Summary: The outer of the three germ layers of the embryo.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Vertebrate cranial placodes I. Embryonic induction
    C V Baker
    Division of Biology 139 74, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, 91125, USA
    Dev Biol 232:1-61. 2001
  2. ncbi Formation of pluripotent stem cells in the mammalian embryo depends on the POU transcription factor Oct4
    J Nichols
    Centre for Genome Research, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    Cell 95:379-91. 1998
  3. ncbi The Hippo signaling pathway components Lats and Yap pattern Tead4 activity to distinguish mouse trophectoderm from inner cell mass
    Noriyuki Nishioka
    Laboratory for Embryonic Induction, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, 2 2 3 Minatojima minamimachi, Chuo Ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650 0047, Japan
    Dev Cell 16:398-410. 2009
  4. ncbi Blastocyst lineage formation, early embryonic asymmetries and axis patterning in the mouse
    Janet Rossant
    Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children and Departments of Molecular Genetics, and Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Development 136:701-13. 2009
  5. ncbi Nervous systems of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis are generated by ectoderm and endoderm and shaped by distinct mechanisms
    Nagayasu Nakanishi
    Sars Centre for Marine Molecular Biology, University of Bergen, Thormoehlensgt 55, 5008 Bergen, Norway
    Development 139:347-57. 2012
  6. ncbi Conversion of Xenopus ectoderm into neurons by NeuroD, a basic helix-loop-helix protein
    J E Lee
    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98104, USA
    Science 268:836-44. 1995
  7. pmc E-cadherin null mutant embryos fail to form a trophectoderm epithelium
    L Larue
    Max Planck Institut fur Immunbiologie, Freiburg, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:8263-7. 1994
  8. pmc N- and E-cadherins in Xenopus are specifically required in the neural and non-neural ectoderm, respectively, for F-actin assembly and morphogenetic movements
    Sumeda Nandadasa
    Division of Developmental Biology, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Research Foundation, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Development 136:1327-38. 2009
  9. ncbi A role for SOX1 in neural determination
    L H Pevny
    Division of Developmental Genetics, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, London, UK
    Development 125:1967-78. 1998
  10. ncbi Nodal inhibits differentiation of human embryonic stem cells along the neuroectodermal default pathway
    Ludovic Vallier
    Department of Surgery, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, United Kingdom
    Dev Biol 275:403-21. 2004

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications340 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Vertebrate cranial placodes I. Embryonic induction
    C V Baker
    Division of Biology 139 74, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, 91125, USA
    Dev Biol 232:1-61. 2001
    Cranial placodes are focal regions of thickened ectoderm in the head of vertebrate embryos that give rise to a wide variety of cell types, including elements of the paired sense organs and neurons in cranial sensory ganglia...
  2. ncbi Formation of pluripotent stem cells in the mammalian embryo depends on the POU transcription factor Oct4
    J Nichols
    Centre for Genome Research, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    Cell 95:379-91. 1998
    ..Expansion of trophoblast precursors is restored, however, by an Oct4 target gene product, fibroblast growth factor-4. Therefore, Oct4 also determines paracrine growth factor signaling from stem cells to the trophectoderm...
  3. ncbi The Hippo signaling pathway components Lats and Yap pattern Tead4 activity to distinguish mouse trophectoderm from inner cell mass
    Noriyuki Nishioka
    Laboratory for Embryonic Induction, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, 2 2 3 Minatojima minamimachi, Chuo Ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650 0047, Japan
    Dev Cell 16:398-410. 2009
    ..Thus, differential signaling between inside and outside cell populations leads to changes in cell fate specification during TE formation...
  4. ncbi Blastocyst lineage formation, early embryonic asymmetries and axis patterning in the mouse
    Janet Rossant
    Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children and Departments of Molecular Genetics, and Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Development 136:701-13. 2009
    ..We also discuss the continuing debate that surrounds the relative impacts of early lineage bias versus the stochastic allocation of cells with respect to the events that pattern the blastocyst and initiate its later asymmetries...
  5. ncbi Nervous systems of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis are generated by ectoderm and endoderm and shaped by distinct mechanisms
    Nagayasu Nakanishi
    Sars Centre for Marine Molecular Biology, University of Bergen, Thormoehlensgt 55, 5008 Bergen, Norway
    Development 139:347-57. 2012
    ..We show that the development of neurons commences in the ectoderm during gastrulation and involves interkinetic nuclear migration...
  6. ncbi Conversion of Xenopus ectoderm into neurons by NeuroD, a basic helix-loop-helix protein
    J E Lee
    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98104, USA
    Science 268:836-44. 1995
    ..competent to bypass the normal inhibitory influences that usually prevent neurogenesis in ventral and lateral ectoderm and is capable of converting most of the embryonic ectoderm into neurons...
  7. pmc E-cadherin null mutant embryos fail to form a trophectoderm epithelium
    L Larue
    Max Planck Institut fur Immunbiologie, Freiburg, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:8263-7. 1994
    ..These results demonstrate the pivotal role of E-cadherin in one of the most basic morphogenetic events in the development of multicellular organisms, the biogenesis of an epithelium...
  8. pmc N- and E-cadherins in Xenopus are specifically required in the neural and non-neural ectoderm, respectively, for F-actin assembly and morphogenetic movements
    Sumeda Nandadasa
    Division of Developmental Biology, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Research Foundation, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Development 136:1327-38. 2009
    ..We show here, using the developing ectoderm of the Xenopus embryo as a model, that F-actin assembly is a primary function of both N-cadherin in the neural ..
  9. ncbi A role for SOX1 in neural determination
    L H Pevny
    Division of Developmental Genetics, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, London, UK
    Development 125:1967-78. 1998
    In vertebrates, the delineation of the neural plate from a region of the primitive ectoderm is accompanied by the onset of specific gene expression which in turn promotes the formation of the nervous system...
  10. ncbi Nodal inhibits differentiation of human embryonic stem cells along the neuroectodermal default pathway
    Ludovic Vallier
    Department of Surgery, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, United Kingdom
    Dev Biol 275:403-21. 2004
    ..The effects of Nodal on early differentiation illustrate how hESCs can augment mouse embryos as a model for analyzing mechanisms of early mammalian development...
  11. ncbi Transcription factors involved in lens development from the preplacodal ectoderm
    Hajime Ogino
    Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916 5, Takayama, Ikoma, Nara, 630 0192, Japan
    Dev Biol 363:333-47. 2012
    ..functions: the first group comprises preplacodal genes, which are implicated in the formation of the preplacodal ectoderm that serves as a common primordium for cranial sensory tissues, including the lens...
  12. pmc Utx is required for proper induction of ectoderm and mesoderm during differentiation of embryonic stem cells
    Cristina Morales Torres
    Biotech Research and Innovation Centre, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    PLoS ONE 8:e60020. 2013
    ..we show that Utx is not required for the proliferation of ESCs, however, Utx contributes to the establishment of ectoderm and mesoderm in vitro. Interestingly, this contribution is independent of the catalytic activity of Utx...
  13. ncbi A combinatorial code of maternal GATA, Ets and beta-catenin-TCF transcription factors specifies and patterns the early ascidian ectoderm
    Ute Rothbächer
    Institut de Biologie du Developpement de Marseille Luminy IBDML, CNRS UMR6216 Université de la Méditerranée Aix Marseille, F 13288 Marseille Cedex 9, France
    Development 134:4023-32. 2007
    ..A molecular cascade is emerging for the mesendoderm, but less is known about the ectoderm, giving rise to epidermis and nervous tissue...
  14. pmc Rab11 helps maintain apical crumbs and adherens junctions in the Drosophila embryonic ectoderm
    Jeremiah F Roeth
    Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    PLoS ONE 4:e7634. 2009
    ..Tissue morphogenesis and organogenesis require that cells retain stable cell-cell adhesion while changing shape and moving. One mechanism to accommodate this plasticity in cell adhesion involves regulated trafficking of junctional proteins...
  15. ncbi Zebrafish DeltaNp63 is a direct target of Bmp signaling and encodes a transcriptional repressor blocking neural specification in the ventral ectoderm
    Jeroen Bakkers
    Max Planck Institute for Immunobiology, Stuebeweg 51, D 79108 Freiburg, Germany
    Dev Cell 2:617-27. 2002
    Bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps) promote ventral specification in both the mesoderm and the ectoderm of vertebrate embryos...
  16. ncbi p63 regulates multiple signalling pathways required for ectodermal organogenesis and differentiation
    Johanna Laurikkala
    Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
    Development 133:1553-63. 2006
    ..The N-terminally truncated isoform of p63 (DeltaNp63) was expressed at high levels in embryonic ectoderm at all stages of tooth and hair development, and it was already dominant over the transactivating TAp63 isoform ..
  17. ncbi Gene-regulatory interactions in neural crest evolution and development
    Daniel Meulemans
    California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena 91125, USA
    Dev Cell 7:291-9. 2004
    ..driving neural crest development and compare these to a hypothetical network operating in the embryonic ectoderm of the cephalochordate amphioxus...
  18. ncbi Inactivation of the mouse Huntington's disease gene homolog Hdh
    M P Duyao
    Molecular Neurogenetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown 02129, USA
    Science 269:407-10. 1995
    ..5. Thus, huntingtin is critical early in embryonic development, before the emergence of the nervous system. That Hdh inactivation does not mimic adult HD neuropathology suggests that the human disease involves a gain of function...
  19. ncbi Ectodermal Wnt function as a neural crest inducer
    Division of Biology 139 74, California Institute of Technology, Wilson and California, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    Science 297:848-51. 2002
    ..Here, we show that, in avians, Wnt6 is localized in ectoderm and in vivo inhibition of Wnt signaling perturbs neural crest formation...
  20. ncbi Distinct roles for Fgf, Wnt and retinoic acid in posteriorizing the neural ectoderm
    Tetsuhiro Kudoh
    Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University College London, Gower St, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Development 129:4335-46. 2002
    ..of, and interactions between, retinoic acid (RA), Fgf and Wnt signals in the promotion of posterior fates in the ectoderm. We analyze expression and function of cyp26/P450RAI, a gene that encodes retinoic acid 4-hydroxylase, as a tool ..
  21. pmc A SHH-responsive signaling center in the forebrain regulates craniofacial morphogenesis via the facial ectoderm
    Diane Hu
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California at San Francisco, School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
    Development 136:107-16. 2009
    Interactions among the forebrain, neural crest and facial ectoderm regulate development of the upper jaw. To examine these interactions, we activated the Sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway in the brain...
  22. ncbi Functions of FGF signalling from the apical ectodermal ridge in limb development
    Xin Sun
    Department of Anatomy and Program in Developmental Biology, School of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, 94143 0452, USA
    Nature 418:501-8. 2002
    ..In the complete absence of both FGF4 and FGF8 activities, limb development fails. We present a model to explain how the mutant phenotypes arise from FGF-mediated effects on limb bud size and cell survival...
  23. ncbi Anterior specification of embryonic ectoderm: the role of the Xenopus cement gland-specific gene XAG-2
    F Aberger
    Institute of Genetics, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, A 5020, Salzburg, Austria
    Mech Dev 72:115-30. 1998
    In a search for novel developmental genes expressed in a spatially restricted pattern in dorsal ectoderm of Xenopus we have identified XAG-2, a cement gland-specific gene with a putative role in ectodermal patterning...
  24. pmc Patterning of the dorsal-ventral axis in echinoderms: insights into the evolution of the BMP-chordin signaling network
    François Lapraz
    UPMC University of Paris 06, CNRS, UMR7009, Biologie du Développement, Observatoire Oceanologique, Villefranche sur Mer, France
    PLoS Biol 7:e1000248. 2009
    ..that the long-range organizing activity of Nodal is assured by a relay molecule synthesized in the ventral ectoderm, then translocated to the opposite side of the embryo...
  25. ncbi Neural induction
    R Harland
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley 94720 3204, USA
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 10:357-62. 2000
    Development of neural fates from ectoderm is accompanied by the blockage of BMP signals at both protein and mRNA levels. Recent work has employed zebrafish, chick and mouse in addition to amphibians as models...
  26. pmc A symphony of regulations centered on p63 to control development of ectoderm-derived structures
    Luisa Guerrini
    Department of Biomolecular Science and Biotechnology, University of Milan, 20133 Milano, Italy
    J Biomed Biotechnol 2011:864904. 2011
    ..transcription factor p63 is critically important for basic cellular functions during development of the ectoderm and derived structure and tissues, including skin, limb, palate, and hair...
  27. ncbi Serotonin synchronises convergent extension of ectoderm with morphogenetic gastrulation movements in Drosophila
    J F Colas
    IGBMC CNRS INSERM, Universite de Strasbourg, BP 163, Illkirch, France
    Mech Dev 87:77-91. 1999
    During Drosophila gastrulation, convergent extension of the ectoderm is required for germband extension. Adhesive heterogeneity within ectodermal cells has been proposed to trigger the intercalation of cells responsible for this movement...
  28. ncbi Overexpression of Nodal promotes differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into mesoderm and endoderm at the expense of neuroectoderm formation
    Kristina C Pfendler
    Center for Reproductive Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Stem Cells Dev 14:162-72. 2005
    ..Accordingly, altering expression of factors responsible for cell differentiation in the intact embryo provides an approach for directing ES cell fates in vitro toward therapeutically useful cell types...
  29. ncbi Lens morphogenesis is dependent on Pax6-mediated inhibition of the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in the lens surface ectoderm
    Ondrej Machon
    Institute of Molecular Genetics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 14420 Prague 4, Czech Republic
    Genesis 48:86-95. 2010
    ..dependent on proper development of the retinal neuroectoderm that is located close beneath the head surface ectoderm. Signaling from the prospective retina triggers lens-specific gene expression in the surface-ectoderm...
  30. ncbi Directing differentiation of human embryonic stem cells toward anterior neural ectoderm using small molecules
    Beata Surmacz
    Neusentis, The Portway Building, Granta Park, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Stem Cells 30:1875-84. 2012
    Based on knowledge of early embryo development, where anterior neural ectoderm (ANE) development is regulated by native inhibitors of bone morphogenic protein (BMP) and Nodal/Activin signaling, most published protocols of human embryonic ..
  31. pmc Ectodermal Wnt3/beta-catenin signaling is required for the establishment and maintenance of the apical ectodermal ridge
    Jeffery R Barrow
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Genes Dev 17:394-409. 2003
    ..demonstrated that interplay between the Wnt and Fgf signaling pathways is essential in the limb mesenchyme and ectoderm in the establishment and perhaps the maintenance of the AER...
  32. ncbi Forebrain and midbrain regions are deleted in Otx2-/- mutants due to a defective anterior neuroectoderm specification during gastrulation
    D Acampora
    International Institute of Genetics and Biophysics CNR, Naples, Italy
    Development 121:3279-90. 1995
    ..These data suggest that Otx2 expression in endomesoderm and ectoderm is required for anterior neuroectoderm specification...
  33. ncbi Mouse Cdx-1 expression during gastrulation
    B I Meyer
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biophysical Chemistry, Gottingen, FRG
    Development 117:191-203. 1993
    ..Furthermore, the expression correlates with the formation of segmented tissue in the posterior hindbrain, the spinal cord and structures like the mesonephros...
  34. ncbi Tead4 is required for specification of trophectoderm in pre-implantation mouse embryos
    Noriyuki Nishioka
    Laboratory for Embryonic Induction, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, 2 2 3 Minatojima minamimachi, Chuo, Kobe, Hyogo 650 0047, Japan
    Mech Dev 125:270-83. 2008
  35. pmc A vertebrate gene related to orthodenticle contains a homeodomain of the bicoid class and demarcates anterior neuroectoderm in the gastrulating mouse embryo
    A Simeone
    International Institute of Genetics and Biophysics, CNR, Naples, Italy
    EMBO J 12:2735-47. 1993
    ..Otx2 appears to be already expressed in the epiblast of prestreak embryos. It persists in the entire embryonic ectoderm for some time after the onset of gastrulation...
  36. pmc Fgfr2 is required for limb outgrowth and lung-branching morphogenesis
    E Arman
    Department of Molecular Genetics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:11895-9. 1999
    ..Possible epithelial-mesenchymal interactions between the splicing alternatives of Fgfr2 and their specific ligands will be discussed...
  37. pmc Ancestral regulatory circuits governing ectoderm patterning downstream of Nodal and BMP2/4 revealed by gene regulatory network analysis in an echinoderm
    Alexandra Saudemont
    UMR 7009 CNRS, Université de Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Observatoire Oceanologique, Villefranche sur Mer, France
    PLoS Genet 6:e1001259. 2010
    ..During development of the sea urchin embryo, the ectoderm is the source of signals that pattern all three germ layers along the dorsal-ventral axis...
  38. ncbi Hedgehog signaling is required for pituitary gland development
    M Treier
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, School and Department of Medicine, UCSD, CMMW, Room 345, La Jolla, CA 92093 0648, USA
    Development 128:377-86. 2001
    ..Shh is expressed throughout the ventral diencephalon and the oral ectoderm, but its expression is subsequently absent from the nascent Rathke's pouch as soon as it becomes morphologically ..
  39. ncbi Epibranchial and otic placodes are induced by a common Fgf signal, but their subsequent development is independent
    Shun Kuo Sun
    Children s Brain Tumour Research Centre, Institute of Genetics, Queen s Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK
    Dev Biol 303:675-86. 2007
    ..Thus, both the otic and epibranchial placodes form in a common region of ectoderm under the influence of Fgfs, but these two structures subsequently develop independently...
  40. ncbi In vitro induction of the pronephric duct in Xenopus explants
    Kenji Osafune
    Department of Life Sciences Biology, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, 3 8 1 Komaba, Meguro ku, Tokyo 153 8902, Japan
    Dev Growth Differ 44:161-7. 2002
    ..Treatment of the undifferentiated animal pole ectoderm of Xenopus laevis with activin A and retinoic acid (RA) induces formation of the pronephric tubule and glomus...
  41. ncbi Cornea-lens transdifferentiation in the anuran, Xenopus tropicalis
    J J Henry
    Department of Cell and Structural Biology, University of Illinois, 601 South Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
    Dev Genes Evol 211:377-87. 2001
    ..When pericorneal ectoderm and posteriolateral flank ectoderm were implanted into the vitreous chamber, only in rare cases did pericorneal ..
  42. ncbi Pax6 autoregulation mediated by direct interaction of Pax6 protein with the head surface ectoderm-specific enhancer of the mouse Pax6 gene
    Shin ichi Aota
    Department of Molecular Biology, Biomolecular Engineering Research Institute BERI, 6 2 3 Furuedai, 565 0874, Suita, Osaka, Japan
    Dev Biol 257:1-13. 2003
    ..The head surface ectoderm-specific enhancer of mouse Pax6 directs reporter expression in the derivatives of the ectoderm in the eye, such ..
  43. ncbi The Apical Ectodermal Ridge: morphological aspects and signaling pathways
    Marian Fernandez-Teran
    Departamento de Anatomia y Biologia Celular, Universidad de Cantabria, Santander, Spain
    Int J Dev Biol 52:857-71. 2008
    ..Our aim is to integrate both recent and old knowledge to produce a wider picture of the AER which enhances our understanding of this relevant structure...
  44. ncbi BMP controls proximodistal outgrowth, via induction of the apical ectodermal ridge, and dorsoventral patterning in the vertebrate limb
    S Pizette
    Molecular Biology Program and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Development 128:4463-74. 2001
    ..of the vertebrate limb requires the function of the transcription factor Engrailed 1 (EN1) in the ventral ectoderm. EN1 restricts, to the dorsal half of the limb, the expression of the two genes known to specify dorsal pattern...
  45. pmc Combinatorial Fgf and Bmp signalling patterns the gastrula ectoderm into prospective neural and epidermal domains
    Tetsuhiro Kudoh
    Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Development 131:3581-92. 2004
    ..In the ectoderm, it is thought that high levels of Bmp activity promote epidermal development ventrally, whereas secreted Bmp ..
  46. ncbi Cdx2 is required for correct cell fate specification and differentiation of trophectoderm in the mouse blastocyst
    Dan Strumpf
    Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, 600 University Avenue, Toronto M5G 1X5, Ontario, Canada
    Development 132:2093-102. 2005
    ..Thus, Cdx2 is essential for segregation of the ICM and TE lineages at the blastocyst stage by ensuring repression of Oct4 and Nanog in the TE...
  47. ncbi A role for iro1 and iro7 in the establishment of an anteroposterior compartment of the ectoderm adjacent to the midbrain-hindbrain boundary
    Motoyuki Itoh
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, NICHD NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Development 129:2317-27. 2002
    ..iro7 is expressed during gastrulation along with iro1 in a compartment of the dorsal ectoderm that includes the prospective midbrain-hindbrain domain, the adjacent neural crest and the trigeminal placodes in ..
  48. ncbi Neural crest induction in Xenopus: evidence for a two-signal model
    C LaBonne
    Division of Biology, Beckman Institute 139 74, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    Development 125:2403-14. 1998
    ..Slug-expressing ectoderm will generate neural crest in the presence of Wnt or FGF-like signals, however, bypassing the need for BMP ..
  49. ncbi Threshold-specific requirements for Bmp4 in mandibular development
    Wei Liu
    Alkek Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A and M System Health Science Center, Houston, 77030, USA
    Dev Biol 283:282-93. 2005
    Mandibular development is regulated by an interplay between a specified branchial arch ectoderm and a plastic mesenchyme. Moreover, signaling from the pharyngeal endoderm has been shown to be important for mandibular morphogenesis...
  50. ncbi The allocation of epiblast cells to ectodermal and germ-line lineages is influenced by the position of the cells in the gastrulating mouse embryo
    P P Tam
    Embryology Unit, Children s Medical Research Institute, Wentworthville, New South Wales, Australia
    Dev Biol 178:124-32. 1996
    ..Normally, cells in the distal epiblast differentiate predominantly into neuroectoderm and surface ectoderm. However, when they were transplanted to proximal regions of the epiblast, distal epiblast cells behaved like ..
  51. ncbi Expression of Pax-3 in the lateral neural plate is dependent on a Wnt-mediated signal from posterior nonaxial mesoderm
    A G Bang
    Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California, 92037, USA
    Dev Biol 212:366-80. 1999
  52. ncbi Competence, specification and commitment in otic placode induction
    A K Groves
    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    Development 127:3489-99. 2000
    The inner ear is induced from cranial ectoderm adjacent to the hindbrain. Despite almost a century of study, the molecular mechanisms of inner ear induction remain obscure...
  53. ncbi Trophectoderm lineage determination in cattle
    Debra K Berg
    Reproductive Technologies, AgResearch Crown Research Institute, Hamilton 3214, New Zealand
    Dev Cell 20:244-55. 2011
    ..These findings thus emphasize ways in which mice may not be representative of the earliest stages of mammalian development and stem cell biology...
  54. ncbi The duality of beta-catenin function: a requirement in lens morphogenesis and signaling suppression of lens fate in periocular ectoderm
    April N Smith
    Division of Developmental Biology, Department of Ophthalmology, Children s Hospital Research Foundation, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Dev Biol 285:477-89. 2005
    ..Surprisingly, conditional deletion of beta-catenin in periocular ectoderm results in the formation of Prox-1 and beta-crystallin-positive ectopic lentoid bodies...
  55. ncbi foxD5a, a Xenopus winged helix gene, maintains an immature neural ectoderm via transcriptional repression that is dependent on the C-terminal domain
    S A Sullivan
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, The George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20037, USA
    Dev Biol 232:439-57. 2001
    ..Zygotic expression is strongest in the presumptive neural ectoderm at gastrula and neural plate stages, but there is minor paraxial mesodermal expression during primary ..
  56. ncbi The status of Wnt signalling regulates neural and epidermal fates in the chick embryo
    S I Wilson
    Department of Microbiology, , , Sweden
    Nature 411:325-30. 2001
    ..alone or in combination with BMP antagonists, are not sufficient to induce neural fate in prospective epidermal ectoderm of amniote embryos...
  57. ncbi Distinct GAGE and MAGE-A expression during early human development indicate specific roles in lineage differentiation
    Morten F Gjerstorff
    Medical Biotechnology Center, University of Southern Denmark, Winsloewparken 25, DK 5000 Odense C, Denmark
    Hum Reprod 23:2194-201. 2008
    ..We have evaluated the potential role of CTAs in early human development...
  58. ncbi The Wnt-activated Xiro1 gene encodes a repressor that is essential for neural development and downregulates Bmp4
    J Gomez-Skarmeta
    Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas and Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, Spain
    Development 128:551-60. 2001
    ..Consistently, Xiro1 and Bmp4 have complementary patterns of expression during gastrulation. The expression of Xiro1 requires Wnt signaling. Thus, Xiro1 is probably a mediator of the known downregulation of Bmp4 by Wnt signaling...
  59. ncbi Specific pan-neural crest expression of zebrafish Crestin throughout embryonic development
    R Luo
    Neurobiotechnology Center, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 53210, USA
    Dev Dyn 220:169-74. 2001
    ..expression was first observed during the onset of somitogenesis in cells of the neural crest domain of the ectoderm. Crestin expression was subsequently observed in premigratory cranial and trunk neural crest cells and then in ..
  60. pmc Threshold responses to morphogen gradients by zero-order ultrasensitivity
    Gustavo J Melen
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
    Mol Syst Biol 1:2005.0028. 2005
    ..During patterning of the Drosophila embryonic ventral ectoderm, a graded mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation is converted into an all-or-none degradation switch ..
  61. ncbi The epaxial-hypaxial subdivision of the avian somite
    Louise Cheng
    Department of Craniofacial Development, King s College London, London Bridge, London SE1 9RT, UK
    Dev Biol 274:348-69. 2004
    ..development is under positive control by notochord and floor plate (Shh), dorsal neural tube (Wnt1) and surface ectoderm (Wnt1-like signalling activity) but negatively regulated by the lateral plate mesoderm (BMP4)...
  62. pmc Fgf8 is required for outgrowth and patterning of the limbs
    A M Moon
    Department of Pediatrics and Human Molecular Biology and Genetics, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
    Nat Genet 26:455-9. 2000
    ..Lack of Fgf8 in the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) alters expression of other Fgf genes, Shh and Bmp2...
  63. pmc Neural induction in Xenopus: requirement for ectodermal and endomesodermal signals via Chordin, Noggin, beta-Catenin, and Cerberus
    Hiroki Kuroda
    Department of Biological Chemistry, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, USA
    PLoS Biol 2:E92. 2004
    ..When mesoderm involution was prevented in dorsal marginal-zone explants, the anterior neural tissue formed in ectoderm was derived from BCNE cells and had a complete requirement for Chd...
  64. ncbi Comprehensive expression analysis of all Wnt genes and their major secreted antagonists during mouse limb development and cartilage differentiation
    Florian Witte
    Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Ihnestr 73, D 14195 Berlin, Germany
    Gene Expr Patterns 9:215-23. 2009
    ..We provide a full expression pattern for Wif1 in limb development, for which no limb expression had been documented so far...
  65. ncbi Neural induction requires continued suppression of both Smad1 and Smad2 signals during gastrulation
    Chenbei Chang
    Department of Cell Biology, MCLM 360, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 0005, USA
    Development 134:3861-72. 2007
    Vertebrate neural induction requires inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in the ectoderm. However, whether inhibition of BMP signaling is sufficient to induce neural tissues in vivo remains controversial...
  66. ncbi Pericardin, a Drosophila type IV collagen-like protein is involved in the morphogenesis and maintenance of the heart epithelium during dorsal ectoderm closure
    Aymeric Chartier
    Laboratoire de Genetique et Physiologie du Developpement, UMR 6545 CNRS Université, IBDM CNRS INSERM Université de la Méditerranée, Campus de Luminy, Case 907, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09, France
    Development 129:3241-53. 2002
    ..Concerted migration of the two lateral cardiogenic regions of the mesoderm and endoderm (or ectoderm in invertebrates) is required for their fusion at the midline of the embryo...
  67. ncbi Cerberus-like is a secreted factor with neutralizing activity expressed in the anterior primitive endoderm of the mouse gastrula
    J A Belo
    Department of Biological Chemistry, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Los Angeles 90095 1662, USA
    Mech Dev 68:45-57. 1997
    ..A model of how head and trunk development might be regulated is discussed. Given its neuralizing activity, the secreted protein Cer-l is a candidate for mediating inductive activities of anterior visceral endoderm...
  68. pmc GATA3 is selectively expressed in the trophectoderm of peri-implantation embryo and directly regulates Cdx2 gene expression
    Pratik Home
    Institute of Maternal Fetal Biology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas 66160, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:28729-37. 2009
    ..Our results indicate a novel function of GATA3, in which it is selectively expressed in TE, regulates expression of key genes in TE lineage, and is involved in morula to blastocyst transformation...
  69. ncbi A discrete period of FGF-induced Erk1/2 signalling is required for vertebrate neural specification
    Marios P Stavridis
    Division of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, UK
    Development 134:2889-94. 2007
    ..we demonstrate that sustained Erk1/2 activation controls the transition from an Fgf5-positive, primitive ectoderm-like cell state to a neural progenitor cell state without attenuating bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling ..
  70. ncbi The preplacodal region: an ectodermal domain with multipotential progenitors that contribute to sense organs and cranial sensory ganglia
    Andrea Streit
    Department of Craniofacial Development, King s College London, Guy s Campus, London, UK
    Int J Dev Biol 51:447-61. 2007
    ..Here I review the molecular mechanisms that sequentially subdivide the ectoderm to give rise to the placode territory.
  71. ncbi Induction and migration of the anterior visceral endoderm is regulated by the extra-embryonic ectoderm
    Tristan A Rodriguez
    Molecular Embryology Group, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 ONN, UK
    Development 132:2513-20. 2005
    ..In this paper, we describe an essential role for another extra-embryonic tissue, the extra-embryonic ectoderm (ExE), in patterning the AVE and epiblast...
  72. ncbi Conversion of embryonic stem cells into neuroectodermal precursors in adherent monoculture
    Qi Long Ying
    Institute for Stem Cell Research, University of Edinburgh, King s Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JQ, United Kingdom
    Nat Biotechnol 21:183-6. 2003
    ..This system provides a platform for defining the molecular machinery of neural commitment and optimizing the efficiency of neuronal and glial cell production from pluripotent mammalian stem cells...
  73. pmc Xenopus Zic3, a primary regulator both in neural and neural crest development
    K Nakata
    Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, Tsukuba Life Science Center, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research RIKEN, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:11980-5. 1997
    ..These findings suggest that Zic3 can determine the ectodermal cell fate and promote the earliest step of neural and neural crest development...
  74. ncbi The incomplete inactivation of Fgf8 in the limb ectoderm affects the morphogenesis of the anterior autopod through BMP-mediated cell death
    Irene Delgado
    Departamento de Anatomia y Biologia Celular, Universidad de Cantabria, C Herrera Oria s n, E 39011 Santander, Spain
    Dev Dyn 237:649-58. 2008
    ..These limbs also exhibit an abnormal area of cell death at the anterior forelimb autopod, overlapping with an ectopic domain of Bmp7 expression, which can explain the abnormal morphogenesis of the anterior autopod...
  75. ncbi Conditional inactivation of Fgf4 reveals complexity of signalling during limb bud development
    X Sun
    Department of Anatomy and Program in Developmental Biology, School of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
    Nat Genet 25:83-6. 2000
  76. ncbi Ci-FoxA-a is the earliest zygotic determinant of the ascidian anterior ectoderm and directly activates Ci-sFRP1/5
    Clement Lamy
    Institut de Biologie du Developpement de Marseille, UMR 6216, CNRS Université de la Méditerranée, Parc Scientifique de Luminy, Case 907, F 13288 Marseille Cedex 9, France
    Development 133:2835-44. 2006
    This work focuses on the anteroposterior patterning of the ectoderm in the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis...
  77. pmc Extraocular ectoderm triggers dorsal retinal fate during optic vesicle evagination in zebrafish
    Renee Kruse-Bend
    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, 20 North 1900 East, Room 401 MREB, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA
    Dev Biol 371:57-65. 2012
    ..We identified gdf6a as a dorsal initiation signal acting from the extraocular non-neural ectoderm during optic vesicle evagination...
  78. ncbi The surface ectoderm is essential for nephric duct formation in intermediate mesoderm
    T Obara-Ishihara
    Departments of Physiology and Urology, Cornell University Medical College, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Development 126:1103-8. 1999
    ..identify the domain of intermediate mesoderm that gives rise to the nephric duct and demonstrate that the surface ectoderm is required for its differentiation...
  79. pmc Chordin forms a self-organizing morphogen gradient in the extracellular space between ectoderm and mesoderm in the Xenopus embryo
    Jean Louis Plouhinec
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biological Chemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1662
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:20372-9. 2013
    ..The three germ layers--ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm--are affected coordinately by the Chordin-BMP morphogen system...
  80. ncbi The dissociation of the Fgf-feedback loop controls the limbless state of the neck
    Corinne Lours
    Department of Craniofacial Development, King s College London, Floor 27, Guy s Tower, Guy s Hospital, London Bridge, London SE1 9RT, UK
    Development 132:5553-64. 2005
    ..We show that forelimb lateral mesoderm plus ectoderm grafted into the neck can continue limb development, suggesting that the neck does not actively inhibit this ..
  81. ncbi Establishing three blastocyst lineages--then what?
    Malgorzata Gasperowicz
    Department of Comparative Biology and Experimental Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    Biol Reprod 84:621-30. 2011
    ..In this context, we discuss the establishment of extraembryonic ectoderm and the contributions of parietal and visceral endoderm to yolk sac formation.
  82. ncbi The role of Pax-6 in eye and nasal development
    J C Grindley
    Developmental Genetics Section, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK
    Development 121:1433-42. 1995
    ..There are two principal components of the early eye, the neural ectoderm of the optic vesicle, which forms the retina, and the overlying surface ectoderm, which forms the lens and cornea...
  83. ncbi A novel method for purification of inner cell mass and trophectoderm cells from blastocysts using magnetic activated cell sorting
    Manabu Ozawa
    Department of Animal Sciences and DH Barron Reproductive and Perinatal Biology Research Program, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601, USA
    Fertil Steril 95:799-802. 2011
    ..To develop a simple method to purify blastomeres of inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) lineage using magnetic activated cell sorting...
  84. ncbi Regionalised signalling within the extraembryonic ectoderm regulates anterior visceral endoderm positioning in the mouse embryo
    Lucy Richardson
    The Wellcome Trust Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QR, UK
    Mech Dev 123:288-96. 2006
    ..visceral endoderm (AVE), can repress posterior cell fate and that signalling from the other, the extraembryonic ectoderm (ExE), is required for posterior patterning...
  85. ncbi Aberrant expression patterns of genes involved in segregation of inner cell mass and trophectoderm lineages in bovine embryos derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer
    Takashi Fujii
    Iwate University, Japan
    Cell Reprogram 12:617-25. 2010
    ..These results raise the possibility that abnormalities in the cloned fetus and placenta are related to the aberrant expression of genes involved in segregation and differentiation process in the early developmental stage...
  86. ncbi Conserved expression of mouse Six1 in the pre-placodal region (PPR) and identification of an enhancer for the rostral PPR
    Shigeru Sato
    Division of Biology, Center for Molecular Medicine, Jichi Medical University, 3311 1 Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi 329 0498, Japan
    Dev Biol 344:158-71. 2010
    ..Here, we report the expression of Six1 in the horseshoe-shaped mouse ectoderm surrounding the anterior neural plate in a pattern broadly similar to that of non-mammalian vertebrates...
  87. ncbi The dynamic gene expression patterns of transcription factors constituting the sea urchin aboral ectoderm gene regulatory network
    Jen Hao Chen
    Institute of Cellular and Organismic Biology, Academia Sinica, Taiwan
    Dev Dyn 240:250-60. 2011
    ..The current ectoderm GRN model for the sea urchin embryo includes pregastrular specification functions in the oral (OE) and aboral ..
  88. ncbi Competence, specification and commitment to an olfactory placode fate
    Sujata Bhattacharyya
    Division of Biology, 139 74, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    Development 135:4165-77. 2008
    ..When competence to form olfactory placode was tested by grafting ectoderm from different axial levels to the anterior neural fold, we found that competence is initially broad for head, ..
  89. ncbi LvNotch signaling plays a dual role in regulating the position of the ectoderm-endoderm boundary in the sea urchin embryo
    D R Sherwood
    Developmental, Cell and Molecular Biology Group, Box 91000, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA
    Development 128:2221-32. 2001
    The molecular mechanisms guiding the positioning of the ectoderm-endoderm boundary along the animal-vegetal axis of the sea urchin embryo remain largely unknown...
  90. ncbi The mouse Engrailed-1 gene and ventral limb patterning
    C A Loomis
    Ronald O Perelman Deparment of Dermatology, New York University Medical School 10016, USA
    Nature 382:360-3. 1996
    ..The genes Wnt-7a and Lmx-1, which are expressed in dorsal limb ectoderm and mesoderm, respectively, are thought to be important regulators of dorsal limb differentiation...
  91. ncbi Neural crest and the origin of ectomesenchyme: neural fold heterogeneity suggests an alternative hypothesis
    James A Weston
    Institute of Neuroscience, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon, USA
    Dev Dyn 229:118-30. 2004
    ..Developmental Dynamics 229:118-130, 2004...
  92. ncbi Expression of three mouse homologs of the Drosophila segment polarity gene cubitus interruptus, Gli, Gli-2, and Gli-3, in ectoderm- and mesoderm-derived tissues suggests multiple roles during postimplantation development
    C C Hui
    Division of Molecular and Developmental Biology, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Dev Biol 162:402-13. 1994
    ..Expression was first detected during gastrulation in both the ectoderm and mesoderm...
  93. ncbi The choice between epidermal and neural fate: a matter of calcium
    Marc Moreau
    Equipe Biologie de la Différenciation Epithéliale, Institut Albert Bonniot, Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, France
    Int J Dev Biol 48:75-84. 2004
    ..In vertebrates, cells of the embryonic ectoderm have a choice during gastrulation between to fates; they give rise to epidermal progenitors on the ventral side ..
  94. pmc Molecular dissection of mesenchymal-epithelial interactions in the hair follicle
    Michael Rendl
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 3:e331. 2005
    ..Overall, our strategy illustrates how knowledge of the genes uniquely expressed by each cell type residing in a complex niche can reveal important new insights into the biology of the tissue and its associated disease states...
  95. pmc Clonal and molecular analysis of the prospective anterior neural boundary in the mouse embryo
    Marieke Cajal
    Universite Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Institut Jacques Monod, UMR7592 CNRS, F 75013 Paris, France
    Development 139:423-36. 2012
    In the mouse embryo the anterior ectoderm undergoes extensive growth and morphogenesis to form the forebrain and cephalic non-neural ectoderm...
  96. pmc Cytosine arabinoside induces ectoderm and inhibits mesoderm expression in human embryonic stem cells during multilineage differentiation
    S Jagtap
    Center of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Institute of Neurophysiology, Cologne, Germany
    Br J Pharmacol 162:1743-56. 2011
    ..This study was undertaken to explore the adverse effects of cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) on randomly differentiated hESCs...
  97. ncbi Expression of mouse Foxi class genes in early craniofacial development
    Takahiro Ohyama
    Gonda Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, House Ear Institute, 2100 West 3rd Street, Los Angeles, CA 90057, USA
    Dev Dyn 231:640-6. 2004
    ..In support of this idea, several genes are expressed in the surface ectoderm of the head adjacent to the neural plate, before the appearance of genes in specific cranial placodes...
  98. ncbi A novel fork head gene mediates early steps during Xenopus lens formation
    K L Kenyon
    Neuroscience Program, The George Washington University Medical Center, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, NW, Washington DC 20037, USA
    Development 126:5107-16. 1999
    ..head gene family, named for its nearly restricted expression in the anterior ectodermal placode, presumptive lens ectoderm (PLE), and anterior epithelium of the differentiated lens...
  99. ncbi Molecular evidence from Ciona intestinalis for the evolutionary origin of vertebrate sensory placodes
    Francoise Mazet
    School of Animal and Microbial Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6AJ, UK
    Dev Biol 282:494-508. 2005
    Cranial sensory placodes are focused areas of the head ectoderm of vertebrates that contribute to the development of the cranial sense organs and their associated ganglia...
  100. ncbi Temporally controlled targeted somatic mutagenesis in embryonic surface ectoderm and fetal epidermal keratinocytes unveils two distinct developmental functions of BRG1 in limb morphogenesis and skin barrier formation
    Arup Kumar Indra
    Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire IGBMC, Strasbourg, France
    Development 132:4533-44. 2005
    ..Finally, we demonstrate that cell-specific targeted somatic mutations can be created at various times during the development of mouse embryos cell-specifically expressing the tamoxifen-activatable Cre-ER(T2) recombinase...
  101. pmc BMP4 is essential for lens induction in the mouse embryo
    Y Furuta
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Cell Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 2175 USA
    Genes Dev 12:3764-75. 1998
    ..that Bmp4, which is expressed strongly in the optic vesicle and weakly in the surrounding mesenchyme and surface ectoderm, has crucial roles during lens induction...

Research Grants70

  1. BMP signaling in vertebrate development
    Ken W Y Cho; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..2. BRE reporter gene experiments in Xenopus reveal that BMP signaling is not only active in the mesoderm and ectoderm, as is well known, but also in the endoderm 3...
  2. Use of umbilical cord as a unique stem cell source for tissue regeneration
    Xiao Dong Chen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..a specific cell lineage, including osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondroblasts and cardiomyocytes (mesoderm), nerve (ectoderm) and hepatocytes (endoderm)...
  3. A Cis-regulatory Model for Neural Border Induction
    Daniel Meulemans Medeiros; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..first step in neural crest development is the segregation of the neural border from adjacent neural and epidermal ectoderm. This process has been shown to involve Wnt and BMP signals secreted from adjacent ectoderm and underlying ..
  4. Morphogenesis of mammalian gut endoderm
    Anna Katerina Hadjantonakis; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The prevailing view of germ layer formation in mammalian embryos is that ectoderm, mesoderm and gut endoderm derive solely from the epiblast during gastrulation and while extraembryonic tissues ..
  5. Epigenetic modification of endothelial progenitor cells into multipotent cells
    Rajasingh Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..2) Under specific culture conditions, treated EPCs showed effective trans-differentiation into ectoderm (neuronal), and mesoderm (cardiomyocyte) lineages...
  6. Role of the Bradykinin Pathway in Craniofacial Development
    LAURA ANNE JACOX; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The mouth develops from the "extreme anterior domain" (EAD), where the ectoderm and endoderm directly juxtapose...
  7. Control of Cardiac Lineage Commitment and Differentiation in Murine Development
    Ibrahim J Domian; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..if miR200 is promotes FHF development by supporting mesoderm differentiation and suppressing endoderm and ectoderm differentiation;2) Determine the mechanisms by which miR200 controls FHF development;3) Determine the role of ..
  8. Development of the renin-expressing cell
    Maria L Sequeira Lopez; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..our preliminary work indicates that either a subset or all of the renin-expressing cells may derive from ectoderm. We further hypothesize that renin is necessary for the differentiation of ectodermal precursors into their ..
    Michael S Levine; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and the sharp lateral limits of its expression pattern delineate the boundary separating the future mesoderm and ectoderm. These features, homogenous expression and sharp lateral limits, are highly reproducible among the different ..
  10. Uncovering the transcription factor networks in early human cell specification
    ..During gastrulation, pluripotent epiblast cells give rise to the three germ layers-- endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. Later in development, these layers form nearly all the different tissues and organs in our body...
  11. Neural Crest Modulates FGF Signaling in the Pharynx
    Margaret Loewy Kirby; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Finally we will determine the relationship of neural crest with endoderm and ectoderm in controling FGF8b isoform expression...
    Trevor J Williams; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of the neural crest derived facial skeleton and this is mainly due to loss of AP-2a function in the surface ectoderm. Although Tcfap2a, Tcfap2b, and Tcfap2c have unique roles in development, recent data show that they also share ..
  13. Spatial Regulation of BMP Signaling in Dorsoventral Patterning
    David A Weisblat; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..are to explore the spatial regulation of BMP signaling across heterologous cell types, using the Helobdella ectoderm system...
  14. Genetic Pathways Directing Ventral Folding Morphogenesis in Mammalian Embryos
    ELIZABETH H LACY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..transgenes and a conditional allele of Bmpr1a to determine if AVE-expressed Bmp2 signals to definitive endoderm, ectoderm and/or mesoderm to initiate ventral folding morphogenesis...
    DENNIS ROOP; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..K14 is one of the first genes expressed in the surface ectoderm after commitment to stratification...
  16. Allogeneic Placental Stem Cells for Tissue Repair and Regeneration
    Vijay Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), with the ability to differentiate to all three germ layers (ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm) in vivo...
  17. Gene regulatory network evolution and the origin of biological novelties
    MARK MARTINDALE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..anemones, corals, and "jellyfish") are an animal group whose adults possess derivatives of only two germ layers, ectoderm and a bifunctional (having both absorptive and contractile functions) gastodermal (gut) layer...
  18. Ethanol-induced Lower Jaw Loss in Bmp Signaling Pathway Mutants
    CHARLES BENJAMIN LOVELY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cartilage due to disrupted morphogenesis of the anterior endoderm and subsequent defects to the oral ectoderm. The findings suggest the hypothesis that ethanol disrupts anterior endoderm morphogenesis in Bmp-pathway mutants ..
  19. Extrinsic signaling in neural crest and craniofacial development
    KIMBERLY ELAINE INMAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..formation, migration and differentiation with extrinsic patterning cues derived from the surrounding mesoderm, ectoderm and endoderm...
  20. Role of Ectodermal Signals in Facial Prominence Outgrowth and Development
    Trevor J Williams; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cells contain significant intrinsic patterning information, they also rely on signals supplied by the surface ectoderm of the facial prominences to fulfill their growth and patterning potential...
  21. Bmp-signaling in craniofacial development
    JAMES FRANCIS MARTIN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In the forming mandible, signaling between a specified branchial arch ectoderm and a plastic mesenchyme is thought to regulate mandibular morphogenesis...
  22. Novel Six1 co-factors and their role in placode development
    KAREN MARY NEILSON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The pre-placodal ectoderm (PPE) gives rise to the sensory organs in the vertebrate head, which frequently are subject to congenital defects and damage...
  23. Role of the Foxe3 Gene Family in Lens Formation.
    MILAN ALEXANDER JAMRICH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant): During early vertebrate development, lens is induced to form from the head surface ectoderm by the presumptive retinal neuroectoderm...
  24. The Role of Planar Cell Polarity Signals in Shaping Kidney Tubules
    RACHEL KATHERINE MILLER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..or activate signaling pathways, rapid development and easy visualization of the forming kidney under the surface ectoderm. Second, using transgenic approaches, we will address in living animals the role of PCP/ non-canonical Wnt ..
  25. International Conference for Ectodermal Dysplasias Classification
    Carlos F Salinas; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..dysplasias are a heterogeneous group of heritable disorders characterized by abnormalities of the embryonic ectoderm. Controversy exists over which syndromes should be classified as ectodermal dysplasias and which should be ..
  26. HPV Persistence and Head and Neck Cancer
    LUBOMIR TUREK; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..DNA tumor viruses that infect, persist in and cause proliferative lesions in the epithelial cells of the skin, ectoderm-derived mucosae and their adnexa...
  27. Ectoderm formation in the early Xenopus embryo
    Matthew Kofron; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by Principal Investigator): All tissues of the vertebrate body arise from three primary germ layers;the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. The ectoderm gives rise to the central nervous system and epidermis...
  28. Genetic and Morphometric Analysis of Facial Clefts
    REBECCA MICHELLE GREEN; Fiscal Year: 2013 examining shape, gene expression and function in a mouse model that overexpresses FGF8 in the facial ectoderm and comparing this model to our AP-2 model...
  29. Rapid Multiplexed Nanoprobe Assays for Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation
    David Larocca; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..I, we will develop a multiplexed PTQD assay for definitive endoderm (DE) and identify additional peptides for ectoderm and mesoderm assays...
  30. Gene Function Profiling of Neural Crest Cell Diversification
    Christine E Beattie; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Subsequent to the induction of the NC domain of the ectoderm during gastrulation, the fates of subsets of NC cells are specified as distinct sublineages that ultimately ..
  31. Characterizing early neural crest phosphoregulation using antiphosphatase targets
    Laura S Gammill; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..development has focused on the network of transcription factors that specifies neural crest progenitors in the ectoderm. However, expression of these transcription factors does not guarantee eventual migration as a neural crest cell...
  32. Control of neural crest development in Xenopus
    Jean Pierre Saint-Jeannet; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..While Bmp attenuation in the ectoderm appears to be a pre-requisite for NC induction, it is still unclear how Wnt and Fgf interact at the neural plate ..
  33. Genetic Basis of Congenital Anophthalmia
    THOMAS M GLASER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We propose these modifiers enhance penetrance of the eyeless trait by increasing Wnt activity within head ectoderm. We aim to refine the mapping of ey2-ey4, and test this hypothesis using specific targeted mutations and ..
    DAVID CY BEEBE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..eye forms from the interaction of the optic vesicle, an out pocketing of the ventral forebrain, with the surface ectoderm of the head...
    Sergei Y Sokol; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Neural crest forms as a result of inductive interactions of neuroectoderm, epidermal ectoderm and the underlying mesoderm...
  36. Wnt Signaling in Craniofacial Developmental Disorders
    Chengji Zhou; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The mutants exhibit dramatic alterations in morphogenetic movements and candidate Wnt target genes in both facial ectoderm and mesenchyme...
  37. Genetic and molecular anlaysis of neural development
    Howard Sirotkin; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..the potent genetic and cellular methodologies available in the zebrafish to study patterning of the neural ectoderm. The zebrafish is well suited to this analysis...
  38. Mechanisms of Embryonic Lens Determination
    Robert M Grainger; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In the case of the developing lens the long history of study, accessibility of presumptive lens ectoderm (PLE) at all stages, and the many technical advantages of the Xenopus system provide unique assets for addressing ..
  39. Immune targeting of melanoma-associated antigens in glioma
    Robert M Prins; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Melanocytes and astrocytes are both derived embryologically from the neural ectoderm. Their neoplastic counterparts, malignant melanomas and gliomas, have been shown in humans to share common ..
    Sergei Y Sokol; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Neural crest forms as a result of inductive interactions of neuroectoderm, epidermal ectoderm and the underlying mesoderm...
    Monte Westerfield; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..placode, like other cranial placodes, is thought to arise from a common precursor pool called the preplacodal ectoderm. Fgf signals from the early mesendoderm and later from the hindbrain are required to specify the otic placode, ..
  42. Ectodermal Placode Development into Sensory Structures
    Marianne Bronner; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Cranial placodes arise from regions of thickened ectoderm in the embryonic head that invaginate and/or delaminate to give rise to portions of the cranial ganglia as well ..
  43. Grhl2-regulation of Developing Ectoderm as a Model to Identify Suppressors of EMT
    Heather Ray; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..At the same time, the neighboring non-neural ectoderm (NNE) cells must remain tightly associated within the same epithelium in order for neural tube closure to proceed ..
  44. Regulation of TCF3 by Wnt signaling
    Sergei Y Sokol; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our preliminary experiments in Xenopus ectoderm and mammalian cells identified a specific post-translational change in TCF3 protein mobility that correlates with ..
  45. Genetic Hierarchies and Cellular Behaviors during Zebrafish Palatogenesis
    Johann K Eberhart; Fiscal Year: 2010 examine predictions of a reciprocal signaling hypothesis, in which signals from neural crest to the oral ectoderm and then back from the oral ectoderm to neural crest induce palatogenesis, and cause elongation of the palate ..
  46. In toto Image Analysis of Tissue Mechanics during Vertebrate Ear Development
    KISHORE RAO MOSALIGANTI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..divisions of placode cells involved in otic-vesicle formation and learn how otic placode cells delaminate from ectoderm tissue and rearrange into radially polarized hollow tissue...
  47. Role of Cilia in Mammalian Tooth Patterning
    ..Tooth development in mice is initiated during embryogenesis and requires complex signaling between the oral ectoderm and underlying mesenchyme...
  48. Role of Ovol Genes in Epidermal Development
    Xing Dai; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Skin epidermis is derived from the pluripotent ectoderm. In an ectodermal cell's path to become interfollicular epidermis, it faces at least three critical decisions: 1) not to become a neural ..
  49. Novel developmental regulation of non-canonical Wnt signaling
    Jan L Christian; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The transcription factor GATA2 is required in the ectoderm of Xenopus embryos to induce expression of a protein that then signals to the mesoderm to enable it to form blood...
  50. Role of Ectodermal Signals in Limb Bud Outgrowth and Development
    Trevor J Williams; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..insight into the diagnosis and treatme upregulation of canonical Wnt signaling in the early mouse embryonic ectoderm via the stabilization of -catenin greatly upregulates Fgf8 expression...
  51. Genetic Analysis of the Induction and Morphogenesis of the Inner Ear
    Katherine Shim; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Development of the inner ear begins when two regions of ectoderm on either side of the embryonic hindbrain form thickened patches of epithelium called the otic placodes...
  52. FGF Signaling Pathways and Craniofacial Development
    PHILIPPE M SORIANO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Since the palate and other craniofacial organs are derived from neural crest cells migrated from dorsal neural ectoderm, we will also conduct Cre based lineage analysis to characterize defects in neural crest cell migration that ..
  53. The role of Foxi3 in inner ear development
    SAFIA BANO KHATRI; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The role of FGF in ear development is well established. Our lab showed that only PPR ectoderm was able to induce otic placode markers in the presence of FGF whereas ectoderm far lateral to the PPR could not...
  54. Genetic Mechanisms of Cranial Bone Development
    LAWRENCE H GOODNOUGH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The specific hypothesis to be tested is the following: Wnt signaling from the cranial surface ectoderm is required for the fate, proliferation, and differentiation of the cranial bones...
  55. Investigating FGF/sFRP interactions during forebrain evolution and development
    ARIEL MATTHEW PANI; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..the evolutionary origins of the anterior neural ridge and ancestral roles of fgf8/17/18, sfrp1/5, and apical ectoderm in anterior patterning...
  56. Cadherin-based Actin Assembly in the Xenopus Embryo
    Aaron M Zorn; Fiscal Year: 2013 supported by extensive preliminary data and published work, will be tested in the early Xenopus embryonic ectoderm, which arises from the animal region of the blastula...
  57. Histocompatible Primate Embryonic Stem Cells
    Shoukhrat M Mitalipov; Fiscal Year: 2013 teratomas in SCID mice and to in vitro directed differentiation into mesoderm (cardiomyocytes), ectoderm (neuronal phenotypes) and endoderm (pancreatic beta-cells).3)...
  58. WNTs, FGFs, and BMPs Induce and Maintain the Telencephalon
    Jean M Hebert; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The anterior neural ridge (ANR) that demarcates neuroectoderm from underlying ectoderm is necessary and sufficient to induce telencephalic character to neural plate cells...
  59. Genetic Regulatory Network Controlling Vertebrate Eye Formation
    Michael E Zuber; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These eye field transcription factors (EFTFs) are sufficient to transform primitive ectoderm to eye primordia and functional eyes...
    Ali H Brivanlou; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The inhibition of BMP/GDF signaling occurs in vivo in the dorsal ectoderm during gastrulation, and is mediated by secreted factors emanating from the organizer (dorsal mesoderm)...
  61. Retinal Progenitors for Vision Rescue
    Andrea S Viczian; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our results demonstrate that mouse embryonic stem cells, first converted to primitive ectoderm, can be directed to a cone cell fate in culture...
    Irving Weissman; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The stromal cells of the thymus that regulate this process are derived from all 3 tissue layers - endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm...
  63. Factors Regulating Inner Ear Specification
    Jean Pierre Saint Jeannet; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..It develops from a thickening of the embryonic ectoderm known as the otic placode...
    Ole Madsen; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Thus a common, fundamental regulatory pathway is likely to operate within the developing neuro-ectoderm and endoderm to control neuronal and endocrine cell differentiation, respectively...
    Allen Shearn; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..loss of normal tissue structure, cell death and loss of capacity to differentiate of organs derived from skin ectoderm (imaginal discs) and neural ectoderm (imaginal neuroblasts)...
    MARCIA HONIG; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..nerve in the embryonic chick limb, the lateral femoral cutaneous (LFCt) nerve requires the presence of the target ectoderm during a critical time period, when those axons are about to diverge from the hindlimb plexus...
    Elena Frolova; Fiscal Year: 2004
    DESCRIPTION (Adapted from applicant's abstract): The eye develops from three cell populations, ectoderm, neuroepithelium, and neural crest cells...
    PAUL OVERBEEK; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Grafting experiments indicate that these genes are expressed in the ectoderm and that they are required for the ectoderm to be competent to respond to inductive signals from adjacent ..
    Paulette McCormick; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..and 110 kDa each of which is synthesized uniquely by the different cell types of the blastocyst: the embryonic ectoderm (EE) and visceral (VE) and parietal endoderms (PE), respectively...
    RICHARD NORTHCUTT; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..order to determine the temporal window for the induction of epibranchial placodes (aim 1), presumptive placodal ectoderm of embryonic axolotls will be cultured in isolation or heterotopically transplanted onto the trunk of host ..