natural immunity


Summary: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from non-specific mechanisms such as naturally occurring antiviral and bactericidal substances, PHAGOCYTOSIS, and constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE, oxygen tension, and age.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi The plant immune system
    Jonathan D G Jones
    The Sainsbury Laboratory, John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Colney, Norwich NR4 7UH, UK
    Nature 444:323-9. 2006
  2. ncbi Host-microbe interactions: shaping the evolution of the plant immune response
    Stephen T Chisholm
    Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, 111 Koshland Hall, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Cell 124:803-14. 2006
  3. ncbi Innate immune recognition
    Charles A Janeway
    Section of Immunobiology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8011, USA
    Annu Rev Immunol 20:197-216. 2002
  4. ncbi Differential roles of MDA5 and RIG-I helicases in the recognition of RNA viruses
    Hiroki Kato
    Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan
    Nature 441:101-5. 2006
  5. pmc ABA is an essential signal for plant resistance to pathogens affecting JA biosynthesis and the activation of defenses in Arabidopsis
    Bruce A T Adie
    Departamento de Genética Molecular de Plantas, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Campus Universidad Autonoma, 28049 Madrid, Spain
    Plant Cell 19:1665-81. 2007
  6. ncbi Toll-like receptor control of the adaptive immune responses
    Akiko Iwasaki
    Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Nat Immunol 5:987-95. 2004
  7. ncbi Negative regulation of toll-like receptor-mediated immune responses
    Foo Y Liew
    Division of Immunology, Infection and Inflammation, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G11 6NT, UK
    Nat Rev Immunol 5:446-58. 2005
  8. pmc Genome-wide analysis of NBS-LRR-encoding genes in Arabidopsis
    Blake C Meyers
    Department of Vegetable Crops, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
    Plant Cell 15:809-34. 2003
  9. ncbi IKKepsilon and TBK1 are essential components of the IRF3 signaling pathway
    Katherine A Fitzgerald
    Division of Infectious Disease and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Nat Immunol 4:491-6. 2003
  10. ncbi Recognition of commensal microflora by toll-like receptors is required for intestinal homeostasis
    Seth Rakoff-Nahoum
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Cell 118:229-41. 2004

Detail Information

Publications316 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi The plant immune system
    Jonathan D G Jones
    The Sainsbury Laboratory, John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Colney, Norwich NR4 7UH, UK
    Nature 444:323-9. 2006
    ..A detailed understanding of plant immune function will underpin crop improvement for food, fibre and biofuels production...
  2. ncbi Host-microbe interactions: shaping the evolution of the plant immune response
    Stephen T Chisholm
    Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, 111 Koshland Hall, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Cell 124:803-14. 2006
    ..In this review, taking an evolutionary perspective, we highlight important discoveries over the last decade about the plant immune response...
  3. ncbi Innate immune recognition
    Charles A Janeway
    Section of Immunobiology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8011, USA
    Annu Rev Immunol 20:197-216. 2002
    ..Thus, microbial recognition by Toll-like receptors helps to direct adaptive immune responses to antigens derived from microbial pathogens...
  4. ncbi Differential roles of MDA5 and RIG-I helicases in the recognition of RNA viruses
    Hiroki Kato
    Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan
    Nature 441:101-5. 2006
    ..Together, our data show that RIG-I and MDA5 distinguish different RNA viruses and are critical for host antiviral responses...
  5. pmc ABA is an essential signal for plant resistance to pathogens affecting JA biosynthesis and the activation of defenses in Arabidopsis
    Bruce A T Adie
    Departamento de Genética Molecular de Plantas, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Campus Universidad Autonoma, 28049 Madrid, Spain
    Plant Cell 19:1665-81. 2007
    ..The results support a model for ABA affecting JA biosynthesis in the activation of defenses against this oomycete...
  6. ncbi Toll-like receptor control of the adaptive immune responses
    Akiko Iwasaki
    Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Nat Immunol 5:987-95. 2004
    ..Recent studies have provided important clues about the mechanisms of TLR-mediated control of adaptive immunity orchestrated by dendritic cell populations in distinct anatomical locations...
  7. ncbi Negative regulation of toll-like receptor-mediated immune responses
    Foo Y Liew
    Division of Immunology, Infection and Inflammation, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G11 6NT, UK
    Nat Rev Immunol 5:446-58. 2005
    ..Here, we discuss the various negative regulatory mechanisms that have evolved to attenuate TLR signalling to maintain this immunological balance...
  8. pmc Genome-wide analysis of NBS-LRR-encoding genes in Arabidopsis
    Blake C Meyers
    Department of Vegetable Crops, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
    Plant Cell 15:809-34. 2003
    ..The observed diversity of these NBS-LRR proteins indicates the variety of recognition molecules available in an individual genotype to detect diverse biotic challenges...
  9. ncbi IKKepsilon and TBK1 are essential components of the IRF3 signaling pathway
    Katherine A Fitzgerald
    Division of Infectious Disease and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Nat Immunol 4:491-6. 2003
    ..Thus, IKKepsilon and TBK1 have a pivotal role in coordinating the activation of IRF3 and NF-kappaB in the innate immune response...
  10. ncbi Recognition of commensal microflora by toll-like receptors is required for intestinal homeostasis
    Seth Rakoff-Nahoum
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Cell 118:229-41. 2004
    ..These findings reveal a novel function of TLRs-control of intestinal epithelial homeostasis and protection from injury-and provide a new perspective on the evolution of host-microbial interactions...
  11. ncbi Inducers of plant systemic acquired resistance regulate NPR1 function through redox changes
    Zhonglin Mou
    Developmental, Cell, and Molecular Biology Group, Department of Biology, P O Box 91000, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA
    Cell 113:935-44. 2003
    ..These data provide a missing link between accumulation of SA and activation of NPR1 in the SAR signaling pathway...
  12. pmc Antiviral immunity directed by small RNAs
    Shou Wei Ding
    Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    Cell 130:413-26. 2007
    ..Meanwhile, viral mechanisms to suppress this small RNA-directed immunity by viruses are being elucidated, thereby illuminating an ongoing molecular arms race that likely impacts the evolution of both viral and host genomes...
  13. ncbi RIN4 interacts with Pseudomonas syringae type III effector molecules and is required for RPM1-mediated resistance in Arabidopsis
    David Mackey
    Department of Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Cell 108:743-54. 2002
    ..This may enhance RIN4 activity as a negative regulator of plant defense, facilitating pathogen growth. RPM1 may "guard" against pathogens that use AvrRpm1 and AvrB to manipulate RIN4 activity...
  14. ncbi Nod1 detects a unique muropeptide from gram-negative bacterial peptidoglycan
    Stephen E Girardin
    Unite de Pathogenie Microbienne Moleculaire, INSERM U389, Institut Pasteur, 28, rue du Dr Roux, 75724Paris Cedex 15, France
    Science 300:1584-7. 2003
    ..Moreover, we show that in epithelial cells (which represent the first line of defense against invasive pathogens), Nod1is indispensable for intracellular Gram-negative bacterial sensing...
  15. ncbi Evolving disease resistance genes
    Blake C Meyers
    Delaware Biotechnology Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19714, USA
    Curr Opin Plant Biol 8:129-34. 2005
    ..Diversity within populations is maintained by balancing selection. Analyses of whole-genome sequences have and will continue to provide new insight into the dynamics of resistance gene evolution...
  16. ncbi Cross talk between signaling pathways in pathogen defense
    Barbara N Kunkel
    Department of Biology, Washington University, Campus Box 1137, 1 Brookings Drive, St Louis, Missouri 63130, USA
    Curr Opin Plant Biol 5:325-31. 2002
    ..The SA and JA signaling pathways are mutually antagonistic. This regulatory cross talk may have evolved to allow plants to fine-tune the induction of their defenses in response to different plant pathogens...
  17. ncbi Nod1 responds to peptidoglycan delivered by the Helicobacter pylori cag pathogenicity island
    Jérôme Viala
    Groupe d Immunité Innée et Signalisation, Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale U389, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Nat Immunol 5:1166-74. 2004
    ..pylori than were wild-type mice. We propose that sensing of H. pylori by Nod1 represents a model for host recognition of noninvasive pathogens...
  18. ncbi Toll-like receptors
    Kiyoshi Takeda
    Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Annu Rev Immunol 21:335-76. 2003
    ..The TLR-induced inflammatory response is dependent on a common signaling pathway that is mediated by the adaptor molecule MyD88. However, there is evidence for additional pathways that mediate TLR ligand-specific biological responses...
  19. ncbi Innate immunity in plants and animals: striking similarities and obvious differences
    Thorsten Nürnberger
    Institut fur Pflanzenbiochemie, Abteilung Stress und Entwicklungsbiologie, Halle Saale, Germany
    Immunol Rev 198:249-66. 2004
  20. ncbi Drosophila innate immunity: an evolutionary perspective
    Jules A Hoffmann
    CNRS, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, 15 rue Descartes, 67000 Strasbourg, France
    Nat Immunol 3:121-6. 2002
    ..We discuss here evolutionary perspectives on our present understanding of the antimicrobial defenses of Drosophila...
  21. pmc The WRKY70 transcription factor: a node of convergence for jasmonate-mediated and salicylate-mediated signals in plant defense
    Jing Li
    Department of Biosciences, Division of Genetics, University of Helsinki, FIN 00014 Helsinki, Finland
    Plant Cell 16:319-31. 2004
    ..We suggest that WRKY70 acts as an activator of SA-induced genes and a repressor of JA-responsive genes, integrating signals from these mutually antagonistic pathways...
  22. ncbi Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of the Arabidopsis thaliana interaction with the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and the human pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7
    Roger Thilmony
    Department of Energy Plant Research Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
    Plant J 46:34-53. 2006
  23. pmc Activation of the indole-3-acetic acid-amido synthetase GH3-8 suppresses expansin expression and promotes salicylate- and jasmonate-independent basal immunity in rice
    Xinhua Ding
    National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, National Center of Plant Gene Research Wuhan, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
    Plant Cell 20:228-40. 2008
    ..Both enhanced resistance and abnormal development may be caused by inhibition of the expression of expansins via suppressed auxin signaling...
  24. pmc The genome of melon (Cucumis melo L.)
    Jordi Garcia-Mas
    Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentaries, Centre for Research in Agricultural Genomics Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentàries Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona Universitat de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona, Spain
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:11872-7. 2012
    ..The use of the genome sequence in future investigations will facilitate the understanding of evolution of cucurbits and the improvement of breeding strategies...
  25. ncbi Interleukin-12 and the regulation of innate resistance and adaptive immunity
    Giorgio Trinchieri
    Laboratory for Immunological Research, Schering Plough Research Institute, 27 chemin des Peupliers, B P 11, 69571 Dardilly, France
    Nat Rev Immunol 3:133-46. 2003
  26. ncbi LPS, TLR4 and infectious disease diversity
    Samuel I Miller
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington Medical School, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 3:36-46. 2005
    ..This review will examine the hypothesis that the variability of bacterial ligands such as LPS and their innate immune receptors is an important factor in determining the outcome of infectious disease...
  27. ncbi Understanding the functions of plant disease resistance proteins
    Gregory B Martin
    Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research and Department of Plant Pathology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
    Annu Rev Plant Biol 54:23-61. 2003
    ..New technologies arising from the genomics and proteomics revolution will greatly expand our ability to investigate the role of R proteins in plant disease resistance...
  28. ncbi Neutrophil extracellular traps kill bacteria
    Volker Brinkmann
    Microscopy Core Facility, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Schumannstrasse 21 22, 10117 Berlin, Germany
    Science 303:1532-5. 2004
    ..NETs appear to be a form of innate response that binds microorganisms, prevents them from spreading, and ensures a high local concentration of antimicrobial agents to degrade virulence factors and kill bacteria...
  29. ncbi RICK/Rip2/CARDIAK mediates signalling for receptors of the innate and adaptive immune systems
    Koichi Kobayashi
    Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Nature 416:194-9. 2002
    ..Rip2 is therefore a signal transducer and integrator of signals for both the innate and adaptive immune systems...
  30. ncbi Disentangling genetic variation for resistance and tolerance to infectious diseases in animals
    Lars Raberg
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Institute of Immunology and Infection Research, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Science 318:812-4. 2007
    ..These results mean that animals, like plants, can evolve two conceptually different types of defense, a finding that has important implications for the understanding of the epidemiology and evolution of infectious diseases...
  31. ncbi The immune response of Drosophila
    Jules A Hoffmann
    Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire du CNRS, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
    Nature 426:33-8. 2003
    ..Recent progress in research on Drosophila immune defence provides evidence for similarities and differences between Drosophila immune responses and mammalian innate immunity...
  32. ncbi IRF-7 is the master regulator of type-I interferon-dependent immune responses
    Kenya Honda
    Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine and Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7 3 1, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    Nature 434:772-7. 2005
    ..Thus, all elements of IFN responses, whether the systemic production of IFN in innate immunity or the local action of IFN from plasmacytoid dendritic cells in adaptive immunity, are under the control of IRF-7...
  33. pmc A family of conserved bacterial effectors inhibits salicylic acid-mediated basal immunity and promotes disease necrosis in plants
    Sruti DebRoy
    Cell and Molecular Biology Program and Department of Energy Plant Research Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:9927-32. 2004
  34. ncbi Pathogen population genetics, evolutionary potential, and durable resistance
    Bruce A McDonald
    Institute of Plant Sciences, Plant Pathology Group, Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zentrum, LFW, CH 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
    Annu Rev Phytopathol 40:349-79. 2002
    ..We present examples of high-risk and low-risk pathogens. We propose general guidelines for a rational approach to breed durable resistance according to the evolutionary potential of the pathogen...
  35. ncbi NK cell recognition
    Lewis L Lanier
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology and the Cancer Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, California 94143 0414, USA
    Annu Rev Immunol 23:225-74. 2005
    ..Here, I review the structure, function, and ligand specificity of the receptors responsible for NK cell recognition...
  36. ncbi Shared and unique functions of the DExD/H-box helicases RIG-I, MDA5, and LGP2 in antiviral innate immunity
    Mitsutoshi Yoneyama
    Antiviral Innate Immunity Project, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo Metropolitan Organization for Medical Research, Honkomagome, Tokyo, Japan
    J Immunol 175:2851-8. 2005
    ..These results highlight ingenious mechanisms for initiating antiviral innate immune responses and the action of virus-encoded inhibitors...
  37. ncbi Tandem and segmental gene duplication and recombination in the evolution of plant disease resistance gene
    Dario Leister
    Abteilung für Pflanzezüchtung und Ertragsphysiologie, Max Planck Instutut für Züchtungsforschung, Koln, Germany
    Trends Genet 20:116-22. 2004
    ..Once physically removed from their closest relatives, the NBS-LRR genes might adopt and preserve new specificities because they are less prone to sequence homogenization...
  38. ncbi Innate immune responses of a lepidopteran insect, Manduca sexta
    Michael R Kanost
    Department of Biochemistry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
    Immunol Rev 198:97-105. 2004
    ..Future research efforts will be aimed at elucidating the proteinase cascade for proPO activation and investigating the roles of proteinases in other immune responses such as processing of plasmatocyte-spreading peptide...
  39. ncbi Innate antiviral responses by means of TLR7-mediated recognition of single-stranded RNA
    Sandra S Diebold
    Immunobiology Laboratory, Cancer Research UK, London Research Institute, London WC2A 3PX, UK
    Science 303:1529-31. 2004
    ..These results identify ssRNA as a ligand for TLR7 and suggest that cells of the innate immune system sense endosomal ssRNA to detect infection by RNA viruses...
  40. ncbi Rice WRKY45 plays important roles in fungal and bacterial disease resistance
    Masaki Shimono
    Disease Resistant Crops Research Unit, GMO Research Center, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Kannondai 2 1 2, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8602, Japan
    Mol Plant Pathol 13:83-94. 2012
    ..However, WRKY45-ox plants were susceptible to Rhizoctonia solani. These results indicate the versatility and limitations of the application of this gene...
  41. ncbi Systematic analysis and comparison of nucleotide-binding site disease resistance genes in maize
    Ying Cheng
    Key Laboratory of Crop Biology of Anhui Province, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, China
    FEBS J 279:2431-43. 2012
    ..The results reported in the present study contribute to an improved understanding of the NBS-encoding gene family in maize...
  42. ncbi NPR1, all things considered
    Xinnian Dong
    Developmental, Cell and Molecular Biology Group, LSRC Building, Research Drive, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 1000, USA
    Curr Opin Plant Biol 7:547-52. 2004
    ..In addition to NPR1 and TGA, the single-stranded DNA-binding transcription factor AtWhy1 and the WRKY70 transcription factor were recently found to be involved in SA-mediated defense and SA-JA crosstalk, respectively...
  43. ncbi Melanization immune responses in mosquito vectors
    Bruce M Christensen
    Department of Animal Health and Biomedical Sciences, 1656 Linden Drive, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Trends Parasitol 21:192-9. 2005
  44. ncbi TNF/iNOS-producing dendritic cells mediate innate immune defense against bacterial infection
    Natalya V Serbina
    Infectious Disease Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Immunology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Immunity 19:59-70. 2003
    ..Tip-DCs, as the predominant source of TNF and iNOS during L. monocytogenes infection, orchestrate and mediate innate immune defense against this intracellular bacterial pathogen...
  45. ncbi Antimicrobial reactive oxygen and nitrogen species: concepts and controversies
    Ferric C Fang
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, 1959 North East Pacific Street, Box 357242, Seattle, Washington 98195 7242, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 2:820-32. 2004
    ..This review updates the reader on these concepts and the topical questions in the field...
  46. pmc Rice WRKY45 plays a crucial role in benzothiadiazole-inducible blast resistance
    Masaki Shimono
    Plant Disease Resistance Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Ibaraki, Japan
    Plant Cell 19:2064-76. 2007
    ..We propose a role for WRKY45 in BTH-induced and SA-mediated defense signaling in rice and its potential utility in improving disease resistance of rice, an importance food resource worldwide...
  47. pmc Plant NBS-LRR proteins: adaptable guards
    Leah McHale
    The Genome Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Genome Biol 7:212. 2006
    ..Their precise role in recognition is unknown; however, they are thought to monitor the status of plant proteins that are targeted by pathogen effectors...
  48. ncbi Autophagy regulates programmed cell death during the plant innate immune response
    Yule Liu
    Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Cell 121:567-77. 2005
    ..Thus, the evolutionarily conserved autophagy pathway plays an essential role in plant innate immunity and negatively regulates PCD...
  49. ncbi Systemic acquired resistance
    W E Durrant
    Developmental, Cell, and Molecular Biology Group, Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA
    Annu Rev Phytopathol 42:185-209. 2004
    ..We discuss the molecular and genetic data that have contributed to our understanding of SAR and present a model describing the sequence of events leading from initial infection to the induction of defense genes...
  50. ncbi SOCS-1 participates in negative regulation of LPS responses
    Reiko Nakagawa
    Department of Molecular Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan
    Immunity 17:677-87. 2002
  51. ncbi Specific bacterial suppressors of MAMP signaling upstream of MAPKKK in Arabidopsis innate immunity
    Ping He
    Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Cell 125:563-75. 2006
    ..Deletions of avrPto and avrPtoB from pathogenic P. syringae reduce its virulence. The studies reveal a fundamental role of MAMP signaling in nonhost immunity, and a novel action of type III effectors from pathogenic bacteria...
  52. pmc Cytosolic recognition of flagellin by mouse macrophages restricts Legionella pneumophila infection
    Ari B Molofsky
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    J Exp Med 203:1093-104. 2006
    ..Accordingly, macrophages respond to cytosolic flagellin by a mechanism that requires Naip5 and caspase 1 to restrict bacterial replication and release proinflammatory cytokines that control L. pneumophila infection...
  53. ncbi Plasmacytoid dendritic cells in immunity
    Marco Colonna
    Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    Nat Immunol 5:1219-26. 2004
    ..Here we review recent progress on the characterization of plasmacytoid dendritic cell origin, development, migration and function in immunity and tolerance, as well as their effect on human diseases...
  54. ncbi A bacterial virulence protein suppresses host innate immunity to cause plant disease
    Kinya Nomura
    Department of Energy Plant Research Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
    Science 313:220-3. 2006
    ..HopM1 mediates the destruction of AtMIN7 via the host proteasome. Our results illustrate a strategy by which a bacterial pathogen exploits the host proteasome to subvert host immunity and causes infection in plants...
  55. pmc Deconstruction of the (paleo)polyploid grapevine genome based on the analysis of transposition events involving NBS resistance genes
    Giulia Malacarne
    IASMA Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, S Michele all Adige, Trento, Italy
    PLoS ONE 7:e29762. 2012
    ..Chromosome number variation in the Vitaceae and related families, and the gap between the time of eudicot radiation and the age of Vitaceae fossils, are accounted for by our hypothesis...
  56. pmc The BOTRYTIS SUSCEPTIBLE1 gene encodes an R2R3MYB transcription factor protein that is required for biotic and abiotic stress responses in Arabidopsis
    Tesfaye Mengiste
    Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 2054, USA
    Plant Cell 15:2551-65. 2003
    ..BOS1 encodes an R2R3MYB transcription factor protein, and our results suggest that it mediates responses to signals, possibly mediated by reactive oxygen intermediates from both biotic and abiotic stress agents...
  57. pmc Map-based isolation of the leaf rust disease resistance gene Lr10 from the hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genome
    Catherine Feuillet
    Institute of Plant Biology, University of Zurich, Zollikerstrasse 107, Ch 8008 Zurich, Switzerland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:15253-8. 2003
    ..We conclude that map-based cloning of genes of agronomic importance in hexaploid wheat is now feasible, opening perspectives for molecular bread wheat improvement trough transgenic strategies and diagnostic allele detection...
  58. ncbi Cloning and characterization of a Verticillium wilt resistance gene from Gossypium barbadense and functional analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana
    Yan Zhang
    North China Key Laboratory for Germplasm Resources of Education Ministry, Department of Plant Genetics and Breeding, Agricultural University of Hebei, Baoding, 071001, People s Republic of China
    Plant Cell Rep 30:2085-96. 2011
    ..Compared with the wild-type control, GbVe-overexpressing plants had greater levels of resistance to V. dahliae. This suggests that GbVe is a useful gene for improving the plant resistance against fungal diseases...
  59. ncbi Cell wall-associated mechanisms of disease resistance and susceptibility
    Ralph Hückelhoven
    Technical University of Munich, 85350 Freising, Germany
    Annu Rev Phytopathol 45:101-27. 2007
    ..This review summarizes the current view of how plants monitor and model their cell periphery during interaction with microbial invaders...
  60. pmc A Tlr7 translocation accelerates systemic autoimmunity in murine lupus
    Srividya Subramanian
    Center for Immunology and Department of Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75235, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:9970-5. 2006
  61. ncbi Non-redundant role of the long pentraxin PTX3 in anti-fungal innate immune response
    Cecilia Garlanda
    Department of Immunology and Cell Biology, Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, 20157 Milan, Italy
    Nature 420:182-6. 2002
    ..Thus, the long pentraxin Ptx3 is a secreted pattern-recognition receptor that has a non-redundant role in resistance to selected microbial agents, in particular to the opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus...
  62. pmc A gain-of-function mutation in an Arabidopsis Toll Interleukin1 receptor-nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat type R gene triggers defense responses and results in enhanced disease resistance
    Yumiko Shirano
    Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
    Plant Cell 14:3149-62. 2002
  63. pmc IL-5 links adaptive and natural immunity specific for epitopes of oxidized LDL and protects from atherosclerosis
    Christoph J Binder
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093 0682, USA
    J Clin Invest 114:427-37. 2004
    ..Thus, IL-5 links adaptive and natural immunity specific to epitopes of OxLDL and protects from atherosclerosis, in part by stimulating the expansion of ..
  64. ncbi Insect resistance to Bt crops: evidence versus theory
    Bruce E Tabashnik
    Department of Entomology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA
    Nat Biotechnol 26:199-202. 2008
    ..The field outcomes documented with monitoring data are consistent with the theory underlying the refuge strategy, suggesting that refuges have helped to delay resistance...
  65. ncbi Pattern-recognition receptors in plant innate immunity
    Cyril Zipfel
    The Sainsbury Laboratory, John Innes Centre, Colney Lane, Norwich NR4 7UH, UK
    Curr Opin Immunol 20:10-6. 2008
    ..The study of PTI is still in its infancy but constitutes a highly active and competitive field of research. New PRRs and regulators are likely to be soon identified...
  66. pmc Disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance in rice are inversely modulated by an abscisic acid-inducible mitogen-activated protein kinase
    Lizhong Xiong
    Department of Plant Pathology and Program in Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701, USA
    Plant Cell 15:745-59. 2003
    ..These results strongly suggest that OsMAPK5 can positively regulate drought, salt, and cold tolerance and negatively modulate PR gene expression and broad-spectrum disease resistance...
  67. pmc The transcription factors WRKY11 and WRKY17 act as negative regulators of basal resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana
    Noëllie Journot-Catalino
    Laboratory of Plant Microorganism Interactions, BP52627, 31326 Castanet Tolosan, France
    Plant Cell 18:3289-302. 2006
    ..These results provide genetic evidence for the importance of WRKY11 and WRKY17 in plant defense...
  68. ncbi Structure-function analysis of the NB-ARC domain of plant disease resistance proteins
    Gerben van Ooijen
    Plant Pathology, Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, University of Amsterdam, PO Box 94062, 1090 GB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Exp Bot 59:1383-97. 2008
    ..The presented 3D model provides a framework for the formulation of hypotheses on how mutations in the NB-ARC exert their effects...
  69. pmc A genome-wide survey of R gene polymorphisms in Arabidopsis
    Erica G Bakker
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    Plant Cell 18:1803-18. 2006
    ..Instead, the data support transient or frequency-dependent selection maintaining protein variants at a locus for variable time periods...
  70. pmc Rice XA21 binding protein 3 is a ubiquitin ligase required for full Xa21-mediated disease resistance
    Yong Sheng Wang
    Department of Plant Pathology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA
    Plant Cell 18:3635-46. 2006
    ..oryzae pv oryzae. Furthermore, reduced levels of Xb3 lead to decreased levels of the XA21 protein. These results indicate that Xb3 is necessary for full accumulation of the XA21 protein and for Xa21-mediated resistance...
  71. ncbi An essential role for NOD1 in host recognition of bacterial peptidoglycan containing diaminopimelic acid
    Mathias Chamaillard
    Department of Pathology, The University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    Nat Immunol 4:702-7. 2003
    ..Thus, NOD1 mediates selective recognition of bacteria through detection of iE-DAP-containing peptidoglycan...
  72. ncbi Regulation of disease resistance pathways by AP2/ERF transcription factors
    Neal Gutterson
    Mendel Biotechnology, 21375 Cabot Blvd, Hayward, California 94545, USA
    Curr Opin Plant Biol 7:465-71. 2004
  73. ncbi An endonuclease allows Streptococcus pneumoniae to escape from neutrophil extracellular traps
    Katharina Beiter
    Department of Bacteriology, Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna SE 171 82, Sweden
    Curr Biol 16:401-7. 2006
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrate that escaping NETs promotes spreading of pneumococci from the upper airways to the lungs and from the lungs into the bloodstream during pneumonia...
  74. pmc Cellular transcriptional profiling in influenza A virus-infected lung epithelial cells: the role of the nonstructural NS1 protein in the evasion of the host innate defense and its potential contribution to pandemic influenza
    Gary K Geiss
    Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:10736-41. 2002
  75. ncbi The R1 gene for potato resistance to late blight (Phytophthora infestans) belongs to the leucine zipper/NBS/LRR class of plant resistance genes
    Agim Ballvora
    Max Planck Institut fur Zuchtungsforschung, Carl von Linne Weg 10, 50829 Köln, Germany
    Plant J 30:361-71. 2002
    ..R1 is located within a hot spot for pathogen resistance on potato chromosome V. In comparison to the susceptibility allele, the resistance allele at the R1 locus represents a large insertion of a functional R gene...
  76. ncbi Immune control of tuberculosis by IFN-gamma-inducible LRG-47
    John D MacMicking
    Laboratory of Infection Biology, Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Science 302:654-9. 2003
    ..Thus, LRG-47 may serve as a critical vacuolar trafficking component used to dispose of intracellular pathogens like Mtb...
  77. ncbi Pathogen-associated molecular pattern recognition rather than development of tissue necrosis contributes to bacterial induction of systemic acquired resistance in Arabidopsis
    Tatiana E Mishina
    Julius von Sachs Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Wurzburg, Julius von Sachs Platz 3, D 97082 Wurzburg, Germany
    Plant J 50:500-13. 2007
    ..Our data indicate that PAMPs significantly contribute to SAR initiation in Arabidopsis and that tissue necroses at inoculation sites are dispensable for SAR activation...
  78. ncbi Genome-wide identification of NBS resistance genes in Populus trichocarpa
    Annegret Kohler
    Unité Mixte de Recherche INRA UHP 1136 Interactions Arbres Microorganismes, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Centre de Recherches de Nancy, 54280 Champenoux, France
    Plant Mol Biol 66:619-36. 2008
    ..The transcripts of only 34 NBS-LRR genes were detected in rust-infected and non-infected leaves using a whole-genome oligoarray. None showed an altered expression two days post inoculation...
  79. ncbi IL-12 and IL-23: master regulators of innate and adaptive immunity
    Claire L Langrish
    Discovery Research, DNAX Research Inc, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    Immunol Rev 202:96-105. 2004
    ..These two cytokines work in concert to regulate cellular immune responses critical for host defense and tumor suppression...
  80. ncbi Association between innate response to gliadin and activation of pathogenic T cells in coeliac disease
    Luigi Maiuri
    Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, UK
    Lancet 362:30-7. 2003
    ..We investigated whether gliadin, a protein present in wheat flour, could activate an innate as well as an adaptive immune response in patients with coeliac disease...
  81. pmc Suppression of plant resistance gene-based immunity by a fungal effector
    Petra M Houterman
    Plant Pathology, Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    PLoS Pathog 4:e1000061. 2008
    ..This molecular analysis has revealed a hitherto unpredicted strategy for durable disease control based on resistance gene combinations...
  82. ncbi An ancient R gene from the wild potato species Solanum bulbocastanum confers broad-spectrum resistance to Phytophthora infestans in cultivated potato and tomato
    Edwin van der Vossen
    Plant Research International BV, PO Box 16, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Plant J 36:867-82. 2003
    ..These data suggest that Rpi-blb1 is relatively old and may be subject to balancing selection...
  83. pmc Toll-like receptor 9 mediates innate immune activation by the malaria pigment hemozoin
    Cevayir Coban
    Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency JST, Osaka, Japan
    J Exp Med 201:19-25. 2005
    ..These data suggest that TLR9-mediated, MyD88-dependent, and CQ-sensitive innate immune activation by HZ may play an important role in malaria parasite-host interactions...
  84. ncbi OsWRKY13 mediates rice disease resistance by regulating defense-related genes in salicylate- and jasmonate-dependent signaling
    Deyun Qiu
    National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, National Center for Plant Gene Research, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 20:492-9. 2007
    ..Furthermore, OsWRKY13 will provide a transgenic tool for engineering wider-spectrum and whole-growth-stage resistance rice in breeding programs...
  85. pmc AgDscam, a hypervariable immunoglobulin domain-containing receptor of the Anopheles gambiae innate immune system
    Yuemei Dong
    W Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    PLoS Biol 4:e229. 2006
    ..AgDscam is mediating phagocytosis of bacteria with which it can associate and defend against in a splice form-specific manner. AgDscam is a hypervariable PRR of the A. gambiae innate immune system...
  86. ncbi The RAR1 interactor SGT1, an essential component of R gene-triggered disease resistance
    Cristina Azevedo
    The Sainsbury Laboratory, John Innes Centre, Colney Lane, Norwich NR4 7UH, UK
    Science 295:2073-6. 2002
    ..Furthermore, the RAR1-SGT1 complex also interacts with two COP9 signalosome components. The interactions among RAR1, SGT1, SCF, and signalosome subunits indicate a link between disease resistance and ubiquitination...
  87. ncbi Natural killer cells and dendritic cells: rendezvous in abused tissues
    Alessandro Moretta
    Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale, Sezione di Istologia, and Centro di Eccellenza per le Ricerche Biomediche, Universita degli Studi di Genova, 16132 Genova, Italy
    Nat Rev Immunol 2:957-64. 2002
  88. ncbi Lethal influenza infection in the absence of the natural killer cell receptor gene Ncr1
    Roi Gazit
    The Lautenberg Center for General and Tumor Immunology, The Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem 91120, Israel
    Nat Immunol 7:517-23. 2006
    ..We noted accumulation of natural killer cells at the site of influenza infection by tracking the green fluorescent protein. Our results demonstrate a critical function for Ncr1 in the in vivo eradication of influenza virus...
  89. ncbi Genetics and molecular mapping of genes for race-specific all-stage resistance and non-race-specific high-temperature adult-plant resistance to stripe rust in spring wheat cultivar Alpowa
    F Lin
    Department of Plant Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 6430, USA
    Theor Appl Genet 114:1277-87. 2007
  90. ncbi Building a mutant resource for the study of disease resistance in rice reveals the pivotal role of several genes involved in defence
    Amandine Delteil
    UMR BGPI INRA CIRAD SupAgro, Campus International de Baillarguet, TA A 54 K, 34398 Montpellier, France
    Mol Plant Pathol 13:72-82. 2012
    ..Finally, the up-regulation of the negative regulator OsWRKY28 and the down-regulation of PR gene expression early during M. oryzae infection suggest that the fungus possesses infection mechanisms that enable it to block host defences...
  91. ncbi Melanogenesis and associated cytotoxic reactions: applications to insect innate immunity
    A J Nappi
    Department of Animal Health and Biomedical Sciences, University of Wisconsin Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 35:443-59. 2005
    ..This review examines some of the factors that influence enzyme-mediated melanogenic responses, and how these responses likely contribute to blood cell-mediated, target-specific cytotoxicity in immune challenged insects...
  92. ncbi Concurrent evolution of resistance and tolerance to pathogens
    Olivier Restif
    Laboratoire de Parasitologie Evolutive, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unite Mixte de Recherche 7103, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 7 quai Saint Bernard, CC 237, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France
    Am Nat 164:E90-102. 2004
    ..The latter result emphasizes the problems of estimating trade-offs and costs among natural populations without knowledge of the underlying mechanisms...
  93. ncbi Insect immunity shows specificity in protection upon secondary pathogen exposure
    Ben M Sadd
    Institute for Integrative Biology, Experimental Ecology, Eidgnössische Technische Hochschule Zentrum, CHN, CH 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
    Curr Biol 16:1206-10. 2006
  94. ncbi Mode of amplification and reorganization of resistance genes during recent Arabidopsis thaliana evolution
    Erik Richly
    Abteilung für Pflanzenzüchtung und Ertragsphysiologie, Max Planck Institut fur Zuchtungsforschung, Carl von Linne Weg 10, 50829 Köln, Germany
    Mol Biol Evol 19:76-84. 2002
    ..Such events may have taken place early during flowering plant evolution, but they generated modules that have been duplicated and remobilized also more recently...
  95. pmc Plant disease susceptibility conferred by a "resistance" gene
    Jennifer M Lorang
    Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Center for Genome Research and Biocomputing, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:14861-6. 2007
    ..victoriae. These findings demonstrate that NBS-LRR genes can condition disease susceptibility and resistance and may have implications for R gene deployment...
  96. ncbi Strong positive selection drives rapid diversification of R-genes in Arabidopsis relatives
    Qihan Chen
    State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Department of Biology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
    J Mol Evol 70:137-48. 2010
    ..Our genome-wide analyses confirmed an amazing mechanism by which plants to selectively accumulate and efficiently exploit these non-synonymous substitutions for their resistance to various pathogens...
  97. pmc The Shigella flexneri effector OspG interferes with innate immune responses by targeting ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes
    Dong Wook Kim
    Unite de Pathogenie Microbienne Moleculaire, Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Unité Mixte de Recherche 389, Institut Pasteur, 28 rue du Dr Roux, 75015 Paris, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:14046-51. 2005
    ..This finding indicates that OspG negatively controls the host innate response induced by S. flexneri upon invasion of the epithelium...
  98. pmc Contact-dependent stimulation and inhibition of dendritic cells by natural killer cells
    Diego Piccioli
    IRIS, Department of Immunology, Chiron S p A, 53100 Siena, Italy
    J Exp Med 195:335-41. 2002
    ..Resting NK cells also stimulated autologous DC maturation in a TNF-alpha/contact-dependent manner, however, increasing the NK/DC ratio only led to an enhancement of this effect...
  99. ncbi Cutting edge: 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is a direct inducer of antimicrobial peptide gene expression
    Tian Tian Wang
    Department of Physiology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Immunol 173:2909-12. 2004
    ..1,25(OH)(2)D(3) thus directly regulates antimicrobial peptide gene expression, revealing the potential of its analogues in treatment of opportunistic infections...
  100. pmc The transcriptional innate immune response to flg22. Interplay and overlap with Avr gene-dependent defense responses and bacterial pathogenesis
    Lionel Navarro
    The Sainsbury Laboratory, John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, United Kingdom
    Plant Physiol 135:1113-28. 2004
    ..We also compared FLARE gene sets and genes induced in basal or gene-for-gene interactions upon different Pseudomonas syringae treatments, and infer that Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato represses the flagellin-initiated defense response...
  101. ncbi Type III effectors orchestrate a complex interplay between transcriptional networks to modify basal defence responses during pathogenesis and resistance
    William Truman
    Department of Agricultural Science, Imperial College London, Wye Campus, High Street, Wye TN25 5AH, UK
    Plant J 46:14-33. 2006
    ..In contrast, some pathways associated with stress tolerance are transcriptionally induced at 12 hpi by TTEs...

Research Grants64

  1. Molecular Basis of Pathogen-Induced Cell Death in Plants
    JEAN GREENBERG; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Because experimental progress using a plant model is rapid, the results obtained and quickly be related to human biology and disease. ..
  2. Immune Mechanisms That Control Ectromelia Virus Infection
    Luis J Sigal; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Project 2 continues inspection of innate/natural immunity by examining the mechanisms by which type 1 interferons limit spread of the virus beyond the draining lymph ..
  3. Immunobiology of Acute Environmental Asthma
    David B Peden; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..2) To study the relevance of cryopyrin and a cryopyrin-adaptor (ASC) in asthma. (3) To study and identify factors which modulate the nucleotide-binding properties and ATPase function of Monarch-1 and cryopyrin. ..
  4. Development of a Novel Vaccine Against Herpes Simplex Type 2
    DEBORAH SPECTOR; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Defining the immune correlates of an effective vaccine is particularly challenging since the natural immunity to HSV-2 is not sufficient to protect against recurrent infection and viral shedding...
  5. Regulating the Immune Microenvironment in Breast Cancer
    Lisa Marie Coussens; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In the majority of cases however, the natural immunity to cancer that is present is not protective, but instead fosters disease progression...
  6. Modular Subunit Vaccine for Salmonella
    MARC KEVIN JENKINS; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..We believe that the best way to accomplish this goal is by understanding natural immunity in asymptomatic carriers. Our goal is to do this by studying immunity to S...
  7. Synergy between TLR2 and IL-22R in airway epithelial cells during MRSA challenge
    Jeremy P McAleer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) recognizes peptidoglycan and initiates natural immunity to S. aureus. Dendritic cells respond to TLR ligands by producing many factors including IL-1b and IL-23...
  8. The role of host endogenous small RNAs in innate immunity
    Hailing Jin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The proposed research will significantly advance our understanding of the mechanisms and function of small RNA-mediated gene regulation in innate immunity using the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. ..
  9. Role of p27 in chronic myeloid leukemia and its potential as a therapeutic target
    Anupriya Agarwal; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Since disruption of physiological p27 function is a common theme in human cancers, findings from this study may have implications beyond CML. ..
  10. Programmed Cell Death and Disease Resistance in Arabidopsis
    Roger W Innes; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Together with Specific Aims 1-3, these analyses will provide significant new insight into how PCD and immunity are regulated. ..
  11. The genetic basis of singlet oxygen-mediated signaling in eukaryotic cells
    Klaus Apel; Fiscal Year: 2013
  12. Non-oxidative Resistance to A. fumigatus by Alveolar Macrophages
    James B Burritt; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The long-term goal of these approaches is to identify potential therapeutic targets to augment the natural immunity that protects from infections by A. fumigatus...
  13. Viral Immunomodulation and Rational CMV Vaccine Design
    Mark R Schleiss; Fiscal Year: 2013, attenuated approach to HCMV vaccines is that such vaccines could elicit an immune response that mimics natural immunity and hence provide broader protection to a wide variety of virus-encoded targets of the host immune response...
  14. Interplay of Epigenetic Mechanisms in Gene Silencing
    Michael P Kladde; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The mechanistic RNAi studies are expected to uncover new targets for therapeutic interventions and/or point to therapeutic strategies that will enhance the efficacy of clinically-used DNA methylation inhibitors. ..
  15. The MHC of wild chimpanzees: genetic variation, disease and reproductive success
    ..Furthermore, it will contribute to the understanding of infertility and failed pregnancy due to particular deleterious alleles and the degree of heterozygosity of individuals, as well as parental MHC matching. ..
  16. Dynamic regulation of salicylic acid biosynthesis &perception in plant immunity
    Xinnian Dong; Fiscal Year: 2013
  17. Developing novel adjuvants for HIV vaccination
    Si Yi Chen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..immunization approaches and novel adjuvants to generate protective immune response that is superior to the natural immunity against HIV infection...
  18. Effector and regulatory T cell responses and protection from clinical malaria
    Margaret E Feeney; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..but progress toward this goal has been hindered by our limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying natural immunity to malaria and a lack of reliable in vitro correlates of protection...
  19. Exploiting pathogen-induced cell death to create disease resistant plants:R01GM05
    Jean T Greenberg; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..To create more durable and efficient resistant plants we will identify defense-response inducing effectors. ..
  20. Evolution and Ancestral Functions of a Human MHC Class I Pseudogene, HLA-Y
    ANA S GOYOS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Results obtained from this study will help in the understanding of the consequences of MHC variation on the human immune response and in disease resistance and susceptibility. ..
  21. 13th International Meeting of the Society for Natural Immunity April 20-24, 2012
    Lewis L Lanier; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..They are also important in determining the success of transplantation, particularly hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. ..
  22. Mechanisms underlying selective motor pool vulnerability in mouse and human SMA
    Justin C Lee; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Future studies that focus on underlying mechanisms of neuroprotection may provide insight into principles of neurodegeneration broadly. ..
  23. Immuno-epidemiological epitope mapping of a blood stage malaria vaccine antigen
    Christopher V Plowe; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..a parasite immune escape mechanism that allows repeated infection with different variants in the face of natural immunity. We recently completed the first Phase 2 clinical trial of a monovalent AMA1- based malaria vaccine in ..
  24. Host and Pathogen Evolution in Lassa Fever
    Pardis Sabeti; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Finally these efforts will create new opportunities in Lassa virus research, including investigations of viral pathogenicity and evolution and development of novel vaccines. ..
  25. Maternal immune protection against congenital CMV infection
    Sallie R Permar; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..from CMV infection will require protective maternal CMV-specific immune responses similar to that provided by natural immunity following CMV infection...
  26. Biology and Prognostic implications of Flt3 mutations in AML
    Soheil Meshinchi; Fiscal Year: 2013
  27. Selective Instructions for Memory T Cells
    HILDE MC CHEROUTRE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of HIV vaccination trials is a clear warning that the vaccination approaches used so far do not reproduce natural immunity that controls the virus in natural HIV resistant people...
  28. CaMKII regulates key mechanisms of vascular response to injury in vivo
    ISABELLA MARIA GRUMBACH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The proposed research is significant because it is expected to advance the field by identifying CaMKII activating events in vivo. Ultimately, such knowledge may allow for the development of new preventive strategies for vascular injury. ..
  29. Ocular Mucosal Immunity Induced by HSV-1 Lipopeptide
    Lbachir BenMohamed; Fiscal Year: 2013 effective vaccine will have to induce different and/or more vigorous immune responses than the sub-optimal natural immunity. The research in this application will specifically focus on: (1) Identifying human HSV-1 epitopes recognized ..
  30. RAS and injury: ACE and resistance to cancer and viral infection
    Kenneth E Bernstein; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our discovery offers a new approach to enhance natural immunity, and it may lead to new therapeutic avenues for the control of infectious disease and malignancy quite ..
  31. Elucidating functional properties of memory B cells
    MARY TOMAYKO; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..These proposed studies will help elucidate how "memory" functions in order to better understand natural immunity and improve vaccine design.
  32. Molecular Basis of NLR-Mediated Innate Immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana
    BRIAN JOHN STASKAWICZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
  33. Mechanisms Specific to the Beneficial Effects of Dietary Restriction
    William B Mair; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  34. The circulating and memory B-antibody responses in HIV-infected patients
    MOHAMMAD MOHSENI SAJADI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The NVS and similar cohorts (Elite Controllers) represent the best available model of natural immunity to HIV-1. Much of the research focus until now has been placed on circulating antibodies in the plasma...
  35. Immune Control and Evasion during Acute HCV Infection
    GEORG MICHAEL LAUER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Therefore understanding natural immunity to this infection and the development of prophylactic vaccines and immunotherapies remain urgent goals...
  36. Aspartic Protease Inhibitors as Novel Antimalarials
    Marvin J Meyers; Fiscal Year: 2013
    JONATHAN RAVDIN; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..before work can proceed on development of an amebiasis vaccine we must gain a further understanding of natural immunity to this parasite...
  38. Metabolomics approaches to TB drug development
    Kyu Y Rhee; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Such knowledge would provide a fresh lens on new drug targets that might augment or synergize with natural immunity. From a broader point of view, this work will not only advance efforts to identify new potential drug targets ..
  39. MHC regulation of NK cell mediated virus immunity
    Michael G Brown; Fiscal Year: 2013
  40. Mucosal IgA responses during aging
    Laura A Vogel; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This predominance of "natural immunity" is accompanied by an increase in the B1 cell population...
    Otto O Yang; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..have worked against pathogens where survivors of infection develop protective immunity by mimicking this natural immunity;for HIV-1, infected persons generally fail to contain the virus, and thus a vaccine that mimics natural ..
  42. Cardiomyocyte mitochondria and mtROS in cardiac aging, hypertrophy and failure
    Peter S Rabinovitch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This comprehensive approach will provide an integrated assessment of the role of mitochondria in cardiac health, disease and disease-resistance. (End of Abstract) ..
  43. Rediscovering Natural Chemical Diversity
    Yi Tang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Second, we will develop protein engineering strategy to evolve known biosynthetic enzymes towards generation of new chemical diversity. A three component ..
  44. INDO-US Collaboration to Develop Rotavirus Vaccines
    Pratima Ray; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..First rotavirus infections are associated with the most severe diarrhea, but natural immunity protects against severe diarrhea upon reinfection...
  45. Neuro-Immune Mechanisms in Early Life Stress-Induced Gastrointestinal Disease
    Adam Moeser; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Sara Lustigman; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..b>Natural immunity against O...
  47. Conference of the Society for Natural Immunity
    Wayne M Yokoyama; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The meeting of the Society for Natural Immunity (SNI) is the leading and most comprehensive international conference on all aspects of natural killer (NK) ..
    Philip Loverde; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Clinical and experimental evidence supports the notion that natural immunity does exist in the infected host, indicating that it should be possible to develop an effective vaccine ..
  49. Synaptotagmin function in virus movement and plant development
    Sondra G Lazarowitz; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..As such, it can impact public health by improving nutrition, providing knowledge about growth defects, and identifying novel ways to limit the spread of HIV and other retroviruses. ..
    STEVEN YELLON; Fiscal Year: 2002
  51. Functional Sorting of Microbial Cells From Complex Microbiota
    Mitchel Doktycz; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The proposed research will result in new technology that will facilitate the identification, sorting, and characterization of these microbial communities. ..
  52. Assessment of Smallpox Specific Immune Responses
    Thomas Denny; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Hypothesis: Response level and/or frequency of CD4 or CD8 cells to various immunodominant viral epitopes will change with age, time since last vaccination or presence of disease (e.g, HIV)...
    Gary Schneider; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..An understanding of the disruption of DBP-MAF in osteopetrosis will aid in the development of means to block its activity in these osteolytic diseases. ..
    MARCIA MILLER; Fiscal Year: 1991
    Theo Kirkland; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Second infections are extraordinarily rare, indicating that natural immunity works...
  56. Polygenic Linkage Disequilibrium and Linkage Mapping
    Ina Hoeschele; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..These methods will be compared with simulated data, representing different population structures, histories and genetic marker types, and with real data. ..
  57. Advantages of Domestic Species as Biomedical Models
    James Ireland; Fiscal Year: 2004
    Martin Obin; Fiscal Year: 2001
    STIMSON SCHANTZ; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..Through this project proposal the clinical significance of natural immunity within the head and neck cancer patient will continue to be developed...
  60. Antitubulin drugs: Mechanisms of action and resistance
    Paraskevi Giannakakou; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We will also perform molecular modeling and structural studies of discodermolide-tubulin binding (c) Introduce specific tubulin mutations into human cancer cells to investigate their effect on drug-binding. ..
    BARBARA KUNKEL; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The identification and characterization of these components will contribute to our understanding of the molecular basis of disease resistance in plants. ..
  62. Immunological Correlates of Protection in Shigellosis
    Jakub Simon; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..b>Natural immunity occurs, and promising candidate vaccines have been developed...
    Phyllis Kanki; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The identification of such correlates has been hampered by relatively rare instances of natural immunity that have withstood the challenge of viral exposure...
  64. Microfluidic platforms for severe malaria
    PRADIPSINH RATHOD; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..cells of the immune system can be studied under flow and capillary constrictions, which may help understand natural immunity. The defined goal of this R21 project is to develop targeted microfluidic devices for severe malaria: ..