germ layers

Summary

Summary: The three layers of cells comprising the early embryo.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Differentiation and characterization of embryonic stem cells into three germ layers
    Nobuaki Shiraki
    Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics, Kumamoto University, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 381:694-9. 2009
  2. ncbi Naive and primed pluripotent states
    Jennifer Nichols
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Stem Cell Research, Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QR, UK
    Cell Stem Cell 4:487-92. 2009
  3. ncbi Pluripotency factors in embryonic stem cells regulate differentiation into germ layers
    Matt Thomson
    FAS Center for Systems Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Cell 145:875-89. 2011
  4. pmc Suppression of Erk signalling promotes ground state pluripotency in the mouse embryo
    Jennifer Nichols
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Stem Cell Research, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QR, UK
    Development 136:3215-22. 2009
  5. pmc Dynamic equilibrium and heterogeneity of mouse pluripotent stem cells with distinct functional and epigenetic states
    Katsuhiko Hayashi
    Wellcome Trust Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, The Henry Wellcome Building of Cancer and Developmental Biology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QN, UK
    Cell Stem Cell 3:391-401. 2008
  6. ncbi FGF signal-dependent segregation of primitive endoderm and epiblast in the mouse blastocyst
    Yojiro Yamanaka
    Program in Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    Development 137:715-24. 2010
  7. ncbi Conserved and divergent roles of FGF signaling in mouse epiblast stem cells and human embryonic stem cells
    Boris Greber
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine, Röntgenstrasse 20, D 48149 Munster, Germany
    Cell Stem Cell 6:215-26. 2010
  8. pmc Activin/Nodal signalling maintains pluripotency by controlling Nanog expression
    Ludovic Vallier
    Department of Surgery and Laboratory For Regenerative Medicine, West Forvie Building, Robinson Way, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0SZ, UK
    Development 136:1339-49. 2009
  9. pmc Epigenetic reversion of post-implantation epiblast to pluripotent embryonic stem cells
    Siqin Bao
    Wellcome Trust Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge, CB2 1QN, UK
    Nature 461:1292-5. 2009
  10. pmc Epiblast stem cell-based system reveals reprogramming synergy of germline factors
    Astrid Gillich
    Wellcome Trust Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, UK
    Cell Stem Cell 10:425-39. 2012

Detail Information

Publications235 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Differentiation and characterization of embryonic stem cells into three germ layers
    Nobuaki Shiraki
    Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics, Kumamoto University, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 381:694-9. 2009
    ..These results indicate that the M15 cell system provides a valuable tool for generating ES cell-derived lineage-specific cell types belonging to the three germ layers, namely neuroectoderm, mesoderm, and definitive endoderm.
  2. ncbi Naive and primed pluripotent states
    Jennifer Nichols
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Stem Cell Research, Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QR, UK
    Cell Stem Cell 4:487-92. 2009
    ..We propose that two phases of pluripotency can be defined: naive and primed. This distinction extends to pluripotent stem cells derived from embryos or by molecular reprogramming ex vivo...
  3. ncbi Pluripotency factors in embryonic stem cells regulate differentiation into germ layers
    Matt Thomson
    FAS Center for Systems Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Cell 145:875-89. 2011
    ..Our study provides a framework for understanding how complex transcription factor networks control cell fate decisions in progenitor cells...
  4. pmc Suppression of Erk signalling promotes ground state pluripotency in the mouse embryo
    Jennifer Nichols
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Stem Cell Research, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QR, UK
    Development 136:3215-22. 2009
    ..We propose that ES cells are not a tissue culture creation, but are essentially identical to pre-implantation epiblast cells...
  5. pmc Dynamic equilibrium and heterogeneity of mouse pluripotent stem cells with distinct functional and epigenetic states
    Katsuhiko Hayashi
    Wellcome Trust Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, The Henry Wellcome Building of Cancer and Developmental Biology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QN, UK
    Cell Stem Cell 3:391-401. 2008
    ....
  6. ncbi FGF signal-dependent segregation of primitive endoderm and epiblast in the mouse blastocyst
    Yojiro Yamanaka
    Program in Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    Development 137:715-24. 2010
    ..In conclusion, we propose a model in which stochastic and progressive specification of EPI and PE lineages occurs during maturation of the blastocyst in an FGF/MAP kinase signal-dependent manner...
  7. ncbi Conserved and divergent roles of FGF signaling in mouse epiblast stem cells and human embryonic stem cells
    Boris Greber
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine, Röntgenstrasse 20, D 48149 Munster, Germany
    Cell Stem Cell 6:215-26. 2010
    ..Our data extend the current model of cell fate decisions concerning EpiSCs by clarifying the distinct roles played by FGF signaling...
  8. pmc Activin/Nodal signalling maintains pluripotency by controlling Nanog expression
    Ludovic Vallier
    Department of Surgery and Laboratory For Regenerative Medicine, West Forvie Building, Robinson Way, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0SZ, UK
    Development 136:1339-49. 2009
    ..status of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) confers upon them the capacity to differentiate into the three primary germ layers, ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm, from which all the cells of the adult body are derived...
  9. pmc Epigenetic reversion of post-implantation epiblast to pluripotent embryonic stem cells
    Siqin Bao
    Wellcome Trust Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge, CB2 1QN, UK
    Nature 461:1292-5. 2009
    ..Moreover, unlike epiblast and EpiSCs, rESCs contribute to somatic tissues and germ cells in chimaeras. Further studies may reveal how signalling-induced epigenetic reprogramming may promote reacquisition of pluripotency...
  10. pmc Epiblast stem cell-based system reveals reprogramming synergy of germline factors
    Astrid Gillich
    Wellcome Trust Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, UK
    Cell Stem Cell 10:425-39. 2012
    ..Our study provides a paradigm toward a systematic analysis of how other key genes contribute to complex and dynamic events of reprogramming in the germline...
  11. ncbi The origin and identity of embryonic stem cells
    Jennifer Nichols
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Stem Cell Research, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QR, UK
    Development 138:3-8. 2011
    ..Based on recent findings, we propose here that ES cells can be derived directly from early epiblast cells and that ES cells might arise via two different routes that are dictated by their culture conditions...
  12. ncbi Generation of pig induced pluripotent stem cells with a drug-inducible system
    Zhao Wu
    Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, People s Republic of China
    J Mol Cell Biol 1:46-54. 2009
    ..These cells could differentiate into cell types of all three germ layers in vitro and in teratomas...
  13. ncbi Direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into epiblast stem cells
    Dong Wook Han
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine, Röntgenstrasse 20, 48149 Munster, Germany
    Nat Cell Biol 13:66-71. 2011
    ..derived from epiblast tissue of post-implantation embryos are pluripotent and can give rise to all three germ layers in teratoma assays...
  14. ncbi Epiblast stem cell subpopulations represent mouse embryos of distinct pregastrulation stages
    Dong Wook Han
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine, Röntgenstrasse 20, 48149 Munster, Germany
    Cell 143:617-27. 2010
    ..Our findings suggest that the rare ability of EpiSCs to contribute to chimeras is due to the presence of the minor EpiSC fraction representing the early epiblast...
  15. pmc Metastable pluripotent states in NOD-mouse-derived ESCs
    Jacob Hanna
    The Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
    Cell Stem Cell 4:513-24. 2009
    ..Our findings suggest that stem cells from different genetic backgrounds can assume distinct states of pluripotency in vitro, the stability of which is regulated by endogenous genetic determinants and can be modified by exogenous factors...
  16. pmc Embryonic germ cells from mice and rats exhibit properties consistent with a generic pluripotent ground state
    Harry G Leitch
    Wellcome Trust Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, The Henry Wellcome Building of Cancer and Developmental Biology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QN, UK
    Development 137:2279-87. 2010
    ..Future research will determine the extent to which this is maintained in other mammals and whether, in some species, primordial germ cells might be a more tractable source than epiblast for the capture of naïve pluripotent stem cells...
  17. ncbi Gastrulation: making and shaping germ layers
    Lila Solnica-Krezel
    Department of Developmental Biology, Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 28:687-717. 2012
    Gastrulation is a fundamental phase of animal embryogenesis during which germ layers are specified, rearranged, and shaped into a body plan with organ rudiments...
  18. ncbi Distinct developmental ground states of epiblast stem cell lines determine different pluripotency features
    Christof Bernemann
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine, Röntgenstrasse, Munster, Germany
    Stem Cells 29:1496-503. 2011
    ....
  19. pmc Self-renewing epiblast stem cells exhibit continual delineation of germ cells with epigenetic reprogramming in vitro
    Katsuhiko Hayashi
    Wellcome Trust Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, The Henry Wellcome Building for Cancer and Developmental Biology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QN, UK
    Development 136:3549-56. 2009
    ....
  20. ncbi Porcine pluripotency cell signaling develops from the inner cell mass to the epiblast during early development
    Vanessa J Hall
    Department of Basic Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Dev Dyn 238:2014-24. 2009
    ..These findings reveal cell signaling associated with maintaining pluripotency in human embryonic stem cells is detectable in the porcine epiblast, but not in the inner cell mass...
  21. ncbi Delta-Notch signaling is involved in the segregation of the three germ layers in Xenopus laevis
    Diego R Revinski
    Laboratorio de Embriología Molecular, Instituto de Biologia Celular y Neurociencias, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paraguay 2155, 3 degrees piso 1121, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Dev Biol 339:477-92. 2010
    In vertebrates, the induction of the three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm) has been extensively studied, but less is known about how they segregate...
  22. pmc Mouse primitive streak forms in situ by initiation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition without migration of a cell population
    Margot Williams
    Department of Cell Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA
    Dev Dyn 241:270-83. 2012
    During gastrulation, an embryo acquires the three primordial germ layers that will give rise to all of the tissues in the body...
  23. ncbi Foxa2 regulates polarity and epithelialization in the endoderm germ layer of the mouse embryo
    Ingo Burtscher
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Institute of Stem Cell Research, Ingolstadter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany
    Development 136:1029-38. 2009
    In the mouse, one of the earliest events in the determination of cell fate is the segregation of cells into germ layers during gastrulation; however, the cellular and molecular details are not well defined due to intrauterine development...
  24. ncbi Maternal control of vertebrate dorsoventral axis formation and epiboly by the POU domain protein Spg/Pou2/Oct4
    Gerlinde Reim
    Biotechnology Center and Center for Regenerative Therapies, University of Technology TU Dresden, Pfotenhauerstrasse 108, D 01307 Dresden, Germany
    Development 133:2757-70. 2006
    ..Based on the maternal requirement for pou2 in ventral specification, we propose that ventral specification employs an active, pou2-dependent maternal induction step, rather than a default ventralizing program...
  25. pmc Isolation of epiblast stem cells from preimplantation mouse embryos
    Fadi J Najm
    Department of Genetics and Center for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    Cell Stem Cell 8:318-25. 2011
    ..These results provide a simple method for isolating EpiSCs and offer direct insight into the intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms that regulate the acquisition of distinct pluripotent states...
  26. pmc Epiblast ground state is controlled by canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the postimplantation mouse embryo and epiblast stem cells
    Tomoyuki Sumi
    Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
    PLoS ONE 8:e63378. 2013
    ..revealed that EpiSCs were able to contribute to primordial germ cells and descendants of all three germ layers in a host embryo, suggesting that they maintained pluripotency, even after prolonged culture with XAV939...
  27. pmc E-cadherin promotes incorporation of mouse epiblast stem cells into normal development
    Satoshi Ohtsuka
    Pluripotent Stem Cell Studies, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology CDB, Kobe, Japan
    PLoS ONE 7:e45220. 2012
    ....
  28. ncbi Insulin increases epiblast cell number of in vitro cultured mouse embryos via the PI3K/GSK3/p53 pathway
    Jared M Campbell
    Centre for Stem Cell Research, School of Paediatrics and Reproductive Health, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia
    Stem Cells Dev 21:2430-41. 2012
    ..Furthermore, we suggest that the inclusion of insulin in culture media could be used as a strategy for increasing the efficiency with which the ESC lines can be derived from cultured embryos...
  29. ncbi Brief report: benchmarking human pluripotent stem cell markers during differentiation into the three germ layers unveils a striking heterogeneity: all markers are not equal
    Jean Marie Ramirez
    CHU Montpellier, Institute for Research in Biotherapy, Hopital Saint Eloi, Montpellier, France
    Stem Cells 29:1469-74. 2011
    ..PSC) are functionally characterized by their capacity to differentiate into all the cell types from the three germ layers. A wide range of markers, the expression of which is associated with pluripotency, has been used as surrogate ..
  30. pmc YKL-40 is differentially expressed in human embryonic stem cells and in cell progeny of the three germ layers
    Christian B Brøchner
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    J Histochem Cytochem 60:188-204. 2012
    ....
  31. ncbi Identification of very small embryonic/epiblast-like stem cells (VSELs) circulating in peripheral blood during organ/tissue injuries
    Mariusz Z Ratajczak
    Department of Gastroenterology and Department of Physiology, Stem Cell Biology Institute, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Kentucky, USA
    Methods Cell Biol 103:31-54. 2011
    ..g., in stroke or heart infarct). In this chapter, we will present FACS-based strategies to detect and enumerate these cells in human peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood...
  32. ncbi Distinct functions of BMP4 during different stages of mouse ES cell neural commitment
    Kejing Zhang
    Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 320 Yue Yang Road, Shanghai 200031, China
    Development 137:2095-105. 2010
    ..We conclude that BMP signaling has distinct functions during different stages of ESC neural commitment...
  33. ncbi Parameters influencing derivation of embryonic stem cells from murine embryos
    Laura Batlle-Morera
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Stem Cell Research, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Genesis 46:758-67. 2008
    ....
  34. pmc Making the blastocyst: lessons from the mouse
    Katie Cockburn
    Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Canada
    J Clin Invest 120:995-1003. 2010
    ..A greater understanding of the similarities and differences between mouse and human preimplantation development has implications for improving assisted reproductive technologies and for deriving human embryonic stem cells...
  35. ncbi Fate mapping the mouse embryo
    K A Lawson
    Hubrecht Laboratory, Netherlands Institute for Developmental Biology, Utrecht
    Int J Dev Biol 43:773-5. 1999
    ..A revised fate map of the epiblast at 6.5 days gestation is provided, and the development of 3-dimensional, quantitative image analysis techniques outlined...
  36. ncbi Downregulation of NANOG induces differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to extraembryonic lineages
    Louise Hyslop
    Centre for Stem Cell Biology and Developmental Genetics, University of Newcastle International Centre for Life, Newcastle NE1 3BZ, United Kingdom
    Stem Cells 23:1035-43. 2005
    ..Taken together, our findings suggest that NANOG acts as a gatekeeper of pluripotency in human embryonic stem and carcinoma cells by preventing their differentiation to extraembryonic endoderm and trophectoderm lineages...
  37. ncbi Involvement of dystroglycan in epithelial-mesenchymal transition during chick gastrulation
    Yukiko Nakaya
    Laboratory for Early Embryogenesis, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan
    Cells Tissues Organs 193:64-73. 2011
    ..Overall, these data suggest an involvement of dystroglycan, especially the regulation of its expression and localization, in gastrulation EMT...
  38. ncbi Transcriptional regulatory networks in epiblast cells and during anterior neural plate development as modeled in epiblast stem cells
    Makiko Iwafuchi-Doi
    Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 1 3 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Development 139:3926-37. 2012
    ..The direct interaction of these factors with enhancers of Otx2, Hesx1 and Sox2 genes was demonstrated. Thus, a combination of regulatory processes that suppresses non-ANP lineages and promotes neural plate development determines the ANP...
  39. pmc Modulation of β-catenin function maintains mouse epiblast stem cell and human embryonic stem cell self-renewal
    Hoon Kim
    1 Department of Cell and Neurobiology, Eli and Edythe Broad Center for Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at USC, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA 2
    Nat Commun 4:2403. 2013
    ..Our results elucidate a new role for β-catenin in stem cell self-renewal that is independent of its transcriptional activity and will have broad implications in understanding the molecular regulation of stem cell fate. ..
  40. ncbi Molecular characterization of isolated from murine adult tissues very small embryonic/epiblast like stem cells (VSELs)
    Dong Myung Shin
    Stem Cell Institute, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA
    Mol Cells 29:533-8. 2010
    ..Mounting evidence accumulates that perturbation of expression of imprinted genes is a common phenomenon observed in developing tumors...
  41. pmc The roles of FGF and MAP kinase signaling in the segregation of the epiblast and hypoblast cell lineages in bovine and human embryos
    Ewart W Kuijk
    Hubrecht Institute Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences and University Medical Center Utrecht, Uppsalalaan 8, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Development 139:871-82. 2012
    ..These findings demonstrate intrinsic differences in early mammalian development in the role of the FGF/MAP kinase signaling pathways in governing hypoblast versus epiblast lineage choices...
  42. pmc A genome-wide screen in EpiSCs identifies Nr5a nuclear receptors as potent inducers of ground state pluripotency
    Ge Guo
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Stem Cell Research and Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Development 137:3185-92. 2010
    ..This implies a different foundation for their capacity to reset pluripotency and suggests that further factors remain to be identified...
  43. pmc X chromosome activity in mouse XX primordial germ cells
    Susana M Chuva de Sousa Lopes
    The Wellcome Trust Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    PLoS Genet 4:e30. 2008
    ..We describe in detail one of the key events during female PGC development, the epigenetic reprogramming of the X chromosome, and demonstrate the role of the XX somatic genital ridge in this process...
  44. pmc Direct transdifferentiation of stem/progenitor spermatogonia into reproductive and nonreproductive tissues of all germ layers
    Liz Simon
    Department of Veterinary Biosciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61802, USA
    Stem Cells 27:1666-75. 2009
    ..recombined with the appropriate mesenchyme can directly transdifferentiate in vivo into tissues of all germ layers, including prostatic, uterine, and skin epithelium...
  45. pmc Maternal Interferon Regulatory Factor 6 is required for the differentiation of primary superficial epithelia in Danio and Xenopus embryos
    Jaime L Sabel
    Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Genetics, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Dev Biol 325:249-62. 2009
    ..These experiments reveal a conserved role for maternally-encoded Irf6 in differentiation of a simple epithelium in X. laevis and D. rerio. This epithelium constitutes a novel model tissue in which to explore the Irf6 regulatory pathway...
  46. ncbi Segregation of germ layer fates by nuclear migration-dependent localization of Not mRNA
    Naohito Takatori
    Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560 0043, Japan
    Dev Cell 19:589-98. 2010
    ..Our results show that nuclear migration plays an unexpected role in asymmetric cell divisions that segregate germ layer fates in chordate embryos...
  47. ncbi Establishment and characterization of a pluripotent stem cell line derived from human amniotic membranes and initiation of germ layers in vitro
    Tomoharu Tamagawa
    Institute of Cell Biology, Ishiwata Hospital, 1 4 21, Kamimito, Mito shi, Ibaraki 310 0041, Japan
    Hum Cell 17:125-30. 2004
    ..Pluripotent stem cells are proposed to be used in regenerative therapy and may exist in the human amniotic membrane. The present article is aimed at establishing a pluripotent stem cell line from human placenta...
  48. ncbi Lentiviral labeling reveals three germ layer differentiation potential of a single unrestricted somatic stem cell from human cord blood
    Peter Wernet
    University Düsseldorf, Medical Faculty, Institute for Transplantation Diagnostics and Cell Therapeutics, Dusseldorf, NRW, Germany mail
    Exp Hematol 38:1099-104. 2010
    ..Generation and expression of unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSC) from human cord blood as well as their in vitro functional characterization at the clonal level...
  49. ncbi Mouse ES cell culture system as a model of development
    Hitoshi Niwa
    Laboratory for Pluripotent Cell Studies, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology CDB, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan
    Dev Growth Differ 52:275-83. 2010
    ..For these reasons, mES cells can be regarded as a useful tool for analyzing molecular mechanisms underlying early mouse development...
  50. pmc Genome-wide dynamics of replication timing revealed by in vitro models of mouse embryogenesis
    Ichiro Hiratani
    Department of Biological Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306, USA
    Genome Res 20:155-69. 2010
    ....
  51. ncbi β-Catenin-driven binary fate specification segregates germ layers in ascidian embryos
    Clare Hudson
    Université Pierre et Marie Curie and Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Laboratoire de Biologie du Développement de Villefranche sur Mer, Observatoire Oceanologique, 06234 Villefranche sur mer, France
    Curr Biol 23:491-5. 2013
    ..We show that subdivision of the ascidian embryo into the three germ layers involves differential nuclear β-catenin activity coupled with the first two animal-vegetal (A-V)-oriented cell ..
  52. ncbi The potential of stem cells in adult tissues representative of the three germ layers
    Haruko Obokata
    Department of Anesthesiology, Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Tissue Eng Part A 17:607-15. 2011
    ..Cells procured from adult tissues representative of the three germ layers (spinal cord, muscle, and lung), each exhibiting the potential to mature into cells representative of all three ..
  53. ncbi Expression analysis of pluripotency factors in the undifferentiated porcine inner cell mass and epiblast during in vitro culture
    Le Ann Blomberg
    Biotechnology and Germplasm Laboratory, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    Mol Reprod Dev 75:450-63. 2008
    ..Our data demonstrate the potential use of some pluripotency factors as markers of porcine epiblast stem cells and indicate that the in vitro environment may influence the cultured epiblast's developmental state...
  54. pmc Variation in the dorsal gradient distribution is a source for modified scaling of germ layers in Drosophila
    Juan Sebastian Chahda
    Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Curr Biol 23:710-6. 2013
    Specification of germ layers along the dorsoventral axis by morphogenetic gradients is an ideal model to study scaling properties of gradients and cell fate changes during evolution. Classical anatomical studies in divergent insects (e.g...
  55. pmc Human hypoblast formation is not dependent on FGF signalling
    Mila Roode
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Stem Cell Research, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QR, UK
    Dev Biol 361:358-63. 2012
    ....
  56. ncbi Reconstitution of the mouse germ cell specification pathway in culture by pluripotent stem cells
    Katsuhiko Hayashi
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Yoshida konoe cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8501, Japan
    Cell 146:519-32. 2011
    ..Our findings provide a paradigm for the first step of in vitro gametogenesis...
  57. pmc DNA methylation profiling of embryonic stem cell differentiation into the three germ layers
    Takayuki Isagawa
    Genome Science Division, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    PLoS ONE 6:e26052. 2011
    ..DNA methylation patterns at proximal promoter regions in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, ES cell-derived early germ layers (ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm) and four adult tissues (brain, liver, skeletal muscle and sperm)...
  58. ncbi Tensile forces govern germ-layer organization in zebrafish
    M Krieg
    BIOTEC, Technische Universitat Dresden, Tatzberg 47 51, 01307 Dresden, Germany
    Nat Cell Biol 10:429-36. 2008
    ..These results demonstrate a previously unrecognized role for Nodal-controlled cell-cortex tension in germ-layer organization during gastrulation...
  59. pmc Rac1 is essential for basement membrane-dependent epiblast survival
    Xiaowen He
    Department of Surgery, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 30:3569-81. 2010
    ..Our results reveal a signaling cascade triggered by cell-BM interactions essential for epithelial morphogenesis...
  60. ncbi Germ layers to organs: using Xenopus to study "later" development
    Ira L Blitz
    Department of Developmental and Cell Biology and the Developmental Biology Center, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA, and Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Ste Justine Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada
    Semin Cell Dev Biol 17:133-45. 2006
    ..We also highlight how Xenopus researchers have already begun studying a number of major organs, pancreas, liver, kidney and heart, and suggest how Xenopus might contribute more to these areas in the near future...
  61. ncbi Patient-specific stem cell lines derived from human parthenogenetic blastocysts
    E S Revazova
    Lifeline Cell Technology, Walkersville, Maryland, USA
    Cloning Stem Cells 9:432-49. 2007
    ..teratomas after injection to immunodeficient animals and give differentiated derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers. DNA profiling of all six phESC lines demonstrates that they are MHC matched with the oocyte donors...
  62. ncbi Regulation of cell migration during chick gastrulation
    Manli Chuai
    Division of Cell and Developmental Biology, Wellcome Trust Biocentre, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, United Kingdom
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 19:343-9. 2009
    ..The timing and order of ingression of epiblast cells appears to be controlled by temporal and spatial colinearity of Hox gene expression in the epiblast. The mechanisms by which Hox genes control these properties remain to be resolved...
  63. ncbi Degenerative changes and cell death in long-living homo- and heterotopic transplants from embryonic germ layers of rat neocortex
    E S Petrova
    Department of Morphology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, St Petersburg
    Bull Exp Biol Med 136:302-6. 2003
    ..Transplantation of embryonic brain structures can serve as a model system in studies concerning involutive and pathological processes in the central nervous system and in the search for factors improving survival of neurons...
  64. ncbi Cell lineage, axis formation, and the origin of germ layers in the amphipod crustacean Orchestia cavimana
    Carsten Wolff
    Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin, Institut für Biologie Vergleichende Zoologie, Philippstrasse 13, Berlin, Germany
    Dev Biol 250:44-58. 2002
    ....
  65. ncbi Zebrafish organizer development and germ-layer formation require nodal-related signals
    B Feldman
    Developmental Genetics Program, Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine and Department of Cell Biology, New York University Medical Center, New York 10016, USA
    Nature 395:181-5. 1998
    ..body plan is established during gastrulation, when cells move inwards to form the mesodermal and endodermal germ layers. Signals from a region of dorsal mesoderm, which is termed the organizer, pattern the body axis by specifying ..
  66. pmc ES cell pluripotency and germ-layer formation require the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling component BAF250a
    Xiaolin Gao
    Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Richard Simches Research Center, 185 Cambridge Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:6656-61. 2008
    ..Our results suggest that BAF250a is a key component of the gene regulatory machinery in ES cells controlling self-renewal, differentiation, and cell lineage decisions...
  67. ncbi Lineage enforcement by inductive mesenchyme on adult epithelial stem cells across developmental germ layers
    Renea A Taylor
    Centre for Urological Research, Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3168, Australia
    Stem Cells 27:3032-42. 2009
    ..In order to use adult epithelial SCs in regenerative medicine, we must additionally regulate their intrinsic properties to prevent (or enable) transdifferentiation in specified SC niches...
  68. ncbi Mouse androgenetic embryonic stem cells differentiated to multiple cell lineages in three embryonic germ layers in vitro
    Takeshi Teramura
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Graduate School of Medicine, Mie University
    J Reprod Dev 55:283-92. 2009
    ....
  69. pmc Pig epiblast stem cells depend on activin/nodal signaling for pluripotency and self-renewal
    Ramiro Alberio
    Division of Animal Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Loughborough, United Kingdom
    Stem Cells Dev 19:1627-36. 2010
    ..This study provides further evidence that maintenance of pluripotency via Activin/Nodal signal is conserved in mammals...
  70. ncbi The snail gene required for mesoderm formation in Drosophila is expressed dynamically in derivatives of all three germ layers
    A Alberga
    Laboratoire de Génétique Moléculaire des Eucaryotes du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unite 184 de Biologie Moleculaire et de Genie Genetique de l INSERM, Faculte de Medicine, Strasbourg, France
    Development 111:983-92. 1991
    ..Expression of sna is transient and is observed in tissues derived from all three germ layers. Prior to germband elongation, sna RNA accumulation is consistent with its genetically determined role in ..
  71. ncbi Isolation and maintenance of mouse epiblast stem cells
    Josh G Chenoweth
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Methods Mol Biol 636:25-44. 2010
    ..This chapter describes the methods for the isolation and maintenance of mouse EpiSCs. We also describe basic assays used to characterize new EpiSC lines...
  72. ncbi Postimplantation expression patterns indicate a role for the mouse forkhead/HNF-3 alpha, beta and gamma genes in determination of the definitive endoderm, chordamesoderm and neuroectoderm
    A P Monaghan
    Division Molecular Biology of the Cell I, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg
    Development 119:567-78. 1993
    ..HNF-3 beta mRNA is expressed in the node at the anterior end of the primitive streak in all three germ layers and is the first gene of this family to be activated...
  73. ncbi Pivotal roles for eomesodermin during axis formation, epithelium-to-mesenchyme transition and endoderm specification in the mouse
    Sebastian J Arnold
    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RE, UK
    Development 135:501-11. 2008
    ..Collectively, our experiments establish that Eomes is a key regulator of anteroposterior axis formation, EMT and definitive endoderm specification in the mouse...
  74. ncbi Notch signaling and its integration with other signaling mechanisms
    Cecilia Sahlgren
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Medical Nobel Institute, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    Regen Med 1:195-205. 2006
    ..Given the importance of Notch in many stem cell fate decisions, the possibility of experimentally manipulating Notch signaling opens up new avenues to control stem cell differentiation...
  75. ncbi Cryopreservation of mouse embryoid bodies
    Hinako Ichikawa
    Department of Anatomy and Organ Technology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3 1 1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390 8621, Japan
    Cryobiology 54:290-3. 2007
    ..RT-PCR analysis showed that genes characteristic of the three embryonic germ layers were expressed in thawed EBs cultured for one week...
  76. ncbi Differentiation of liver cells from human primordial germ cell-derived progenitors
    Bin Chen
    Center for Developmental Biology, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, 1665 Kong Jiang Road, Shanghai 200092, China
    Differentiation 75:350-9. 2007
    ..These cells express lineage markers of three primary germ layers, although their potential to produce true fetal cells of various types has yet to be tested...
  77. ncbi Endo16 is required for gastrulation in the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus
    Laura A Romano
    Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA
    Dev Growth Differ 48:487-97. 2006
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that Endo16 may be required for the cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions that are required for endoderm differentiation in the sea urchin embryo...
  78. ncbi Generation of multipotential mesendodermal progenitors from mouse embryonic stem cells via sustained Wnt pathway activation
    Manjiri Manohar Bakre
    Stem Cell and Developmental Biology, Genome Institute of Singapore, 60 Biopolis St, Genome 02 01, Singapore 138672
    J Biol Chem 282:31703-12. 2007
    Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are capable of differentiating into cell types belonging to all three germ layers within the body, which makes them an interesting and intense field of research...
  79. ncbi Endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by tunicamycin disables germ layer formation in Xenopus laevis embryos
    Li Yuan
    Institute of Biochemistry, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany
    Dev Dyn 236:2844-51. 2007
    ..The results underline the functional significance of ER homeostasis in germ layer formation during Xenopus embryogenesis...
  80. ncbi A 4D-microscopic analysis of the germ band in the isopod crustacean Porcellio scaber (Malacostraca, Peracarida)-developmental and phylogenetic implications
    Andreas Hejnol
    Institut fur Biologie, Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin, Vergleichende Zoologie, Philippstrasse 13, 10115 Berlin, Germany
    Dev Genes Evol 216:755-67. 2006
    ..The striking similarity of the formation of the genealogical units in the anterior part suggests a sister group relationship between the peracarid taxa Tanaidacea and Isopoda...
  81. pmc Transcriptional profiling of endogenous germ layer precursor cells identifies dusp4 as an essential gene in zebrafish endoderm specification
    Jamie L Brown
    Medical Genetics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:12337-42. 2008
    ..This specific loss of sox17 establishes a new class of endoderm specification defect...
  82. pmc Notch and bone morphogenetic protein differentially act on dermomyotome cells to generate endothelium, smooth, and striated muscle
    Raz Ben-Yair
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem 91120, Israel
    J Cell Biol 180:607-18. 2008
    ..Altogether, these findings underscore the spatial and temporal complexity of lineage diversification in an apparently homogeneous epithelium...
  83. ncbi Small RNAs, big potential: the role of MicroRNAs in stem cell function
    Kara M Foshay
    Georgetown University Medical Center, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Washington, DC, USA
    Curr Stem Cell Res Ther 2:264-71. 2007
    ..Finally, we explore new techniques that exploit endogenous miRNA processing and function for applications in basic and clinical research...
  84. ncbi CD2-associated protein is widely expressed and differentially regulated during embryonic development
    Sanna Lehtonen
    Department of Pathology, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki, PO Box 21, FIN 00014 Helsinki, Finland, and Helsinki University Central Hospital, FIN 00290 Helsinki, Finland
    Differentiation 76:506-17. 2008
    ..The cell-type specific spatio-temporal regulation of CD2AP during development suggests that this adapter protein is a key regulatory partner in many signaling pathways and cellular processes governing differentiation and morphogenesis...
  85. ncbi Extracellular matrix elasticity directs stem cell differentiation
    A J Engler
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, NJ, USA
    J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact 7:335. 2007
  86. pmc Activin alters the kinetics of endoderm induction in embryonic stem cells cultured on collagen gels
    Natesh Parashurama
    The Center for Engineering in Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Stem Cells 26:474-84. 2008
    ..In addition, our work suggests a new role for activin in induction of the precursors to endoderm and a new endoderm-enrichment technique using follistatin...
  87. ncbi Wnt3 signaling in the epiblast is required for proper orientation of the anteroposterior axis
    Jeffery R Barrow
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Dev Biol 312:312-20. 2007
    ....
  88. pmc A UTF1-based selection system for stable homogeneously pluripotent human embryonic stem cell cultures
    Shen Mynn Tan
    School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, 637551 and ES Cell International Pte Ltd, 11 Biopolis Way, 05 06 Helios, 138667 Singapore
    Nucleic Acids Res 35:e118. 2007
    ..ZUN cultures, like parental HUES8 cultures, retained the capacity to differentiate into tissues of all three germ layers using a SICD mouse teratoma model, they surprisingly exhibited an increased refractoriness to various ..
  89. ncbi Properties of pluripotent human embryonic stem cells BG01 and BG02
    Xianmin Zeng
    Development and Plasticity Section, Cellular Neurobiology Research Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Department of Health and Human Services, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    Stem Cells 22:292-312. 2004
    ..cell lines were readily maintained in an undifferentiated state and could differentiate into cells of all three germ layers, as determined by expression of beta-tubulin III neuron-specific molecule (ectoderm), cardiac troponin I (..
  90. ncbi Gastrulation movements: the logic and the nuts and bolts
    Maria Leptin
    Institut fur Genetik, Universitat zu Koln, Zülpicherstrasse 47, D 50674 Köln, Germany
    Dev Cell 8:305-20. 2005
    ..signaling and transcriptional regulation, sets up the embryonic axes and specify the territories of the future germ layers. Cells in these territories modulate their cytoskeleton and their adhesive behavior, resulting in shape changes ..
  91. ncbi Morphological and molecular analysis of the early developing chick requires an expanded series of primitive streak stages
    Carmen Lopez-Sanchez
    Departamento de Ciencias Morfológicas y Biología Celular y Animal, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz 06071, Spain
    J Morphol 264:105-16. 2005
    ....
  92. ncbi Evolution of striated muscle: jellyfish and the origin of triploblasty
    Katja Seipel
    Institute of Zoology, Biocenter Pharmacenter, Klingelbergstrasse 50, CH 4056 Basel, Switzerland
    Dev Biol 282:14-26. 2005
    ..We argue for a motile tri-layered cnidarian ancestor and a monophyletic descent of striated muscle in Cnidaria and Bilateria. As a consequence, diploblasty evolved secondarily in cnidarian larvae and polyps...
  93. ncbi Monkey embryonic stem cell lines expressing green fluorescent protein
    Tatsuyuki Takada
    Department of Experimental Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Ohtsu, Shiga, 520 2192, Japan
    Cell Transplant 11:631-5. 2002
    ..They formed teratoma composed of tissues derived from the three embryonic germ layers when transplanted into severe combined immunodeficient disease (SCID) mice...
  94. ncbi A digital image-based method for computational tissue fate mapping during early avian morphogenesis
    Evan A Zamir
    The University of Kansas Medical Center, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, 3901 Rainbow Blvd, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA
    Ann Biomed Eng 33:854-65. 2005
    ..to our knowledge, for the first time, large tissue-level deformations that are shared between different germ layers in the embryo, suggesting a more global morphogenetic patterning mechanism than had been previously appreciated.
  95. ncbi Introduction of cell markers into germ layer tissues of the mouse gastrula by whole embryo electroporation
    Bruce P Davidson
    Embryology Unit, Children s Medical Research Institute, Wentworthville, NSW, Australia
    Genesis 35:57-62. 2003
    ..This significant time lag also raises concern of the temporal precision at which tissue- or stage-specific knock-out or activation of genetic activity may be achieved by the Cre-loxP mechanism...
  96. ncbi Generation of embryoid bodies from mouse embryonic stem cells cultured on STO feeder cells
    Qing jun Zhou
    College of Life Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310012, PR China
    Cell Biol Int 29:817-25. 2005
    ..potential indicates that they were typical in structure and could generate cells derived from the three germ layers. The results show that embryoid bodies can form not only in suspension culture but also directly from ES cells ..
  97. ncbi Human embryonic stem cells and their spontaneous differentiation
    A H Sathananthan
    Monash Institute of Reproduction and Development and National Stem Cell Center Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
    Ital J Anat Embryol 110:151-7. 2005
    ..ES cell culture is the spontaneous differentiation of cells into a variety of cell types representing all three germ layers, which is evident in both hESC colonies and hEBs...
  98. ncbi Context-dependent neuronal differentiation and germ layer induction of Smad4-/- and Cripto-/- embryonic stem cells
    Kai Christian Sonntag
    Udall Parkinson s Disease Research Center of Excellence, McLean Hospital Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA 02478, USA
    Mol Cell Neurosci 28:417-29. 2005
    ..ES cells to the mouse striatum became small neuronal grafts, or large grafts with cell types from all germ layers independent of their ES cell genotype...
  99. ncbi Exploitation of stem cell plasticity
    E Martin-Rendon
    Stem Cell Research Laboratory, National Blood Service, Oxford Centre, Oxford, UK
    Transfus Med 13:325-49. 2003
    ..Here, we review the recent advances in HSC biology and discuss the general concepts of adult stem cell plasticity with respect to these cells and how these might be exploited clinically...
  100. ncbi Hematopoietic stem cells convert into liver cells within days without fusion
    Yoon Young Jang
    Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA
    Nat Cell Biol 6:532-9. 2004
    ..Notably, liver function was restored 2-7 d after transplantation. We conclude that HSCs contribute to the regeneration of injured liver by converting into functional hepatocytes without fusion...
  101. ncbi Tracing cell fate in brain formation during embryogenesis of the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi
    Kazuto Taniguchi
    Department of Biological Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuta, Midori ku, Yokohama 226 8501, Japan
    Dev Growth Differ 46:163-80. 2004
    ..19 and left a8.17 blastomeres. The description of cell lineages of the CNS would facilitate future research to analyze the mechanisms of development of the simple CNS of ascidian tadpole larvae...

Research Grants62

  1. Patient-Derived Stem Cells for Phosphoproteomic Profiling Neuropsychopathology
    Dieter A Wolf; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..emulate human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in terms of their ability to give rise to the 3 primitive embryonic germ layers and following various differentiation protocols, to more mature, tissue- and organ-specific cell types, ..
  2. BMP signaling in vertebrate development
    Ken W Y Cho; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..gene chips suggest that endodermal BMP signaling activates a core gene network also induced in the other two germ layers 4...
  3. Use of umbilical cord as a unique stem cell source for tissue regeneration
    Xiao Dong Chen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of UCB-derived MSCs (UCB-MSCs) obtained by ECM adhesion into immunocompromised mice generated 3 embryonic germ layers-derived tissues including bone, muscle, fat, gland, intestine and nerve fibers...
  4. Effect of Smoking on Adult Stem Cell Differentiation
    Herman S Cheung; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Oct4, Nanog, Sox2) and NC markers (p75, Nestin, Sox10), and exhibited the potential to differentiate into all 3 germ layers. This suggests that PDL stem cells with ESC or NC characteristics may indeed exhibit pluripotency...
  5. Uncovering the transcription factor networks in early human cell specification
    ALEXANDER MINCHEV TSANKOV; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..During gastrulation, pluripotent epiblast cells give rise to the three germ layers-- endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm...
  6. Oocyte polarity and mRNA localization in Zebrafish
    FLORENCE LOUISE MARLOW; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..early pregnancy since buc mutant females produce eggs that are fertilized, but fail to specify the embryonic germ layers or axes...
  7. Gene regulatory network evolution and the origin of biological novelties
    MARK MARTINDALE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Cnidarians (anemones, corals, and "jellyfish") are an animal group whose adults possess derivatives of only two germ layers, ectoderm and a bifunctional (having both absorptive and contractile functions) gastodermal (gut) layer...
  8. Allogeneic Placental Stem Cells for Tissue Repair and Regeneration
    Vijay Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..that of adult, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), with the ability to differentiate to all three germ layers (ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm) in vivo...
  9. Regulation of call adhesion in Xenopus
    KEN CHO; Fiscal Year: 2009
    During Xenopus gastrulation, the modulation of adhesive properties within and between the germ layers controls cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions to regulate morphogenesis...
  10. Stem cell and regeneration regulatory genes in planarians
    PETER REDDIEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cNeoblasts can produce colonies of descendant cells including neoblasts and differentiating cells spanning germ layers. Aim #1 will utilize features of cNeoblast colonies to characterize roles for genes with enriched expression in ..
  11. Insulin Producing Cells from Amniotic Stem Cells for Diabetes Therapy
    Anthony Atala; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..AFS cells" are capable of both extensive expansion and differentiation into derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers. Our Preliminary Studies showed that mouse AFS cells can yield insulin producing cells and islet-like cell ..
  12. The Effects of Ethanol on Amniotic Fluid-derived Stem Cells
    JENNIFER HIPP; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..AFSC are multi-potent stem cells that express embryonic stem cell markers, differentiate in vivo into all 3 germ layers when injected into blastocysts, and have the capacity to differentiate in vitro into bone, muscle, fat, ..
  13. Cardiovascular and Therapeutic Potential of Reprogrammed Human Fibroblasts
    WILLIAM ROBB MACLELLAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and maintained the developmental potential to differentiate into advanced derivatives of all three primary germ layers. The successful reprogramming of differentiated human somatic cells into a pluripotent state may not only ..
  14. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF CONVERGENT EXTENSION IN ZEBRAFISH
    Lilianna Solnica-Krezel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Gastrulation movements establish the germ layers and animal body plan during embryogenesis...
  15. Ectoderm formation in the early Xenopus embryo
    Matthew Kofron; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by Principal Investigator): All tissues of the vertebrate body arise from three primary germ layers;the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. The ectoderm gives rise to the central nervous system and epidermis...
  16. Rapid Multiplexed Nanoprobe Assays for Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation
    David Larocca; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..ICC) analysis of iPS clones for multiple markers of in vitro differentiation for each of 3 primary germ layers. In vivo testing in SCID mice for teratoma formation takes 6-12 weeks and is therefore not practical for ..
  17. Modeling Polycystic Kidney Disease Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
    BENJAMIN SOLOMON FREEDMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that these are true pluripotent iPS cell lines capable of generating cell types from each of the three germ layers in embryoid bodies (EBs)...
  18. Genetic and molecular anlaysis of neural development
    Howard Sirotkin; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The specification and patterning of neural tissue is closely coupled to the development of the other germ layers. The mesoderm and endoderm are important sources of signals that induce neural tissue and establish asymmetries ..
  19. Hematopoiesis from Normal and Patient-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
    Mitchell J Weiss; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Through in vitro culture methods, iPSCs can be differentiated into numerous cells types derived from all three germ layers. This raises the possibility that patient-derived iPSCs can be used to create relevant tissues for the study of ..
  20. The Dact/Sestd1 pathway in embryonic malformations
    Benjamin N R Cheyette; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Cell shape changes and movements are responsible for helping to establish and separate the three primary germ layers at gastrulation, for reification of these germ layers into different tissue types, and for combinin tissues ..
  21. Pluripotent Adult Spermatogonial Stem Cells: Prospective for Retinal Degeneration
    Nady Golestaneh; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..conditions, we have reprogrammed the SSCs to pluripotent stem cells capable of differentiating into all three germ layers. We have induced the differentiation of various cell lineages including neuronal precursors expressing neuronal ..
  22. Effects of PAHs on the Epigenome and Differentiation Capacity of Embryonic and Ne
    RAYMOND DAVID HAWKINS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These cells can give rise to cell types from all three germ layers, with numerous protocols for cell-specific populations...
  23. Multipotent stem cells for tissue regeneration
    Song Li; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..can generate many cell types (neural cells, vascular cells, mesenchymal cells, endocrine cells) of all three germ layers, which make it a valuable stem cell source and an ideal model system to study the lineage commitment and ..
  24. ISOLATION OF NOVEL MUTATIONS AFFECTING THE MOUSE EMBRYO
    Kathryn V Anderson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..development, a sequence of nnorphogenetic moveirients define the anterior- posterior body axis, create the germ layers, organize the midline, and elongate the embryo to generate the correct spatial arrangement of tissues and ..
  25. Evolutionary models for gene regulatory networks
    Sheng Zhong; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Pluripotency refers to the potential of an undifferentiated cell to differentiate into any of the three germ layers and give rise to any adult cell type...
  26. Reprogramming and Directed Differentiation of Skeletal Muscle Cells from hPSCs.
    April D Pyle; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..have enormous promise for regenerative medicine as they can differentiate into cells from all three embryonic germ layers. Further hPSCs provide a unique pre-clinical screening tool for evaluating disease mechanisms and therapies in ..
  27. Establishing Germ Cell Fate in Xenopus
    Mary Lou King; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Based on our previous data, we hypothesize that during the time that germ layers are established in the embryo, totipotency is preserved in PGCs by a combination of targeted translational ..
  28. Regulation of beta-catenin proteolysis in dorsal-ventral patterning
    Zhenglun Zhu; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..exact role and regulation of UMP in dorsoventral patterning, which forms the foundation for the generation of germ layers and ontogenesis of tissues and organs...
  29. P0044380 Parchem - Role of Small RNA's in Development
    RONALD PARCHEM; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..hypothesize that the mir302 cluster of miRNAs is critical in the transition from pluripotency to differentiated germ layers by regulating transcripts that mechanistically underlie this critically important cell-fate decision...
  30. Pluripotency of Amniotic Fluid-Derived Stem Cells
    COLIN EDWARD BISHOP; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..that they are able to give rise to cell lineages that include representatives of each of the three embryonic germ layers. Others have described the use of defined genetic factors to reprogram somatic cells to an ES-like state, ..
  31. ANALYSIS OF CELL LINEAGE IN EMBRYOS
    Roger Pedersen; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..differentiation of embryonic and extraembryonic tissues, the fate map for allocation of cells to the primary germ layers and organ rudiments during gastrulation and the relevance of DNA methylation as a molecular mechanism for ..
  32. Mapping hESC neuronal lineage programming
    Xuejun H Parsons; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..phenotype, in part because it has been assumed that tissue and organ systems arise from the three embryonic germ layers. However, the nervous system and the heart are among the first tissue and organ systems formed from the cells ..
  33. STATUS OF P53 IN A LFS CANCER PRONE FAMILY
    Esther Chang; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ....
  34. THE MOLECULAR BASIS OF AXIS FORMATION IN XENOPUS
    Janet Heasman; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..In the absence of beta catenin, embryos gastrulate and form three germ layers but lack the dorsal derivatives (neural tube, notochord, somites, anterior endoderm) of those germ layers...
  35. Myocardial Regeneration with Adult Stem Cells
    Young Sup Yoon; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These stem cells demonstrated a potential for differentiation into cells of all three germ layers;mesoderm(endothelium, smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes), endoderm and neuroectoderm...
  36. Maternal and Zygotic Regulation of Endoderm Development
    Daniel Kessler; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..How VegT and Nodal genes function to establish both the endodermal and mesodermal germ layers is a fundamental, unanswered question in vertebrate development...
  37. Fate Mapping and Analysis of the Definitive Endoderm
    Kimberly Tremblay; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The definitive endoderm, one of the three primary germ layers produced during gastrulation, emerges as an epithelial sheet that lines the entire ventral surface of the ..
  38. Optimizing Assays of Human Stem Cells in Bone Marrow
    George Muschler; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..cells (MAPCs), side population (SP) cells) have been shown to be capable of contributing to tissues of multiple germ layers, including liver, brain, lung and gut...
  39. Endoderm Induction and Pancreatic Specification from ES*
    Gordon Keller; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..mechanisms that regulate the earliest stages of lineage commitment that lead to the development of the primary germ layers;ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm...
  40. Development of hepatocytes from ES cells
    Valerie Gouon Evans; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells differentiate into embryoid bodies (EBs) that contain derivatives of all three germ layers. Most of these studies have focused on the development of mesoderm and ectoderm derivatives...
  41. RHESUS ES CELLS: A MODEL TO STUDY PANCREAS DEVELOPMENT
    Jon Odorico; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..marmoset) have been derived and their potential for differentiation into derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm) in vivo has been characterized...
  42. Molecular Mechanisms of Tissue Stem Cell Plasticity
    Stuart Orkin; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Muscle stem cells contribute to the hematopoietic system, while neural stem cells contribute to all germ layers when introduced into mouse blastocysts and to multiple tissues following transplantation into adult mice...
  43. Translational research and education in cell therapies for vascular regeneration
    John Cooke; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..for markers of pluripotency, global epigenetic and transcriptional patterns, and the capacity to form all three germ layers. 2) We will discover new approaches to derive and differentiate iPSCs to vascular lineages. ...
  44. BLASTOMERE AND GERM LAYER IDENTITY IN C ELEGANS
    JOEL ROTHMAN; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..is to elucidate the molecular processes that direct blastomere differentiation and formation of embryonic germ layers and organs. The endoderm, or innermost germ layer, in C...
  45. Endoderm Formation and Patterning in the Mouse
    Elizabeth Robertson; Fiscal Year: 2007
    The definitive endoderm, one of the three primary germ layers of the early embryo gives rise to the 3rimitive gut tube, which in turn contributes to a diverse set of tissues including the thyroid, thymus, liver, lungs and digestive tract...
  46. FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF VERTEBRATE CAUDAL DEVELOPMENT
    CHARLES SAGERSTROM; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..lmo4, is expressed in both ectoderm and mesoderm the PI will address whether Fgf acts differently in these germ layers. Second, these genes are novel in that they, in contrast to most RA and Fgf regulated genes characterized to ..
  47. Immunity and Gene Regulation of iPS Cell-Derived Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells
    Nicholas Zavazava; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..It is now well established that pluripotent cells can be manipulated to form cells of all 3 germ layers that can be used for disease treatment...
  48. Finding the cause of vertebrate congenital caudal duplication
    Kathleen Millen; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..be a rare example of a contiguous mirror image segmental duplication of the sacral region, involving all three germ layers. Genetic and embryonic analyses are proposed to map the locus and define the disrupted developmental mechanisms ..
  49. 4-Dimensional Models of Craniofacial Morphogenesis
    MICHAEL HULTNER; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..that occur in the epithelial (sheet-like) portions of the embryonic ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm primary germ layers. Non-epithelial tissues (embryonic mesenchyme), however, plays a major role in head and neck development; ..
  50. Vascular cells derived from embryonic stem cells
    KARA MCCLOSKEY; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..ES cells also exhibit pluripotent capabilities, giving rise to all cell types derived from the three embryonic germ layers. For these reasons, embryonic stem cells provide an excellent in vitro system for studying embryogenesis and ..
  51. MOLECULAR GENETICS OF DROSOPHILA GASTRULATION
    Y Ip; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The process involves highly coordinated cell movements and results in the formation of the three germ layers. The pursuit of molecules required for this process will lead to a better understanding of not only the very ..
  52. Comp & Exper Studies of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Diff
    Wing Wong; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..program of ES cell differentiation, antibodies will be developed to tag cell surface markers for the primary germ layers. ES cell lines will be engineered to harbor reporter genes such as a Green Fluorescent Protein under the ..
  53. Directed Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells using Phage Displayed Ligands
    David Larocca; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..are grown as clusters of interacting cells known as embryoid bodies, they differentiate into cells of all 3 germ layers from which all body cells are derived...
  54. Genetic regulation of embryonic stem cells
    Douglas Melton; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Similarly, the genes that regulate hES cell differentiation into various embryonic germ layers and specialized cells are unknown...
  55. Blood vessels from adult versus embryonic stem cells
    David Manka; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..from both mice and humans, conversely, can be expanded indefinitely in culture, and form cells of all three germ layers in vivo (pluripotent)...
  56. Transplantation of MAPC-derived hepatocyte-like cells
    NATHANIEL KREYKES; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..MAPCs are capable of differentiating in vitro to cells of the three germ layers. In addition, MAPC differentiate into cells with morphological, phenotypic, and functional characteristics of ..
  57. Wnt/beta-catenin and Wnt/Ca2+ signaling in stem cells
    AIMEE KOHN; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..by staining for specific markers; also, their ability to differentiate into tissue derived from all three germ layers will be assessed by quantitative RT-PCR of specific tissue markers and by the ability to form teratomas upon ..
  58. The CXCR4-SDF-1 Axis in Metastatic Rhabdomyosarcoma
    Mariusz Ratajczak; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This work will be of relevance for designing strategies to block the SDF-1-CXCR4 axis to treat CXCR4-positive cancers. ..
  59. CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR BASIS OF HIV BASED THROMBOCYTOPEN
    Mariusz Ratajczak; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..In toto, the studies proposed in this grant will increase the knowledge about pathogenesis of AIDS associated thrombocytopenia and may lead to development of new strategies for its treatment of prevention. (End of Abstract) ..
  60. GENETIC REGULATION OF SOMITE MORPHOGENESIS IN ZEBRAFISH
    Lilianna Solnica Krezel; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  61. EARLY EVENTS IN NEURAL AND HOMEOGENETIC INDUCTION
    Claudio Stern; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..D. To explore the possible roles of 6 newly-identified candidate secreted factors in the early steps of neural induction and homeogenetic induction. ..
  62. Pancreas-specific primary regulatory targets of Nkx2.2
    DERVLA MELLERICK DRESSLER; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..2 target genes. This knowledge may be highly instructive in defining those regulatory networks required for beta islet specification. ..