid anchor on a protein is sufficient to determine submicroscopic localization within the plasma membrane...
- Global rigid body modeling of macromolecular complexes against small-angle scattering data
Maxim V Petoukhov
European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Hamburg, Germany
Biophys J 89:1237-50. 2005
..The methods described are implemented in publicly available computer programs running on major hardware platforms...
- An improved zinc-finger nuclease architecture for highly specific genome editing
Jeffrey C Miller
Sangamo BioSciences, Inc, Pt Richmond Tech Center, 501 Canal Blvd, Suite A100 Richmond, California 94804, USA
Nat Biotechnol 25:778-85. 2007
..This architecture provides a general means for improving the specificity of ZFNs as gene modification reagents...
- Activating mutations of NOTCH1 in human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Andrew P Weng
Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Science 306:269-71. 2004
..These findings greatly expand the role of activated NOTCH1 in the molecular pathogenesis of human T-ALL and provide a strong rationale for targeted therapies that interfere with NOTCH signaling...
- An allosteric mechanism for activation of the kinase domain of epidermal growth factor receptor
Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Berkeley, 94720, USA
Cell 125:1137-49. 2006
The mechanism by which the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is activated upon dimerization has eluded definition...
- NMR detection of structures in the HIV-1 5'-leader RNA that regulate genome packaging
Howard Hughes Medical Institute HHMI and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland Baltimore County UMBC, Baltimore, MD 21250, USA
Science 334:242-5. 2011
..U5:AUG formation promotes dimerization by displacing and exposing a dimer-promoting hairpin and enhances binding by the nucleocapsid (NC) protein, ..
- Assembly of Drosophila centromeric nucleosomes requires CID dimerization
Department of Genome Dynamics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
Mol Cell 45:263-9. 2012
..Furthermore, CID dimerization and centromeric targeting require a residue implicated in formation of the four-helix bundle, which mediates ..
- Acriflavine inhibits HIF-1 dimerization, tumor growth, and vascularization
Vascular Program, Institute for Cell Engineering, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:17910-5. 2009
..we have identified acriflavine as a drug that binds directly to HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha and inhibits HIF-1 dimerization and transcriptional activity...
- Dimerization of Plasmodium vivax DBP is induced upon receptor binding and drives recognition of DARC
Joseph D Batchelor
Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, USA
Nat Struct Mol Biol 18:908-14. 2011
..We report crystallographic, solution and functional studies of RII-PvDBP showing that dimerization is required for and driven by receptor engagement...
- First snapshots of the HIV-1 RNA structure in infected cells and in virions
Jean Christophe Paillart
Unité Propre de Recherche 9002 du CNRS conventionnée à l Université Louis Pasteur, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, 15 rue Rene Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
J Biol Chem 279:48397-403. 2004
..However, compared with in vitro data, subtle differences were observed in the dimerization initiation site hairpin, and none of the proposed long range interactions were observed between the functional ..
- Homo- and heterodimerization of APP family members promotes intercellular adhesion
ZMBH, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
EMBO J 24:3624-34. 2005
..APP has been proposed to form dimers, a process that could promote cell adhesion via trans-dimerization. We investigated the dimerization and cell adhesion properties of APP/APLPs and provide evidence that all three ..
- Histone H3.1 and H3.3 complexes mediate nucleosome assembly pathways dependent or independent of DNA synthesis
Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Cell 116:51-61. 2004
..This finding provides new insights into possible mechanisms for maintenance of epigenetic information after chromatin duplication...
- Crystal structure of parallel quadruplexes from human telomeric DNA
Gary N Parkinson
The Cancer Research UK Biomolecular Structure Unit, Chester Beatty Laboratories, The Institute of Cancer Research, 237 Fulham Road, London SW3 6JB, UK
Nature 417:876-80. 2002
..This DNA structure suggests a straightforward path for telomere folding and unfolding, as well as ways in which it can recognize telomere-associated proteins...
- Mechanism for activation of the EGF receptor catalytic domain by the juxtamembrane segment
Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
Cell 137:1293-307. 2009
..the activated kinase domain to the activator, and the N-terminal half of this segment further potentiates dimerization, most likely by forming an antiparallel helical dimer that engages the transmembrane helices of the activated ..
- AtNAC2, a transcription factor downstream of ethylene and auxin signaling pathways, is involved in salt stress response and lateral root development
Xin Jian He
National Key Lab of Plant Genomics, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
Plant J 44:903-16. 2005
..AtNAC2 also promoted or inhibited downstream gene expressions. These results indicate that AtNAC2 may be a transcription factor incorporating the environmental and endogenous stimuli into the process of plant lateral root development...
- ErbB1 dimerization is promoted by domain co-confinement and stabilized by ligand binding
Shalini T Low-Nam
Department of Pathology, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA
Nat Struct Mol Biol 18:1244-9. 2011
The extent to which ligand occupancy and dimerization contribute to erbB1 signaling is controversial...
- Stattic: a small-molecule inhibitor of STAT3 activation and dimerization
Department of Molecular Biology, Independent Research Group, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Am Klopferspitz 18, 82152 Martinsried, Germany
Chem Biol 13:1235-42. 2006
..Stattic selectively inhibits activation, dimerization, and nuclear translocation of STAT3 and increases the apoptotic rate of STAT3-dependent breast cancer cell ..
- Structure of Alba: an archaeal chromatin protein modulated by acetylation
B N Wardleworth
Centre for Biomolecular Science, St Andrews University, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9ST, UK
EMBO J 21:4654-62. 2002
..We present a model for the Alba-DNA interaction consistent with the available structural, biophysical and electron microscopy data...
- The crystal structure of human IRE1 luminal domain reveals a conserved dimerization interface required for activation of the unfolded protein response
Life Sciences Institute, LSI 3163B, Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical Center, 210 Washtenaw Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:14343-8. 2006
..Structural analysis identified an extensive dimerization interface stabilized by hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions...
- Identification of a minimal region of the HIV-1 5'-leader required for RNA dimerization, NC binding, and packaging
Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250, USA
J Mol Biol 417:224-39. 2012
..without perturbing the overall structure of the leader and examined effects of the mutations on RNA dimerization, NC binding, and packaging...
- Visualization of interactions among bZIP and Rel family proteins in living cells using bimolecular fluorescence complementation
Chang Deng Hu
Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Mol Cell 9:789-98. 2002
..These results attest to the general applicability of the BiFC assay for studies of protein interactions...
- The structure of a CREB bZIP.somatostatin CRE complex reveals the basis for selective dimerization and divalent cation-enhanced DNA binding
M A Schumacher
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and the Vollum Institute, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, Oregon 97201 3098, USA
J Biol Chem 275:35242-7. 2000
..To elucidate the structural mechanisms of DNA binding and selective dimerization of CREB, we determined to 3...
- Structure of the autoinhibited kinase domain of CaMKII and SAXS analysis of the holoenzyme
Oren S Rosenberg
Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
Cell 123:849-60. 2005
- Induced dimerization of the amyloid precursor protein leads to decreased amyloid-beta protein production
Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
J Biol Chem 284:28943-52. 2009
..the Abeta sequence itself that may affect APP processing by interfering with secretase cleavages independent of dimerization. Therefore, the impact of APP dimerization on Abeta production remains unclear...
- Structure of the predominant protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT1 and analysis of its binding to substrate peptides
Department of Biochemistry, Emory University School of Medicine, 1510 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
Structure 11:509-20. 2003
..Mutagenesis studies confirmed that two active site glutamates are essential for enzymatic activity, and that dimerization of PRMT1 is essential for AdoMet binding...
- Crystal structure of a tyrosine phosphorylated STAT-1 dimer bound to DNA
The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
Cell 93:827-39. 1998
..The phosphotyrosine-binding site of the SH2 domain in each monomer is coupled structurally to the DNA-binding domain, suggesting a potential role for the SH2-phosphotyrosine interaction in the stabilization of DNA interacting elements...
- Assembly dynamics of microtubules at molecular resolution
Jacob W J Kerssemakers
Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics AMOLF, Kruislaan 407, 1098 SJ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Nature 442:709-12. 2006
- RING domain dimerization is essential for RNF4 function
Chu Wai Liew
Biochemistry Department, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
Biochem J 431:23-9. 2010
..In the present paper we report that the RING domain of RNF4 forms a stable dimer, and that dimerization is required for ubiquitin transfer...
- NF-kappa B and Rel proteins: evolutionarily conserved mediators of immune responses
Section of Immunobiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
Annu Rev Immunol 16:225-60. 1998
..In this review, we discuss some of these recent findings and their implications for the study of NF-kappa B...
- Cryptotanshinone inhibits constitutive signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 function through blocking the dimerization in DU145 prostate cancer cells
Dae Seop Shin
Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Chemical Genomics, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, 52 Uendong Yoosunggu, Daejeon, Korea
Cancer Res 69:193-202. 2009
..These results suggest that cryptotanshinone is a potent anticancer agent targeting the activation STAT3 protein. It is the first report that cryptotanshinone has antitumor activity through the inhibition of STAT3...
- A novel dimerization motif in the C-terminal domain of the Thermus thermophilus DEAD box helicase Hera confers substantial flexibility
Division of Biophysical Chemistry, Biozentrum, University of Basel, CH 4056 Basel, Switzerland
Nucleic Acids Res 37:421-30. 2009
..Crystal structures of Hera fragments reveal a bipartite C-terminal domain with a novel dimerization motif and an RNA-binding module...
- Structural bases of dimerization of yeast telomere protein Cdc13 and its interaction with the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase α
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Michigan Medical School, 1150 W Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Cell Res 21:258-74. 2011
..Furthermore, our structural and biochemical analyses revealed unexpected dimerization by the N-terminal OB fold and showed that homodimerization is probably a conserved feature of all Cdc13 ..
- Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer studies reveal constitutive dimerization of the human lutropin receptor and a lack of correlation between receptor activation and the propensity for dimerization
Department of Molecular Biophysics and Physiology, The Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
J Biol Chem 284:7483-94. 2009
..constitutively self-associates into dimers/oligomers and that agonist treatment of cells either increased hLHR dimerization/oligomerization and/or stabilized hLHR dimers/oligomers to detergent solubilization (Tao, Y. X., Johnson, N. B...
- AAA+: A class of chaperone-like ATPases associated with the assembly, operation, and disassembly of protein complexes
A F Neuwald
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York 11724
Genome Res 9:27-43. 1999
..The hexameric architecture often associated with this class can provide a hole through which DNA or RNA can be thread; this may be important for assembly or remodeling of DNA-protein complexes...
- Affibody molecules for epidermal growth factor receptor targeting in vivo: aspects of dimerization and labeling chemistry
Unit of Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Rudbeck Laboratory, Department of Medical Sciences, Nuclear Medicine, Uppsala University, and Department of Oncology, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden
J Nucl Med 50:274-83. 2009
..The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel EGFR-targeting protein, the ZEGFR:1907 Affibody molecule, for radionuclide imaging of EGFR expression, to determine a suitable tracer format (dimer or monomer) and optimal label...
- Ligand-induced, receptor-mediated dimerization and activation of EGF receptor
Department of Pharmacology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
Cell 110:669-72. 2002
..studies reveal the molecular basis for ligand binding specificity and how ligand binding induces receptor dimerization. Receptor dimerization is mediated by receptor-receptor interactions in which a loop protruding from ..
- DNA damage activates ATM through intermolecular autophosphorylation and dimer dissociation
Christopher J Bakkenist
Department of Hematology Oncology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, 332 North Lauderdale Street, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA
Nature 421:499-506. 2003
- Secondary structure of the mature ex virio Moloney murine leukemia virus genomic RNA dimerization domain
Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina, A008 Kenan Labs, CB 3290, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 3290, USA
J Virol 84:898-906. 2010
..We evaluate the secondary structure of the minimal dimerization domain in genomes isolated from Moloney murine leukemia virions using a quantitative and single nucleotide ..
- Solution structure of the dimerization domain of ribosomal protein P2 provides insights for the structural organization of eukaryotic stalk
Ka Ming Lee
Department of Biochemistry, Centre for Protein Science and Crystallography, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Nucleic Acids Res 38:5206-16. 2010
..We have determined the solution structure of the N-terminal dimerization domain of human P2 (NTD-P2), which provides insights into the structural organization of the eukaryotic stalk...
- TectoRNA: modular assembly units for the construction of RNA nano-objects
Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, UPR 9002 du CNRS, 15 rue Rene Descartes, F 67084 Strasbourg CEDEX, France
Nucleic Acids Res 29:455-63. 2001
..Thus, tectoRNA provides a means for constructing molecular scaffoldings that organize functional modules in three-dimensional space for a wide range of applications...
- The juxtamembrane region of the EGF receptor functions as an activation domain
Monica Red Brewer
Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37212, USA
Mol Cell 34:641-51. 2009
..This JM mutant promotes cellular transformation by EGFR in vitro and is tumorigenic in a xenograft assay...
- Activation of preformed EGF receptor dimers by ligand-induced rotation of the transmembrane domain
Department of Cell Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
J Mol Biol 311:1011-26. 2001
- BAR domains as sensors of membrane curvature: the amphiphysin BAR structure
Brian J Peter
Medical Research Council MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QH, UK
Science 303:495-9. 2004
..From this, we predict that BAR domains are in many protein families, including sorting nexins, centaurins, and oligophrenins. The universal and minimal BAR domain is a dimerization, membrane-binding, and curvature-sensing module.
- Structural basis for activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT by stem cell factor
Department of Pharmacology, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
Cell 130:323-34. 2007
..The structures show that KIT dimerization is driven by SCF binding whose sole role is to bring two KIT molecules together...
- Familial Parkinson's disease-associated L166P mutation disrupts DJ-1 protein folding and function
James A Olzmann
Departments of Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Neurology, Center for Neurodegenerative Disease, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 3090, USA
J Biol Chem 279:8506-15. 2004
..Together these findings provide insights into the molecular mechanism by which loss-of-function mutations in DJ-1 lead to Parkinson's disease...
- Maintenance of the Gag/Gag-Pol ratio is important for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA dimerization and viral infectivity
AIDS Pathogenesis Research Unit, Macfarlane Burnet Centre for Medical Research, Fairfield, Victoria, Australia
J Virol 75:1834-41. 2001
..The impact of the Gag/Gag-Pol ratio on virion RNA dimerization was amplified when the Gag-Pol PR(-) expression vector was expressed in virion-producing cells...
- Is HIV-1 RNA dimerization a prerequisite for packaging? Yes, no, probably?
Rodney S Russell
McGill AIDS Centre, Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 Cote Ste Catherine Road, Montreal, Quebec, H3T 1E2, Canada
Retrovirology 1:23. 2004
..hypothesis is that retroviruses have evolved to preferentially package two copies of genomic RNA, and that dimerization ensures the proper packaging specificity for such a genome...
- Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ)/NF-kappaB interaction: role of GILZ homo-dimerization and C-terminal domain
Barbara Di Marco
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine IBiT Foundation, 06122 Perugia, Italy
Nucleic Acids Res 35:517-28. 2007
..and in vivo co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and by transcriptional activity experiments, indicate that GILZ homo-dimerization, through the LZ domain, as well as the C-terminal PER domain, particularly the 121-123 amino acids, are both ..
- Contributions of a disulfide bond to the structure, stability, and dimerization of human IgG1 antibody CH3 domain
Department of Pharmaceutics, Amgen, Inc, Thousand Oaks, California 91320, USA
Protein Sci 17:95-106. 2008
..The dimerization of the C(H)3 domain in the constant region of the heavy chain plays a pivotal role in the assembly of an ..
- c-Jun can recruit JNK to phosphorylate dimerization partners via specific docking interactions
Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093 0636, USA
Cell 87:929-39. 1996
..Substrates such as JunD can be phosphorylated by JNK through heterodimerization with docking competent partners. Therefore, heterodimerization can affect the recognition of transcription factors by signal-regulated protein kinases...
- Dimerization of beta-site beta-amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme
Gil G Westmeyer
Adolf Butenandt Institute, Department of Biochemistry, Laboratory for Alzheimer s and Parkinson s Disease Research, Schillerstrasse 44, Ludwig Maximilians University, 80336 Munich, Germany
J Biol Chem 279:53205-12. 2004
..was attached to the membrane, whereas the cytoplasmic domain and the transmembrane domain were dispensable for dimerization. By adding a KKXX-endoplasmic reticulum retention signal to BACE, we demonstrate that dimerization of BACE ..
- Irregular dimerization of guanylate cyclase-activating protein 1 mutants causes loss of target activation
Ji Young Hwang
Institut für Biologische Informationsverarbeitung 1, Julich, Germany
Eur J Biochem 271:3785-93. 2004
..The latter mutation also promoted dimerization of the protein...
- Mg2+ and Ca2+ differentially regulate DNA binding and dimerization of DREAM
Center for Advanced Research in Biotechnology, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA
J Biol Chem 280:18008-14. 2005
..chromatography studies revealed that Mg(2+) stabilizes DREAM as a monomer, whereas Ca(2+) induces protein dimerization. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated that Mg(2+) is essential for sequence-specific binding of ..
- The TLR3 signaling complex forms by cooperative receptor dimerization
Joshua N Leonard
Experimental Immunology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:258-63. 2008
..We conclude that TLR3 assembles on dsRNA as stable dimers and that the minimal signaling unit is one TLR3 dimer...
- Vertebrate hairy and Enhancer of split related proteins: transcriptional repressors regulating cellular differentiation and embryonic patterning
R L Davis
Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Oncogene 20:8342-57. 2001
- Structural basis for negative cooperativity in growth factor binding to an EGF receptor
Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6059, USA
Cell 142:568-79. 2010
Transmembrane signaling by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) involves ligand-induced dimerization and allosteric regulation of the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain...
- COMMD1 disrupts HIF-1alpha/beta dimerization and inhibits human tumor cell invasion
Bart van De Sluis
Complex Genetics Section, Division of Biomedical Genetics, Department of Medical Genetics, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
J Clin Invest 120:2119-30. 2010
..inhibits HIF-mediated gene expression by binding directly to the amino terminus of HIF-1alpha, preventing its dimerization with HIF-1beta and subsequent DNA binding and transcriptional activation...
- Structure of the MDM2/MDMX RING domain heterodimer reveals dimerization is required for their ubiquitylation in trans
Department of Biochemistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
Cell Death Differ 15:841-8. 2008
..Instead, MDMX regulates p53 abundance by modulating the levels and activity of MDM2. Dimerization, mediated by the conserved C-terminal RING domains of both MDM2 and MDMX, is critical to this activity...
- Single-molecule imaging reveals transforming growth factor-beta-induced type II receptor dimerization
Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, PR China
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:15679-83. 2009
..It is generally believed that the initial receptor dimerization is an essential event for receptor activation...
- Structural basis of toll-like receptor 3 signaling with double-stranded RNA
Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Science 320:379-81. 2008
..This juxtaposition could mediate downstream signaling by dimerizing the cytoplasmic Toll interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domains. The overall shape of the TLR3-ECD does not change upon binding to dsRNA...
- Probing the HIV-1 genomic RNA trafficking pathway and dimerization by genetic recombination and single virion analyses
Michael D Moore
HIV Drug Resistance Program, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD, USA
PLoS Pathog 5:e1000627. 2009
..In this report, we sought to delineate the location where HIV-1 RNA initiates dimerization and the influence of the RNA transport pathway used by the virus on downstream events essential to viral ..
- Folding and dimerization of tick-borne encephalitis virus envelope proteins prM and E in the endoplasmic reticulum
Ivo C Lorenz
Institute of Biochemistry, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, CH 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
J Virol 76:5480-91. 2002
- Dimerization of tetherin is not essential for its antiviral activity against Lassa and Marburg viruses
First Department of Forensic Science, National Research Institute of Police Science, Kashiwa, Japan
PLoS ONE 4:e6934. 2009
..To investigate this possibility, we examined the correlation between dimerization and antiviral activity of tetherin in Lassa and Marburg virus-like particle production systems using tetherin ..
- The N-terminal regions of eukaryotic acidic phosphoproteins P1 and P2 are crucial for heterodimerization and assembly into the ribosomal GTPase-associated center
Department of Biology, Niigata University, Niigata 950 2181, Japan
Genes Cells 12:501-10. 2007
..We investigated the structural elements within P1 and P2 essential for their dimerization and for ribosomal function...
- The ErbB2/ErbB3 heterodimer functions as an oncogenic unit: ErbB2 requires ErbB3 to drive breast tumor cell proliferation
Friedrich Miescher Institute, P O Box 2543, 4002 Basel, Switzerland
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:8933-8. 2003
ErbB2 is a receptor tyrosine kinase whose activity in normal cells depends on dimerization with another ligand-binding ErbB receptor...
- Evidence for a remodelling of DNA-PK upon autophosphorylation from electron microscopy studies
Edward P Morris
Structural Electron Microscopy Group, Section of Structural Biology, The Institute of Cancer Research, London SW3 6JB, UK
Nucleic Acids Res 39:5757-67. 2011
..Together, our data indicate a substantial remodelling of DNA-PK holo-enzyme upon autophosphorylation, which is crucial to the release of protein factors from a repaired DNA double-strand break...
- ATP-driven exchange of histone H2AZ variant catalyzed by SWR1 chromatin remodeling complex
Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Building 37, Room 6068, Bethesda, MD 20892 4255, USA
Science 303:343-8. 2004
..These findings define a previously unknown role for the adenosine triphosphate-dependent chromatin remodeling machinery...
- Smac mimetics activate the E3 ligase activity of cIAP1 protein by promoting RING domain dimerization
Department of Biochemistry, La Trobe University, Victoria 3086, Australia
J Biol Chem 286:17015-28. 2011
..We show that RING dimerization is essential for the E3 ligase activity of cIAP1 and cIAP2 because monomeric RING mutants could not interact ..
- Consequences of missense mutations for dimerization and turnover of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase: study of a spectrum of mutations
M B Coulter-Mackie
Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Children s and Women s Health Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
Mol Genet Metab 89:349-59. 2006
..We have investigated their effects on enzyme activity, dimerization, aggregation, and turnover...
- Molecular architecture of SMC proteins and the yeast cohesin complex
Christian H Haering
Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Dr Bohr Gasse 7, A 1030 Vienna, Austria
Mol Cell 9:773-88. 2002
..The two heads of the V-shaped dimer are connected by different ends of the cleavable Scc1 subunit. Cohesin therefore forms a large proteinaceous loop within which sister chromatids might be entrapped after DNA replication...
- Structure-based redesign of the dimerization interface reduces the toxicity of zinc-finger nucleases
Charite Medical School, Institute of Virology CBF, 12203 Berlin, Germany
Nat Biotechnol 25:786-93. 2007
..we increased the specificity of target site cleavage by preventing homodimerization and lowering the dimerization energy...
- Abrogation of glucocorticoid receptor dimerization correlates with dissociated glucocorticoid behavior of compound a
Department of Biochemistry, University of Stellenbosch, Matieland 7602, Stellenbosch, Republic of South Africa
J Biol Chem 285:8061-75. 2010
..studies of nuclear localization-deficient GR show that CpdA, unlike Dex, does not elicit ligand-induced GR dimerization. Comparison of the behavior of CpdA in the presence of wild type GR to that of Dex with a dimerization-..
- The single transmembrane domains of human receptor tyrosine kinases encode self-interactions
Institut fur Biochemie und Molekularbiologie, ZBMZ, Albert Ludwigs Universitat, Freiburg, Germany
Sci Signal 2:ra56. 2009
..receptor monomer-dimer equilibrium in which ligand binding to soluble extracellular domains triggers receptor dimerization and subsequent signaling events...
- Inhibition of mRNA export and dimerization of interferon regulatory factor 3 by Theiler's virus leader protein
Universite Catholique de Louvain, de Duve Institute, Brussels, Belgium
J Gen Virol 90:177-86. 2009
..This transcriptional inhibition correlated with inhibition of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) dimerization. Whether inhibition of IRF-3 dimerization and dysfunction of the nuclear pore complex are related phenomena ..
- ErbB-1 and ErbB-2 acquire distinct signaling properties dependent upon their dimerization partner
M A Olayioye
Friedrich Miescher Institute, CH 4002 Basel, Switzerland
Mol Cell Biol 18:5042-51. 1998
..To specifically examine dimerization-dependent modulation of receptor signaling, we constructed NIH 3T3 cell lines expressing ErbB-1 and ErbB-2 ..
- Structural basis for protein-protein interactions in the 14-3-3 protein family
Structural Genomics Consortium, University of Oxford, Botnar Research Centre, Oxford OX3 7LD, United Kingdom
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:17237-42. 2006
..These results show that the 14-3-3 proteins are adaptable structures in which internal flexibility is likely to facilitate recognition and binding of their interaction partners...
- A mode of assembly of P0, P1, and P2 proteins at the GTPase-associated center in animal ribosome: in vitro analyses with P0 truncation mutants
Institute of High Polymer Research, Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Shinshu University, Ueda 386 8567, Japan
J Biol Chem 280:39193-9. 2005
..The results were further confirmed by binding experiments using chimeric P0 mutants in which the C-terminal 81 or 107 amino acids were replaced with the homologous sequences of the archaebacterial P0...
- Structures of human MAP kinase kinase 1 (MEK1) and MEK2 describe novel noncompetitive kinase inhibition
Jeffrey F Ohren
Department of Discovery Technologies, Pfizer Global Research and Development, 2800 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105, USA
Nat Struct Mol Biol 11:1192-7. 2004
..Thus, the structures reported here reveal a novel, noncompetitive mechanism for protein kinase inhibition...
- Changes at the KinA PAS-A dimerization interface influence histidine kinase function
Department of Biochemistry, UT Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, Texas 75390 8816, USA
Biochemistry 47:4051-64. 2008
..These results support the importance of PAS domains within KinA and other histidine kinases and suggest possible routes for natural or artificial regulation of kinase activity...
- Comprehensive features of natural and in vitro selected GNRA tetraloop-binding receptors
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Biomolecular Science and Engineering Program, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 9510, USA
Nucleic Acids Res 36:1138-52. 2008
..New insights about the evolution, recognition and structural modularity of GNRA and A-minor RNA-RNA interactions are proposed...
- It takes two to tango: regulation of G proteins by dimerization
Max Planck Institut fur molekulare Physiologie, Abteilung Strukturelle Biologie, Dortmund, Germany
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 10:423-9. 2009
..are regulated by homodimerization, which we would categorize as G proteins activated by nucleotide-dependent dimerization (GADs)...
- Inducible dimerization and inducible cleavage reveal a requirement for both processes in caspase-8 activation
Department of Immunology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA
J Biol Chem 285:16632-42. 2010
..Although in vitro studies using drug-mediated affinity systems or kosmotropic salts to drive dimerization have indicated that uncleaved caspase-8 can be readily activated by dimerization alone, in vivo results using ..
- Dimer-dimer stacking interactions are important for nucleic acid binding by the archaeal chromatin protein Alba
Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, University of St Andrews, Fife KY169ST, U K
Biochem J 427:49-55. 2010
..Site-directed spin labelling and pulsed ESR are used to confirm that an end-to-end, dimer-dimer interaction forms in the presence of dsDNA...
- Crystal structure of HypA, a nickel-binding metallochaperone for [NiFe] hydrogenase maturation
Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, Japan
J Mol Biol 394:448-59. 2009
..In addition, the hexameric structure of HypA is formed in the crystal packing. Several hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions stabilize the hexamer interface. These findings suggest the functional diversity of HypA proteins...
- Structure and dimerization of a soluble form of B7-1
Division of Structural Biology, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, The University of Oxford, United Kingdom
Immunity 12:51-60. 2000
- Structural basis for cooperative RNA binding and export complex assembly by HIV Rev
Matthew D Daugherty
Chemistry and Chemical Biology Graduate Program, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
Nat Struct Mol Biol 17:1337-42. 2010
..arginine-rich helices at the ends of a V-shaped assembly to bind adjacent RNA sites and structurally couple dimerization and RNA recognition...
- How and why do GPCRs dimerize?
Vsevolod V Gurevich
Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
Trends Pharmacol Sci 29:234-40. 2008
b>Dimerization is fairly common in the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily...
- The pyrrolobenzodiazepine dimer SJG-136 forms sequence-dependent intrastrand DNA cross-links and monoalkylated adducts in addition to interstrand cross-links
Khondaker M Rahman
Gene Targeted Drug Design Research Group, The School of Pharmacy, University of London, 29 39 Brunswick Square, London WC1N 1AX, UK
J Am Chem Soc 131:13756-66. 2009
- Structure of the MID1 tandem B-boxes reveals an interaction reminiscent of intermolecular ring heterodimers
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078, USA
Biochemistry 47:2450-7. 2008
..Notably, the interaction is reminiscent of the interaction of recently determined RING dimers, suggesting the possibility of an evolutionarily conserved role for B-box2 domains in regulating functional RING-type folds...
- Coiled-coil-mediated dimerization is not required for myosin VI to stabilize actin during spermatid individualization in Drosophila melanogaster
Center for Developmental Biology, RIKEN, Kobe, Japan
Mol Biol Cell 20:358-67. 2009
..b>Dimerization via a predicted coiled coil was hypothesized to regulate activity and motor properties...
- G-quadruplex DNA assemblies: loop length, cation identity, and multimer formation
Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, GIGA Research, University of Liege, Belgium
J Am Chem Soc 130:10208-16. 2008
..The nature of the cation also has an influence on the adopted structures, with K(+) inducing more parallel multimers than NH4(+) and Na(+). Structural possibilities are discussed for the new quadruplex higher-order assemblies...
- Structure of PP4397 reveals the molecular basis for different c-di-GMP binding modes by Pilz domain proteins
Department of Chemistry, KAIST, Gusong Dong 373 1, Yuseong Gu, Daejeon 305 701, South Korea
J Mol Biol 398:97-110. 2010
..Thus, PilZ domain proteins exhibit different c-di-GMP binding stoichiometry and quaternary structure, and these differences are expected to play a role in generating diverse forms of c-di-GMP-mediated regulation...
- Asymmetric tyrosine kinase arrangements in activation or autophosphorylation of receptor tyrosine kinases
Jae Hyun Bae
Department of Pharmacology, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar St, New Haven, CT 06520 8066, USA
Mol Cells 29:443-8. 2010
..Ligand-induced dimerization of RTKs leads to autophosphorylation and activation of RTKs...
- Checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2) monomers or dimers phosphorylate Cdc25C after DNA damage regardless of threonine 68 phosphorylation
Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA
J Biol Chem 277:48418-26. 2002
..Thus, although phosphorylation of Thr-68 may be required for initial oligomerization and activation of Chk2, it is not needed for maintenance of dimerization or kinase activity.
- The role of subtype-specific ligand binding and the C-tail domain in dimer formation of human somatostatin receptors
Fraser Laboratories for Diabetes Research, Royal Victoria Hospital, Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 1A1, Canada
J Biol Chem 279:38636-43. 2004
..Furthermore, receptor C-tail chimeras allowed for the identification of the C-tail as a determinant for dimerization. Finally, we demonstrate that heterodimerization is subtype-selective involving ligand-induced conformational ..
- Structural basis of the adaptive molecular recognition by MMP9
Max Planck Institut fur Biochemie, Abteilung Strukturforschung, D 82152, Martinsried, Germany
J Mol Biol 320:1065-79. 2002
..Finally, the structure illustrates how the dimerisation generates new properties on both a physico-chemical and functional level...
- Analysis of alpha-helical coiled coils with the program TWISTER reveals a structural mechanism for stutter compensation
Sergei V Strelkov
Maurice E Müller Institute for Structural Biology, Biozentrum, University of Basel, Switzerland
J Struct Biol 137:54-64. 2002
..In general, the geometrical distortion is confined to about two alpha-helical turns at either side of the stutter. Furthermore, stutters result in a local increase of the coiled-coil radius...
- Dimerization of doublesex is mediated by a cryptic ubiquitin-associated domain fold: implications for sex-specific gene regulation
James R Bayrer
Department of Biochemistry, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
J Biol Chem 280:32989-96. 2005
..DM-DNA recognition is enhanced by a C-terminal dimerization domain. The crystal structure of this domain, determined at a resolution of 1...