- Bayes empirical bayes inference of amino acid sites under positive selection
Department of Biology, University College London, London, UK
Mol Biol Evol 22:1107-18. 2005
..The results suggest that in small data sets the new BEB method does not generate false positives as did the old NEB approach, while in large data sets it retains the good power of the NEB approach for inferring positively selected sites...
- Characterization of a novel influenza A virus hemagglutinin subtype (H16) obtained from black-headed gulls
Ron A M Fouchier
Dept of Virology, Erasmus Medical Center, P O Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands
J Virol 79:2814-22. 2005
..We propose that sequence analyses of HA and NA genes of influenza A viruses be used for the rapid identification of existing and novel HA and NA subtypes...
- Avian-to-human transmission of the PB1 gene of influenza A viruses in the 1957 and 1968 pandemics
Department of Virology Molecular Biology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38101 0318
J Virol 63:4603-8. 1989
..Comparative analysis of deduced amino acid sequences disclosed highly conserved regions in PB1 proteins, which may be key structures required for PB1 activities...
- The 1.2-megabase genome sequence of Mimivirus
Unite des Rickettsies, Faculte de Medecine, CNRS UMR6020, Universite de la Mediterranee, 13385 Marseille Cedex 05, France
Science 306:1344-50. 2004
..This new sequence data might help shed a new light on the origin of DNA viruses and their role in the early evolution of eukaryotes...
- Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus expresses an array of viral microRNAs in latently infected cells
Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:5570-5. 2005
..We hypothesize that these viral miRNAs play a critical role in the establishment and/or maintenance of KSHV latent infection in vivo and, hence, in KSHV-induced oncogenesis...
- Initial genetic characterization of the 1918 "Spanish" influenza virus
J K Taubenberger
Division of Molecular Pathology, Department of Cellular Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington DC 20306 6000, USA
Science 275:1793-6. 1997
..The sequences are consistent with a novel H1N1 influenza A virus that belongs to the subgroup of strains that infect humans and swine, not the avian subgroup...
- The complete DNA sequence of vaccinia virus
S J Goebel
Virogenetics Corporation, Troy, New York 12180 8349
Virology 179:247-66, 517-63. 1990
..Whereas several similarities to proteins of known function were discerned, the function of the majority of proteins encoded by these open reading frames is as yet undetermined...
- Genome sequence of a polydnavirus: insights into symbiotic virus evolution
Institut de Recherche sur la Biologie de l Insecte, CNRS UMR 6035, UFR Sciences et Techniques, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours, France
Science 306:286-9. 2004
- Mapping the antigenic and genetic evolution of influenza virus
Derek J Smith
Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
Science 305:371-6. 2004
..Further, this approach offers a route to predicting the relative success of emerging strains, which could be achieved by quantifying the combined effects of population level immune escape and viral fitness on strain evolution...
- Complete genome sequence and lytic phase transcription profile of a Coccolithovirus
William H Wilson
Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, The Hoe, Plymouth, PL1 3DH, UK
Science 309:1090-2. 2005
..Microarray transcriptomic analysis reveals that 65% of the predicted virus-encoded genes are expressed during lytic infection of E. huxleyi...
- Exploring the mycobacteriophage metaproteome: phage genomics as an educational platform
Graham F Hatfull
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
PLoS Genet 2:e92. 2006
- Highly conserved regions of influenza a virus polymerase gene segments are critical for efficient viral RNA packaging
Glenn A Marsh
Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 Gustave L Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA
J Virol 82:2295-304. 2008
..This work provides further evidence for a selective packaging mechanism for influenza A viruses, demonstrating that these highly conserved regions are important for efficient packaging...
- Genetic analysis of human H2N2 and early H3N2 influenza viruses, 1957-1972: evidence for genetic divergence and multiple reassortment events
Stephen E Lindstrom
Influenza Branch, MS G16, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
Virology 328:101-19. 2004
..These results suggest that H2N2 viruses continued to circulate after 1968 and that establishment of H3N2 viruses in humans was associated with multiple reassortment events that contributed to their genetic diversity...
- Genesis of a highly pathogenic and potentially pandemic H5N1 influenza virus in eastern Asia
K S Li
Joint Influenza Research Centre SUMC and HKU, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong 515031, China
Nature 430:209-13. 2004
..These developments pose a threat to public and veterinary health in the region and potentially the world, and suggest that long-term control measures are required...
- New avian influenza A virus subtype combination H5N7 identified in Danish mallard ducks
Department of Virology, Statens Serum Institut, 5 Artillerivej, DK 2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark
Virus Res 109:181-90. 2005
..To our knowledge this is the first report of an H5N7 influenza A virus...
- Phage phiC31 integrase-mediated genomic integration of the common cytokine receptor gamma chain in human T-cell lines
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2 1 Seiryo machi, Aoba ku, Sendai 980 8575, Japan
J Gene Med 8:646-53. 2006
..Here, to explore an alternative gene transfer methodology that may offer less risk of insertional mutagenesis, we employed the phiC31 integrase-based integration system using human T-cell lines, including the gammac-deficient ED40515(-)...
- Development of reverse genetics systems for bluetongue virus: recovery of infectious virus from synthetic RNA transcripts
Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom
J Virol 82:8339-48. 2008
..The ability to generate specific mutants provides a new tool to investigate the BTV replication cycle as well as permitting the generation of designer vaccine strains, which are greatly needed in many countries...
- Emergence of fatal PRRSV variants: unparalleled outbreaks of atypical PRRS in China and molecular dissection of the unique hallmark
China Animal Disease Control Center, Beijing, China
PLoS ONE 2:e526. 2007
- Metagenomics: read length matters
K Eric Wommack
Delaware Biotechnology Institute, University of Delaware, 15 Innovation Way, Newark, Delaware 19711, USA
Appl Environ Microbiol 74:1453-63. 2008
..Thus, more-distant homologs of microbial and viral genes are not detected by short-read sequences...
- Using single-particle tracking to study nuclear trafficking of viral genes
Hazen P Babcock
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
Biophys J 87:2749-58. 2004
..We expect this single-particle tracking approach to find broad application in investigations of genetic trafficking...
- Reverse transcriptase-mediated tropism switching in Bordetella bacteriophage
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
Science 295:2091-4. 2002
..This cassette-based mechanism is capable of providing a vast repertoire of potential ligand-receptor interactions...
- Influenza type A virus escape mutants emerge in vivo in the presence of antibodies to the ectodomain of matrix protein 2
The Wistar Institute, 3601 Spruce St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 4268, USA
J Virol 79:6644-54. 2005
..The implications of these findings for the use of M2e as a broadly protective vaccine are discussed...
- Induction and suppression of RNA silencing by an animal virus
Department of Plant Pathology and Center for Plant Cell Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
Science 296:1319-21. 2002
..These findings establish RNA silencing as an adaptive antiviral defense in animal cells. B2 also inhibits RNA silencing in transgenic plants, providing evidence for a conserved RNA silencing pathway in the plant and animal kingdoms...
- Two residues in the hemagglutinin of A/Fujian/411/02-like influenza viruses are responsible for antigenic drift from A/Panama/2007/99
MedImmune Vaccines, Inc, 297 North Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA
Virology 336:113-9. 2005
- Human gene targeting by viral vectors
D W Russell
Markey Molecular Medicine Center, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle 98195 7720, USA
Nat Genet 18:325-30. 1998
..These results suggest that AAV vectors could be used to introduce specific genetic changes into the genomic DNA of a wide variety of mammalian cells, including therapeutic gene targeting applications...
- Extensive sequence divergence and phylogenetic relationships between the fusogenic and nonfusogenic orthoreoviruses: a species proposal
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4H7, Canada
Virology 260:316-28. 1999
..The first clade of fusogenic reoviruses contains the avian reovirus- and Nelson Bay virus-type species, with the second clade being occupied by the single baboon reovirus isolate that represents a fourth orthoreovirus species...
- Phylogenetic diversity of sequences of cyanophage photosynthetic gene psbA in marine and freshwaters
Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, 1461 6270 University Blvd, Vancouver, BC V6T1Z4, Canada
Appl Environ Microbiol 74:5317-24. 2008
..Moreover, as psbA sequences are not confined to a single family of phages, they provide an additional genetic marker that can be used to explore the diversity and evolutionary history of cyanophages in aquatic environments...
- Molecular indetermination in the transition to error catastrophe: systematic elimination of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus through mutagenesis does not correlate linearly with large increases in mutant spectrum complexity
Molecular Medicine and Gene Therapy Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, United Kingdom
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:12938-43. 2002
- Transcriptional regulation of the interleukin-6 gene of human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus)
Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, UCLA AIDS Institute, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California at Los Angeles, 90095, USA
J Virol 76:8252-64. 2002
..We propose that the existence of two vIL-6 promoters offers opportunities for differential regulation of vIL-6 gene expression in different tissue types and may account for the variable vIL-6 levels observed in KS, PEL, and MCD...
- Photosynthesis genes in marine viruses yield proteins during host infection
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
Nature 438:86-9. 2005
..We thus propose that the phage genes are functional in photosynthesis and that they may be increasing phage fitness by supplementing the host production of these proteins...
- A human cytomegalovirus-encoded microRNA regulates expression of multiple viral genes involved in replication
Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, Oregon, United States of America
PLoS Pathog 3:e163. 2007
..This study demonstrates the ability of a viral miRNA to regulate multiple viral genes.
- Viral IL-6-induced cell proliferation and immune evasion of interferon activity
Department of Pathology, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA
Science 298:1432-5. 2002
..Viral IL-6 bypasses the gp80 regulatory checkpoint by binding directly to the gp130 transducer molecule, resulting in tumor cell autocrine dependence on the viral cytokine for proliferation and survival...
- Detection of norovirus and sapovirus infection among children with gastroenteritis in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
G S Hansman
Department of Developmental Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
Arch Virol 149:1673-88. 2004
..Further epidemiological studies may be necessary to determine whether the GII/4 strains continue to dominant in this region...
- Influenza B virus evolution: co-circulating lineages and comparison of evolutionary pattern with those of influenza A and C viruses
Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, City University of New York, New York 10029
Virology 163:112-22. 1988
..We propose an evolutionary model for influenza B viruses that is intermediate between the pattern for human influenza A viruses and that for influenza C viruses...
- Revision of taxonomic criteria for species demarcation in the family Geminiviridae, and an updated list of begomovirus species
C M Fauquet
Arch Virol 148:405-21. 2003
- Global changes in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated virus gene expression patterns following expression of a tetracycline-inducible Rta transactivator
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Division of Tumor Virology, New England Regional Primate Research Center, Harvard Medical School, Southborough, Massachusetts 01772, USA
J Virol 77:4205-20. 2003
..Thus, our streamlined gene expression system provides a novel means not only to study the effects of viral gene products on overall KSHV gene expression and replication, but also to understand the natural viral reactivation process...
- Evolutionary analysis of genetic variation observed in citrus tristeza virus (CTV) after host passage
Instituto Cavanilles de Biodiversidad y Biologia Evolutiva, Universitat de Valencia, Valencia, Spain
Arch Virol 151:875-94. 2006
..We found no evidence of recombination playing a significant role during p18 and p20 evolution in these isolates. These results suggest that hosts can be an important evolutionary factor for CTV isolates...
- Persistent expression of a newly characterized Hyposoter didymator polydnavirus gene in long-term infected lepidopteran cell lines
A N Volkoff
Laboratoire de Recherches de Pathologie Comparée, INRA CNRS, 30380 Saint Christol les Ales, France
J Gen Virol 82:963-9. 2001
..The function of the K-gene product and its association with stably transformed insect cell lines remains to be investigated...
- The expression and function of Epstein-Barr virus encoded latent genes
L S Young
CRC Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham Medical School, UK
Mol Pathol 53:238-47. 2000
..Understanding the function of these EBV latent proteins will not only provide insight into the mechanisms governing fundamental cell processes but will also identify targets for novel treatment...
- Genes and regulatory sites of the "host-takeover module" in the terminal redundancy of Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage SPO1
C R Stewart
Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77251 1892, USA
Virology 246:329-40. 1998
..Transcription-termination and RNase III cleavage sites were found at appropriate locations...
- Reversion of a live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine investigated by parallel mutations
H S Nielsen
Danish Veterinary Institute for Virus Research, Lindholm, DK-4771 Kalvehave, Denmark
J Gen Virol 82:1263-72. 2001
..Furthermore, it was found that the selective pressure did not change during the time period studied. The implications of these findings for PRRS vaccine attenuation and reversion are discussed...
- A prospective, community-based study on virologic assessment among elderly people with and without symptoms of acute respiratory infection
Judith M Graat
Division of Human Nutrition and Epidemiology, Wageningen University, Bomenweg 4, P O Box 8129, 6703 HD, Wageningen, The Netherlands
J Clin Epidemiol 56:1218-23. 2003
..Community-based elderly studies concerning microbiology of acute respiratory infections are scarce. Data on subclinical infections are even totally absent, although asymptomatic persons might act as a source of respiratory infections...
- Reduced positive selection in vector-borne RNA viruses
Christopher H Woelk
Mol Biol Evol 19:2333-6. 2002
- Complete sequence and analysis of the ovine herpesvirus 2 genome
Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
J Gen Virol 88:28-39. 2007
..The sequence of OvHV-2 is a critical first step in the study of the pathogenesis and treatment of MCF...
- Genotype mixtures of hepatitis B virus in patients treated with interferon
Department of Clinical Virology, Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden
J Infect Dis 186:752-9. 2002
..This should be considered when tracing the source of HBV infection...
- Virus succession observed during an Emiliania huxleyi bloom
Declan C Schroeder
Marine Biological Association, Citadel Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB, UK
Appl Environ Microbiol 69:2484-90. 2003
..huxleyi bloom in a mesocosm experiment off western Norway. We reveal that, despite the presence of several virus genotypes at the start of an E. huxleyi bloom, only a few virus genotypes eventually go on to kill the bloom...
- Suppressor of RNA silencing encoded by the monopartite tomato leaf curl Java begomovirus
Department of Life Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
Arch Virol 152:1273-82. 2007
..The results of the sub-cellular localization of ToLCJAV-betaC1 in the epidermal cells of N. benthamiana and onion tissues showed that this protein is accumulated towards the periphery of the cell...
- Emergence of a resistance-breaking isolate of Rice yellow mottle virus during serial inoculations is due to a single substitution in the genome-linked viral protein VPg
UR 141, Institut de recherche pour le developpement IRD, Montpellier, France
J Gen Virol 87:1369-73. 2006
..sativa 'Gigante'. This is the first evidence that VPg is a virulence factor in plants with recessive resistance against viruses outside the family Potyviridae...
- Filamentous phages linked to virulence of Vibrio cholerae
Brigid M Davis
Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Tufts New England Medical Center and Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA
Curr Opin Microbiol 6:35-42. 2003
..The genetic island that encodes TCP has also been described as a filamentous phage; however, these sequences are unlike the genome of any previously characterized filamentous phage...
- Large-scale sequence analysis of avian influenza isolates
John C Obenauer
Hartwell Center for Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA
Science 311:1576-80. 2006
..We combine this new information with public AIV data to identify new gene alleles, persistent genotypes, compensatory mutations, and a potential virulence determinant...
- KSHV vFLIP is essential for the survival of infected lymphoma cells
Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
J Exp Med 199:993-1003. 2004
..vFLIP is the first virally encoded gene shown to be essential for the survival of naturally infected tumor cells...
- FluGenome: a web tool for genotyping influenza A virus
Department of Biology, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE, USA
Nucleic Acids Res 35:W275-9. 2007
..These features make FluGenome unique in its ability to automatically detect genotype differences attributable to reassortment events in influenza A virus evolution...
- Expression of Mycobacteriophage Ms6 lysis genes is driven by two sigma(70)-like promoters and is dependent on a transcription termination signal present in the leader RNA
Laboratorio de Microbiologia Molecular, Centro de Patogenese Molecular, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
J Bacteriol 184:3034-43. 2002
..Moreover, an antitermination mechanism might be involved in their transcription regulation...
- Horizontal gene transfer and the evolution of microvirid coliphage genomes
D R Rokyta
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 3051, USA
J Bacteriol 188:1134-42. 2006
..Our data indicate that horizontal transfer does contribute to the evolution of the microvirids but is both quantitatively and qualitatively different from what has been observed for the dsDNA phages...
- Identification of the canarypox virus thymidine kinase gene and insertion of foreign genes
Virology II, VIrology I, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Gakuen 4 7 1, Musashimurayama, Tokyo, 208, Japan
Virology 256:280-90. 1999
..The recombinant viruses obtained were unstable, although the foreign genes were expressed efficiently in the mammalian cells infected with the viruses...
- Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 infection of gamma interferon-deficient mice on a BALB/c background results in acute lethal pneumonia that is dependent on specific viral genes
Katherine S Lee
Department of Microbiology, University of Colorado Denver, School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA
J Virol 83:11397-401. 2009
..Notably, this acute, lethal pneumonia was dependent not only on the viral dose, but also on specific viral genes including the viral cyclin gene, previously identified to be important in promoting optimal chronic infection ..
- trans-Complementation of flavivirus RNA polymerase gene NS5 by using Kunjin virus replicon-expressing BHK cells
A A Khromykh
Sir Albert Sakzewski Virus Research Centre, Royal Children s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland 4029, Australia
J Virol 72:7270-9. 1998
- DNA sequences of the tail fiber genes of bacteriophage P2: evidence for horizontal transfer of tail fiber genes among unrelated bacteriophages
Department of Microbial Genetics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
J Bacteriol 174:1462-77. 1992
- Genetic diversity among sapoviruses
Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA
Arch Virol 149:1309-23. 2004
- Infection of human cancer cells with myxoma virus requires Akt activation via interaction with a viral ankyrin-repeat host range factor
BioTherapeutics Research Group, Robarts Research Institute and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada N6G 2V4
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:4640-5. 2006
..We conclude that the Akt pathway is a key restriction determinant for permissiveness of human cancer cells by MV...
- Regulation, replication, and integration functions of the Vibrio cholerae CTXphi are encoded by region RS2
M K Waldor
Tupper Research Institute, New England Medical Center 041, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA
Mol Microbiol 24:917-26. 1997
- A duplex RT-PCR assay for detection of genome segment 7 (VP7 gene) from 24 BTV serotypes
Arbovirology Department, Institute for Animal Health, Ash Road, Pirbright, Woking, Surrey GU24 0NF, UK
J Virol Methods 141:188-97. 2007
..No cross-reactions were detected with members of closely related Orbivirus species (African horsesickness virus (AHSV), Epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), Equine encephalosis virus (EEV) and Palyam virus (PALV))...
- Multiple evolutionary mechanisms drive papillomavirus diversification
Skin Cancer Center Charite, University Hospital of Berlin, Berlin, Germany
Mol Biol Evol 24:1242-58. 2007
..The molecular data globally supports a complex evolutionary scenario for PVes, which is driven by multiple mechanisms but not exclusively by coevolution with corresponding hosts...
- Coronavirus genome structure and replication
D A Brian
Departments of Microbiology and Pathobiology, University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine, Knoxville, TN 37996 0845, USA
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 287:1-30. 2005
- Essential role of the NV protein of Novirhabdovirus for pathogenicity in rainbow trout
Maria Isabel Thoulouze
Unite de Virologie et Immunologie Moleculaires, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 78352 Jouy en Josas Cedex, France
J Virol 78:4098-107. 2004
..Furthermore, we show that juvenile trout immunized with NV-knockout IHNV were protected against challenge with wt IHNV. That opens a new perspective for the development of IHNV attenuated live vaccines...
- The NV gene of snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV) is not required for pathogenesis, and a heterologous glycoprotein can be incorporated into the SHRV envelope
Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, P O Box 1346, Kaneohe, HI 96744, USA
J Virol 78:5875-82. 2004
..Finally, we demonstrated that the SHRV glycoprotein can be replaced by the glycoprotein of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) or by a hybrid protein composed of SHRV and IHNV sequences...
- Genetic identification of adenovirus type 5 genes that influence viral spread
Institute for Molecular Virology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, 3681 Park Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
J Virol 80:2000-12. 2006
..Virol. 70:2296-2306, 1996) on infected cell monolayers. We have used a genetic strategy to identify different viral genes that influence adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) spread in an epithelial cancer cell line...
- Stochastic processes are key determinants of short-term evolution in influenza a virus
Martha I Nelson
Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America
PLoS Pathog 2:e125. 2006
..Thus, predicting future patterns of influenza virus evolution for vaccine strain selection is inherently complex and requires intensive surveillance, whole-genome sequencing, and phenotypic analysis...
- The leader of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genomic RNA harbors an internal ribosome entry segment that is active during the G2/M phase of the cell cycle
Biochemistry Department, McGill University, H3G 1Y6 Montreal, Canada
J Virol 77:3939-49. 2003
..These data strongly suggest that, as for HIV-1 transcription, IRES-mediated translation initiation could play an important role in virus replication during virus-induced G(2)/M cell cycle arrest...
- The vaccinia virus K1L gene product inhibits host NF-kappaB activation by preventing IkappaBalpha degradation
Joanna L Shisler
Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA
J Virol 78:3553-60. 2004
..Thus, one apparent molecular function of K1L is to prevent IkappaBalpha degradation. This impediment to NF-kappaB-induced host proinflammatory gene expression, in turn, might enhance virus survival...
- Reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus: regulation and function of the BZLF1 gene
S H Speck
Dept of Pathology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
Trends Microbiol 5:399-405. 1997
..Understanding this switch may facilitate development of strategies to interfere with EBV infection...
- The virion glycoproteins of Ebola viruses are encoded in two reading frames and are expressed through transcriptional editing
Division of Viral and Ricketsial Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:3602-7. 1996
..This genetic stability may indicate that EBO viruses have coevolved with their natural reservoirs and do not change appreciably in the wild...
- Identification of a new inhibitor of essential division gene ftsZ as the kil gene of defective prophage Rac
Laboratoire de Microbiologie et de Genetique Moleculaire du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Toulouse, France
J Bacteriol 178:5100-4. 1996
..These features distinguish kil-encoded protein from the inhibitory product of gene dicB, which occupies a similar genetic location in Kim (Qin), another defective prophage of Escherichia coli...
- Differential susceptibility of Aedes aegypti to infection by the American and Southeast Asian genotypes of dengue type 2 virus
P M Armstrong
Department of Virology and Immunology, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, TX 78245 0549, USA
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 1:159-68. 2001
..Such an understanding of functional differences between viral strains and genotypes may ultimately improve surveillance and intervention strategies...
- Mode of transgene expression after fusion to early or late viral genes of a conditionally replicating adenovirus via an optimized internal ribosome entry site in vitro and in vivo
Angel A Rivera
Division of Human Gene Therapy, Department of Medicine, and the Gene Therapy Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
Virology 320:121-34. 2004
..Disruption of the expression of neighboring viral genes by insertion of the transgene was minimal for AdDeltaE2BIL and AdDeltafiberIL, but substantial for AdDeltaE1AIL...
- Concurrent expression of latent and a limited number of lytic genes with immune modulation and antiapoptotic function by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus early during infection of primary endothelial and fibroblast cells and subsequent decline of l
Harinivas H Krishnan
Department of Microbiology, Molecular Genetics and Immunology, The University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, USA
J Virol 78:3601-20. 2004
..These are unique observations among in vitro herpesvirus infections and may have important implications in KSHV biology and pathogenesis...
- DNA binding by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lytic switch protein is necessary for transcriptional activation of two viral delayed early promoters
D M Lukac
Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Microbiology, University of California Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94143-0414, USA
J Virol 75:6786-99. 2001
..Expression of truncated versions of the ORF50 protein reveals that DNA binding is mediated by the amino-terminal 272 amino acids of the polypeptide...
- Comparative genomic analysis of 18 Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophages
McIntyre Medical Sciences Building, Room 810, 3655 Promenade Sir William Osler, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1Y6
J Bacteriol 188:1184-7. 2006
..Comparative sequence analysis and ORF map organization revealed that most of the phages analyzed displayed little relationship to each other...
- Genome-wide analysis of chromosomal features repressing human immunodeficiency virus transcription
M K Lewinski
Infectious Disease Laboratory, The Salk Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
J Virol 79:6610-9. 2005
..These data provide a genome-wide picture of chromosomal features that repress transcription and suggest models for transcriptional latency in cells from HIV-infected patients...
- Identification and functional characterization of AMVp33, a novel homolog of the baculovirus caspase inhibitor p35 found in Amsacta moorei entomopoxvirus
John C Means
Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology Program, Division of Biology, Kansas State University, 232 Ackert Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
Virology 358:436-47. 2007
..Thus, AMVp33 encodes a caspase inhibitor similar to baculovirus P35 with a preference for effector caspases. This is the first report of a p35 homolog from any viral or cellular genome outside of the baculovirus family...
- Differential roles of AC2 and AC4 of cassava geminiviruses in mediating synergism and suppression of posttranscriptional gene silencing
International Laboratory for Tropical Agricultural Biotechnology, Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St Louis, Missouri 63132, USA
J Virol 78:9487-98. 2004
..The specific and different roles played by these AC2 and AC4 proteins of cassava geminiviruses in regulating anti-PTGS activity and their relation to synergism are discussed...
- Multiple Ebola virus transmission events and rapid decline of central African wildlife
Eric M Leroy
Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, UR034, Centre International de Recherches Medicales de Franceville, BP 769 Franceville, Gabon
Science 303:387-90. 2004
..Surveillance of animal mortality may help to predict and prevent human Ebola outbreaks...
- Two Hyposoter didmator ichnovirus genes expressed in the lepidopteran host encode secreted or membrane-associated serine and threonine rich proteins in segments that may be nested
I N R A, Laboratoire de Pathologie Comparée, UMR 5087 I N R A C N R S Université Montpellier II, 30380 St Christol les Alès, France
J Insect Physiol 49:441-51. 2003
..Each of these repeats contains 58% of serine and threonine residues and therefore several potential sites for glycosylation. This mucin-like protein, predicted as highly glycosylated, could be involved in host immune suppression...
- Sequence of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus nonstructural gene (NS) segment and characterization of recombinant viruses bearing the 1918 NS genes
C F Basler
Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:2746-51. 2001
..This attenuation in mice may be related to the human origin of the 1918 NS1 gene. These results suggest that interaction of the NS1 protein with host-cell factors plays a significant role in viral pathogenesis...
- Comparative study of regulation of RTA-responsive genes in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8
Moon Jung Song
Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, UCLA AIDS Institute, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, and Molecular Biology Institute, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
J Virol 77:9451-62. 2003
..Based on these results, we conclude that direct binding of RTA to these target sequences contributes to their gene expression to various extents during the lytic life cycle of KSHV...
- Papillomaviruses: different genes have different histories
Evolutionary Genomics Group, Biochemistry and Biotechnology Department, Rovira i Virgili University URV, C Marcel li Domingo, s n Campus Sescelades, 43007 Tarragona, Spain
Trends Microbiol 13:514-21. 2005
..Here, we propose an evolutionary framework aiming to integrate genome evolution, PV biology and epidemiology of PV infections...
- The genes encoding the gCIII complex of human cytomegalovirus exist in highly diverse combinations in clinical isolates
Center for AIDS Research, Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA
J Virol 76:10841-8. 2002
..The potential for the gCIII complex to exist in diverse genetic combinations in clinical isolates points to a new aspect that must be considered in studies of the significance of CMV strain variability...
- Evolutionary relationship between Old World West Nile virus strains. Evidence for viral gene flow between Africa, the Middle East, and Europe
R N Charrel
Unite des Virus Emergents, Faculté de Médecine de Marseille and Institut de Médecine Tropicale du Service de Santé des Armées, IFR48 IRD UR034, Marseille, France
Virology 315:381-8. 2003
..For rapid completion of that purpose, colinearized E-NS3-NS5 gene sequences were shown to constitute a valuable surrogate for complete sequences...
- Resistance of vaccinia virus to rifampicin conferred by a single nucleotide substitution near the predicted NH2 terminus of a gene encoding an Mr 62,000 polypeptide
C J Baldick
Virology 156:138-45. 1987
..These data suggest a model in which head-to-tail interaction between Mr 61,840 polypeptides occurs and in which rifampicin blocks virus assembly by preventing this association...
- Molecular analysis of the ORFs 3 to 7 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Québec reference strain
Centre de Recherche en Virologie, Institut Armand Frappier, Universite du Quebec, Laval, Canada
Arch Virol 140:1405-18. 1995
..S. and European)...
- Accessory genes of the paramyxoviridae, a large family of nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses, as a focus of active investigation by reverse genetics
Toyama Institute of Health, 17 1 Nakataikouyama, Kosugi Machi, 939 0363, Toyama, Japan
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 283:197-248. 2004
..Studies on the phenotypes of the resulting gene knockout viruses have revealed that the individual accessory genes greatly contribute specifically and additively to the overall viral fitness both in vitro and in vivo...
- Defective RNA replication and late gene expression in temperature-sensitive influenza viruses expressing deleted forms of the NS1 protein
Ana M Falcón
Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, CSIC, 28049 Madrid, Spain
J Virol 78:3880-8. 2004
..Probably as a consequence, the nucleocytoplasmic export of virus NP was strongly inhibited at the restrictive temperature. These results indicate that the NS1 protein is essential for nuclear and cytoplasmic steps during the virus cycle...
- Genome-wide expression dynamics of a marine virus and host reveal features of co-evolution
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
Nature 449:83-6. 2007
..Thus activation of host genes during infection may be directing the co-evolution of gene content in both host and phage genomes...
- A viral gene that activates lytic cycle expression of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus
Departments of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Genetics, Pediatrics, and Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:10866-71. 1998
..Expression of viral cytokines under control of the KSHV/Rta gene is likely to contribute to the pathogenesis of KSHV-associated diseases...
- Conditional expression of vaccinia virus genes in mammalian cell lines expressing the tetracycline repressor
Department of Microbiology, Oregon State University, 220 Nash Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
J Virol Methods 120:9-12. 2004
- A self-excisable infectious bacterial artificial chromosome clone of varicella-zoster virus allows analysis of the essential tegument protein encoded by ORF9
B Karsten Tischer
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
J Virol 81:13200-8. 2007
..The essential nature of ORF9 for VZV replication was ultimately confirmed by restoration of the growth of the ORF9-deficient mutant virus using trans-complementation via baculovirus-mediated gene transfer...
- Identification of cytomegalovirus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in vitro is greatly enhanced by the use of recombinant virus lacking the US2 to US11 region or modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing individual viral genes
CR UK Institute for Cancer Studies, Vincent Dr, Edgbaston, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TA, United Kingdom
J Virol 79:2869-79. 2005
- Three-dimensional localization of pORF65 in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus capsid
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Texas Houston Medical School, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
J Virol 77:4291-7. 2003
..The location of SCP at the outermost regions of the capsid suggests a possible role in mediating capsid interactions with the tegument and cytoskeletal proteins during infection...
- Development of real-time NASBA assays with molecular beacon detection to quantify mRNA coding for HHV-8 lytic and latent genes
Abeltje M Polstra
Department of Human Retrovirology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
BMC Infect Dis 2:18. 2002
..To examine the expression of HHV-8 in PBMC, four HHV-8 mRNA specific NASBA assays were developed..
- Epstein-Barr virus: exploiting the immune system
D A Thorley-Lawson
Department of Pathology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA
Nat Rev Immunol 1:75-82. 2001
- Regulation of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 gene expression by Sp1 and Sp3 interaction with TRE-1 repeat III
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, The Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA
DNA Cell Biol 25:262-76. 2006
..These results suggest that both Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factor binding to TRE-1 repeat III participate in regulation of HTLV-1 viral gene expression...