haemonchiasis

Summary

Summary: Infection with nematodes of the genus HAEMONCHUS, characterized by digestive abnormalities and anemia similar to that from hookworm infestation.

Top Publications

  1. Chartier C, Etter E, Hoste H, Pors I, Koch C, Dellac B. Efficacy of copper oxide needles for the control of nematode parasites in dairy goats. Vet Res Commun. 2000;24:389-99 pubmed
    ..Copper oxide needles may represent an alternative to conventional anthelmintics in the control of Haemonchus infection in some goat farms...
  2. Molina J, Martin S, Hernández Y, Gonzalez J, Ferrer O, Ruiz A. Immunoprotective effect of cysteine proteinase fractions from two Haemonchus contortus strains adapted to sheep and goats. Vet Parasitol. 2012;188:53-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests the possibility of exploring the mechanisms involved in natural protection against non-adapted strains, in order to develop strategies to control haemonchosis...
  3. Vatta A, Waller P, Githiori J, Medley G. The potential to control Haemonchus contortus in indigenous South African goats with copper oxide wire particles. Vet Parasitol. 2009;162:306-13 pubmed publisher
    ..contortus infections in indigenous South African goats, but their use as part of an integrated approach to control H. contortus in the field must be fully investigated...
  4. Burke J, Miller J, Olcott D, Olcott B, Terrill T. Effect of copper oxide wire particles dosage and feed supplement level on Haemonchus contortus infection in lambs. Vet Parasitol. 2004;123:235-43 pubmed
    ..PCV values were more favorable for lambs fed the higher level of supplement, especially when FEC were greater than 8000 epg. ..
  5. Schallig H, van Leeuwen M. Protective immunity to the blood-feeding nematode Haemonchus contortus induced by vaccination with parasite low molecular weight antigens. Parasitology. 1997;114 ( Pt 3):293-9 pubmed
    ..However, a marked lower lymphocyte proliferation response was found in non-protected sheep. ..
  6. Burke J, Kaplan R, Miller J, Terrill T, Getz W, Mobini S, et al. Accuracy of the FAMACHA system for on-farm use by sheep and goat producers in the southeastern United States. Vet Parasitol. 2007;147:89-95 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that the FAMACHA method used by producers is a valuable tool for identifying anemic sheep and goats in the southern United States and Puerto Rico...
  7. Van Die I, Gomord V, Kooyman F, van den Berg T, Cummings R, Vervelde L. Core alpha1-->3-fucose is a common modification of N-glycans in parasitic helminths and constitutes an important epitope for IgE from Haemonchus contortus infected sheep. FEBS Lett. 1999;463:189-93 pubmed
    ..Since N-glycans containing the core alpha1-->3-Fuc have also been implicated in honeybee and plant induced allergies, this conserved glycan might represent an important common IgE epitope. ..
  8. Malan F, van Wyk J, Wessels C. Clinical evaluation of anaemia in sheep: early trials. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2001;68:165-74 pubmed
  9. de la Chevrotière C, Bambou J, Arquet R, Jacquiet P, Mandonnet N. Genetic analysis of the potential role of IgA and IgE responses against Haemonchus contortus in parasite resistance of Creole goats. Vet Parasitol. 2012;186:337-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The immune response involving activity of IgE against L3 of H. contortus may be one important pathway for development of resistance to gastrointestinal nematode infections in Creole goats...
  10. Vervelde L, Bakker N, Kooyman F, Cornelissen A, Bank C, Nyame A, et al. Vaccination-induced protection of lambs against the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus correlates with high IgG antibody responses to the LDNF glycan antigen. Glycobiology. 2003;13:795-804 pubmed
    ..This combination generated high and specific antiglycan antibody responses that may contribute to the vaccination-induced protection. ..

Detail Information

Publications73

  1. Chartier C, Etter E, Hoste H, Pors I, Koch C, Dellac B. Efficacy of copper oxide needles for the control of nematode parasites in dairy goats. Vet Res Commun. 2000;24:389-99 pubmed
    ..Copper oxide needles may represent an alternative to conventional anthelmintics in the control of Haemonchus infection in some goat farms...
  2. Molina J, Martin S, Hernández Y, Gonzalez J, Ferrer O, Ruiz A. Immunoprotective effect of cysteine proteinase fractions from two Haemonchus contortus strains adapted to sheep and goats. Vet Parasitol. 2012;188:53-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests the possibility of exploring the mechanisms involved in natural protection against non-adapted strains, in order to develop strategies to control haemonchosis...
  3. Vatta A, Waller P, Githiori J, Medley G. The potential to control Haemonchus contortus in indigenous South African goats with copper oxide wire particles. Vet Parasitol. 2009;162:306-13 pubmed publisher
    ..contortus infections in indigenous South African goats, but their use as part of an integrated approach to control H. contortus in the field must be fully investigated...
  4. Burke J, Miller J, Olcott D, Olcott B, Terrill T. Effect of copper oxide wire particles dosage and feed supplement level on Haemonchus contortus infection in lambs. Vet Parasitol. 2004;123:235-43 pubmed
    ..PCV values were more favorable for lambs fed the higher level of supplement, especially when FEC were greater than 8000 epg. ..
  5. Schallig H, van Leeuwen M. Protective immunity to the blood-feeding nematode Haemonchus contortus induced by vaccination with parasite low molecular weight antigens. Parasitology. 1997;114 ( Pt 3):293-9 pubmed
    ..However, a marked lower lymphocyte proliferation response was found in non-protected sheep. ..
  6. Burke J, Kaplan R, Miller J, Terrill T, Getz W, Mobini S, et al. Accuracy of the FAMACHA system for on-farm use by sheep and goat producers in the southeastern United States. Vet Parasitol. 2007;147:89-95 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that the FAMACHA method used by producers is a valuable tool for identifying anemic sheep and goats in the southern United States and Puerto Rico...
  7. Van Die I, Gomord V, Kooyman F, van den Berg T, Cummings R, Vervelde L. Core alpha1-->3-fucose is a common modification of N-glycans in parasitic helminths and constitutes an important epitope for IgE from Haemonchus contortus infected sheep. FEBS Lett. 1999;463:189-93 pubmed
    ..Since N-glycans containing the core alpha1-->3-Fuc have also been implicated in honeybee and plant induced allergies, this conserved glycan might represent an important common IgE epitope. ..
  8. Malan F, van Wyk J, Wessels C. Clinical evaluation of anaemia in sheep: early trials. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2001;68:165-74 pubmed
  9. de la Chevrotière C, Bambou J, Arquet R, Jacquiet P, Mandonnet N. Genetic analysis of the potential role of IgA and IgE responses against Haemonchus contortus in parasite resistance of Creole goats. Vet Parasitol. 2012;186:337-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The immune response involving activity of IgE against L3 of H. contortus may be one important pathway for development of resistance to gastrointestinal nematode infections in Creole goats...
  10. Vervelde L, Bakker N, Kooyman F, Cornelissen A, Bank C, Nyame A, et al. Vaccination-induced protection of lambs against the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus correlates with high IgG antibody responses to the LDNF glycan antigen. Glycobiology. 2003;13:795-804 pubmed
    ..This combination generated high and specific antiglycan antibody responses that may contribute to the vaccination-induced protection. ..
  11. Terefe G, Lacroux C, Prevot F, Grisez C, Bergeaud J, Bleuart C, et al. Eosinophils in Haemonchus contortus-infected resistant and susceptible breeds of sheep: abomasal tissue recruitment and in vitro functional state. Vet Parasitol. 2009;165:161-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, abomasal eosinophil number and larval killing abilities of blood eosinophils do not seem to explain the difference in worm burden between the two breeds. ..
  12. Ruiz A, Molina J, González J, Conde M, Martin S, Hernández Y. Immunoprotection in goats against Haemonchus contortus after immunization with cysteine protease enriched protein fractions. Vet Res. 2004;35:565-72 pubmed
    ..5 +/- 43.8 and 762.5 +/- 78.3 worms per animal in the immunized and nonimmunized goats, respectively. The percentage of egg (89%) and worm (68%) reduction approached those attained with other immunogens used in sheep...
  13. Gauly M, Kraus M, Vervelde L, van Leeuwen M, Erhardt G. Estimating genetic differences in natural resistance in Rhön and Merinoland sheep following experimental Haemonchus contortus infection. Vet Parasitol. 2002;106:55-67 pubmed
    ..01). IgG was significantly (P<0.05) and positively correlated with worm burden in male Merinoland and IgL with worm burden in male Rhön sheep...
  14. Marshall K, Maddox J, Lee S, Zhang Y, Kahn L, Graser H, et al. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci for resistance to Haemonchus contortus in sheep. Anim Genet. 2009;40:262-72 pubmed publisher
  15. Schallig H, van Leeuwen M, Verstrepen B, Cornelissen A. Molecular characterization and expression of two putative protective excretory secretory proteins of Haemonchus contortus. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1997;88:203-13 pubmed
    ..Both purified recombinant proteins were recognized by sera from H. contortus hyperimmunised sheep as judged by immunoblot analysis, suggesting that antigenic determinants were also present on the recombinant proteins...
  16. Murray L, Geldhof P, Clark D, Knox D, Britton C. Expression and purification of an active cysteine protease of Haemonchus contortus using Caenorhabditis elegans. Int J Parasitol. 2007;37:1117-25 pubmed
    ..This study provides proof of principle that active, post-translationally modified parasitic nematode proteases can be expressed in C. elegans and this approach can be extended for expression of known protective antigens...
  17. Coles G, Rhodes A, Wolstenholme A. Rapid selection for ivermectin resistance in Haemonchus contortus. Vet Parasitol. 2005;129:345-7 pubmed
    ..After three generations the H. contortus was resistant to 0.2 mg/kg ivermectin. The results stress the ease with which ivermectin resistance can be selected if high selection pressure is applied...
  18. Rowe A, McMaster K, Emery D, Sangster N. Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep: parasite fecundity correlates with worm size and host lymphocyte counts. Vet Parasitol. 2008;153:285-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunohistochemical results showed trends consistent with a Th2 (humoral) immune response which has been implicated in reducing nematode burdens in several species...
  19. Bricarello P, Amarante A, Rocha R, Cabral Filho S, Huntley J, Houdijk J, et al. Influence of dietary protein supply on resistance to experimental infections with Haemonchus contortus in Ile de France and Santa Ines lambs. Vet Parasitol. 2005;134:99-109 pubmed
    ..05). The present results show that the increase in protein content in growing lamb diets may benefit resistance and resilience to gastrointestinal parasites but that these benefits may vary among breeds...
  20. Kaplan R, Vidyashankar A, Howell S, Neiss J, Williamson L, Terrill T. A novel approach for combining the use of in vitro and in vivo data to measure and detect emerging moxidectin resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of goats. Int J Parasitol. 2007;37:795-804 pubmed
    ..Moxidectin resistance was diagnosed both in Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus on almost half of the farms tested, despite this drug only being used on these farms for 2-3 years...
  21. Waller P, Rudby Martin L, Ljungström B, Rydzik A. The epidemiology of abomasal nematodes of sheep in Sweden, with particular reference to over-winter survival strategies. Vet Parasitol. 2004;122:207-20 pubmed
    ..In contrast, T. circumcincta can survive well over-winter, both on pasture and within the host...
  22. Fakae B, Musongong G, Chiejina S, Behnke J, Ngongeh L, Wakelin D. Variability in the resistance of the Nigerian West African Dwarf goat to abbreviated escalating trickle and challenge infections with Haemonchus contortus. Vet Parasitol. 2004;122:51-65 pubmed
    ..Overall, the data are consistent with the existence of a range of response phenotypes, which reflect variations in resistance of WAD goats to H. contortus infection, the genetic basis of which will be explored in future experiments...
  23. Alba Hurtado F, Romero Escobedo E, Muñoz Guzmán M, Torres Hernández G, Becerril Pérez C. Comparison of parasitological and productive traits of Criollo lambs native to the central Mexican Plateau and Suffolk lambs experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus. Vet Parasitol. 2010;172:277-82 pubmed publisher
    ..6+/-1.6kg, and control CNCMP lambs gained 26.9+/-0.8kg. In conclusion, CNCMP lambs had a smaller worm burden, a better ability to maintain their productive traits, and were less affected by infection with Haemonchus contortus...
  24. Balic A, Bowles V, Meeusen E. Mechanisms of immunity to Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep. Parasite Immunol. 2002;24:39-46 pubmed
    ..These two immune mechanisms may be associated with the rapid and delayed rejection of parasite infections in immune sheep...
  25. Balic A, Bowles V, Meeusen E. Cellular profiles in the abomasal mucosa and lymph node during primary infection with Haemonchus contortus in sheep. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2000;75:109-20 pubmed
  26. Castillo J, Medina R, Villalobos J, Gayosso Vázquez A, Ulloa Arvízu R, Rodríguez R, et al. Association between major histocompatibility complex microsatellites, fecal egg count, blood packed cell volume and blood eosinophilia in Pelibuey sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus. Vet Parasitol. 2011;177:339-44 pubmed publisher
    ..contortus...
  27. Ojeda Robertos N, Torres Acosta J, Aguilar Caballero A, Ayala Burgos A, Cob Galera L, Sandoval Castro C, et al. Assessing the efficacy of Duddingtonia flagrans chlamydospores per gram of faeces to control Haemonchus contortus larvae. Vet Parasitol. 2008;158:329-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The surface response test indicated that the number of larvae was reduced by CPG until possible saturation. The highest CPG:EPG ratios did not necessarily improve efficacy of D. flagrans...
  28. Cuenca Verde C, Buendía Jiménez J, Valdivia Anda G, Cuéllar Ordaz J, Muñoz Guzmán M, Alba Hurtado F. Decrease in establishment of Haemonchus contortus caused by inoculation of a Taenia hydatigena larvae vesicular concentrate. Vet Parasitol. 2011;177:332-8 pubmed publisher
    ..contortus. However, this protection is not only attributable to the role of eosinophils, since ThLVC can function stimulating other immune response cells, such as T lymphocytes, both contributing to prevent the presence of worms...
  29. Shakya K, Miller J, Lomax L, Burnett D. Evaluation of immune response to artificial infections of Haemonchus contortus in Gulf Coast Native compared with Suffolk lambs. Vet Parasitol. 2011;181:239-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Native lambs also showed a trend of increased level of serum IgA and IgE compared to Suffolk lambs...
  30. Redmond D, Knox D. Protection studies in sheep using affinity-purified and recombinant cysteine proteinases of adult Haemonchus contortus. Vaccine. 2004;22:4252-61 pubmed
    ..Although no reduction in faecal egg counts was observed, sheep vaccinated with recombinant cysteine proteinases showed a highly significant 38% reduction (P <0.01) in worm burdens...
  31. Knox D, Smith W. Vaccination against gastrointestinal nematode parasites of ruminants using gut-expressed antigens. Vet Parasitol. 2001;100:21-32 pubmed
    ..In addition, the discussion addresses the utility of selected antigens to protect against co-infecting nematode species such as Teladorsagia circumcincta and against related nematode infections such as Ostertagia ostertagi in cattle...
  32. Rocha R, Bricarello P, Silva M, Houdijk J, Almeida F, Cardia D, et al. Influence of protein supplementation during late pregnancy and lactation on the resistance of Santa Ines and Ile de France ewes to Haemonchus contortus. Vet Parasitol. 2011;181:229-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Since, unexpectedly, MP scarcity was not achieved in this experiment, our data support the view that Santa Ines ewes are more resistant to H. contortus than Ile de France ewes...
  33. Terefe G, Yacob H, Grisez C, Prevot F, Dumas E, Bergeaud J, et al. Haemonchus contortus egg excretion and female length reduction in sheep previously infected with Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae) larvae. Vet Parasitol. 2005;128:271-83 pubmed
    ..We conclude that, the establishment of O. ovis larvae in the upper respiratory tract has initiated higher inflammatory cellular activity in group OH there by influencing the development and fecundity of H. contortus in the abomasum...
  34. Miller J, Bahirathan M, Lemarie S, Hembry F, Kearney M, Barras S. Epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematode parasitism in Suffolk and Gulf Coast Native sheep with special emphasis on relative susceptibility to Haemonchus contortus infection. Vet Parasitol. 1998;74:55-74 pubmed
    ..contortus) than Suffolk sheep...
  35. Pena M, Miller J, Horohov D. Effect of CD4+ T lymphocyte depletion on resistance of Gulf Coast Native lambs to Haemonchus contortus infection. Vet Parasitol. 2006;138:240-6 pubmed
    ..contortus infection than undepleted lambs. The results of this study suggest that CD4(+) T lymphocytes are associated with the natural resistance of GCN sheep to H. contortus infection...
  36. Burke J, Miller J. Control of Haemonchus contortus in goats with a sustained-release multi-trace element/vitamin ruminal bolus containing copper. Vet Parasitol. 2006;141:132-7 pubmed
    ..GIN control did not persist more than 28 days. These studies suggest that TEB may be an effective means of GIN control in mature goats, but additional control measures may be necessary...
  37. González J, Hernandez A, Molina J, Fernandez A, Raadsma H, Meeusen E, et al. Comparative experimental Haemonchus contortus infection of two sheep breeds native to the Canary Islands. Vet Parasitol. 2008;153:374-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these data suggest that the Canaria Hair Breed sheep has a greater resistance to H. contortus infection than Canaria sheep, and that this resistance may act at the level of the adult parasite...
  38. Bambou J, de la Chevrotière C, Varo H, Arquet R, Kooyman F, Mandonnet N. Serum antibody responses in Creole kids experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus. Vet Parasitol. 2008;158:311-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Such correlation suggesting a hypersensitivity reaction dependent on worm prolificacy has never been described. This result needs further studies to understand the mechanisms underlying this observation...
  39. MacKinnon K, Burton J, Zajac A, Notter D. Microarray analysis reveals difference in gene expression profiles of hair and wool sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2009;130:210-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Changes in these processes indicate Caribbean hair sheep have a stronger inflammatory response when infected with H. contortus which may facilitate the increased parasite resistance observed in these sheep...
  40. Vatta A, Letty B, van der Linde M, van Wijk E, Hansen J, Krecek R. Testing for clinical anaemia caused by Haemonchus spp. in goats farmed under resource-poor conditions in South Africa using an eye colour chart developed for sheep. Vet Parasitol. 2001;99:1-14 pubmed
    ..The validation of the FAMACHA system for goats for use by resource-poor farmers, which this paper describes, may have wide application in the tropics and subtropics of sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere...
  41. Knox M. Effectiveness of copper oxide wire particles for Haemonchus contortus control in sheep. Aust Vet J. 2002;80:224-7 pubmed
    ..To assess the efficacy of copper oxide wire particles (COWP) for the control of H contortus infections in grazing sheep...
  42. Amarante A, Bricarello P, Huntley J, Mazzolin L, Gomes J. Relationship of abomasal histology and parasite-specific immunoglobulin A with the resistance to Haemonchus contortus infection in three breeds of sheep. Vet Parasitol. 2005;128:99-107 pubmed
    ..Thus, the effect of breed on the functional activity of these and other inflammatory cells is an important area for further study...
  43. Bakker N, Vervelde L, Kanobana K, Knox D, Cornelissen A, de Vries E, et al. Vaccination against the nematode Haemonchus contortus with a thiol-binding fraction from the excretory/secretory products (ES). Vaccine. 2004;22:618-28 pubmed
  44. Palmer D, McCombe I. Lectin staining of trichostrongylid nematode eggs of sheep: rapid identification of Haemonchus contortus eggs with peanut agglutinin. Int J Parasitol. 1996;26:447-50 pubmed
    ..The findings suggest that peanut agglutinin can be used in routine diagnostic parasitology for the rapid identification of H. contortus eggs...
  45. Smith W, van Wyk J, van Strijp M. Preliminary observations on the potential of gut membrane proteins of Haemonchus contortus as candidate vaccine antigens in sheep on naturally infected pasture. Vet Parasitol. 2001;98:285-97 pubmed
    ..It was clear that a vaccine based on parasite gut membrane proteins could offer substantial benefits in the control of natural haemonchosis...
  46. Saddiqi H, Jabbar A, Sarwar M, Iqbal Z, Muhammad G, Nisa M, et al. Small ruminant resistance against gastrointestinal nematodes: a case of Haemonchus contortus. Parasitol Res. 2011;109:1483-500 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper reviews the published reports on natural resistance in small ruminants and discusses the prospects of developing small ruminants, which could be resistant to GINs...
  47. Knox D, Redmond D, Newlands G, Skuce P, Pettit D, Smith W. The nature and prospects for gut membrane proteins as vaccine candidates for Haemonchus contortus and other ruminant trichostrongyloids. Int J Parasitol. 2003;33:1129-37 pubmed
    ..Gene knockout technologies such as RNA interference have the potential to provide high throughput, rapid and inexpensive methods to define whether the protein product of a particular gene would be a suitable vaccine candidate...
  48. Geldhof P, Newlands G, Nyame K, Cummings R, Smith W, Knox D. Presence of the LDNF glycan on the host-protective H-gal-GP fraction from Haemonchus contortus. Parasite Immunol. 2005;27:55-60 pubmed
  49. Lacroux C, Nguyen T, Andreoletti O, Prevot F, Grisez C, Bergeaud J, et al. Haemonchus contortus (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae) infection in lambs elicits an unequivocal Th2 immune response. Vet Res. 2006;37:607-22 pubmed
    ..We conclude that H. contortus infection in young INRA 401 lambs induced an unequivocal Th2 immune response resulting in the regulation of worm egg production without affecting their establishment...
  50. Perez J, Garcia P, Hernandez S, Mozos E, Cámara S, Martínez Moreno A. Experimental haemonchosis in goats: effects of single and multiple infections in the host response. Vet Parasitol. 2003;111:333-42 pubmed
    ..The prolonged time required for generating globule leukocytes suggested that immune mechanisms dependent of this cell type are of crucial importance in the protective immunity against H. contortus in goats...
  51. Bethony J, Loukas A, Hotez P, Knox D. Vaccines against blood-feeding nematodes of humans and livestock. Parasitology. 2006;133 Suppl:S63-79 pubmed
  52. Yatsuda A, Bakker N, Krijgsveld J, Knox D, Heck A, de Vries E. Identification of secreted cysteine proteases from the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus detected by biotinylated inhibitors. Infect Immun. 2006;74:1989-93 pubmed
    ..Mass spectrometry provided the identification of AC-4, HMCP1, HMCP2, and GCP7 as well as three novel CBLs encoded by clustered expressed sequence tags...
  53. Kaplan R, Burke J, Terrill T, Miller J, Getz W, Mobini S, et al. Validation of the FAMACHA eye color chart for detecting clinical anemia in sheep and goats on farms in the southern United States. Vet Parasitol. 2004;123:105-20 pubmed
    ..However, further studies are required to determine optimal strategies for incorporating FAMACHA-based selective treatment protocols into integrated nematode control programs...
  54. Love S, Neilson F, Biddle A, McKinnon R. Moxidectin-resistant Haemonchus contortus in sheep in northern New South Wales. Aust Vet J. 2003;81:359-60 pubmed
  55. Andronicos N, Hunt P, Windon R. Expression of genes in gastrointestinal and lymphatic tissues during parasite infection in sheep genetically resistant or susceptible to Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Haemonchus contortus. Int J Parasitol. 2010;40:417-29 pubmed publisher
  56. Shakya K, Miller J, Horohov D. A Th2 type of immune response is associated with increased resistance to Haemonchus contortus in naturally infected Gulf Coast Native lambs. Vet Parasitol. 2009;163:57-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Results indicated that Native lambs had a more pronounced immune response to infection with H. contortus than Suffolk lambs which may be responsible for the observed resistance to infection...
  57. van Wyk J, Stenson M, van der Merwe J, Vorster R, Viljoen P. Anthelmintic resistance in South Africa: surveys indicate an extremely serious situation in sheep and goat farming. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 1999;66:273-84 pubmed
    ..Alternative methods of integrated worm control, including biological, must be sought and implemented with urgency, to reduce further selection for resistance and to induce reversion of the resistance that has already developed...
  58. Vatta A, Krecek R, Letty B, van der Linde M, Grimbeek R, de Villiers J, et al. Incidence of Haemonchus spp. and effect on haematocrit and eye colour in goats farmed under resource-poor conditions in South Africa. Vet Parasitol. 2002;103:119-31 pubmed
    ..The use of this system may be recommended as part of an integrated approach to worm control in goats kept in the resource-poor areas studied...
  59. Burke J, Miller J, Larsen M, Terrill T. Interaction between copper oxide wire particles and Duddingtonia flagrans in lambs. Vet Parasitol. 2005;134:141-6 pubmed
    ..flagrans, the expected result would be a much lower larval challenge on pasture when these two tools are used together in a sustainable control strategy...
  60. Muñoz Guzmán M, Cuenca Verde C, Valdivia Anda G, Cuéllar Ordaz J, Alba Hurtado F. Differential immune response between fundic and pyloric abomasal regions upon experimental ovine infection with Haemonchus contortus. Vet Parasitol. 2012;185:175-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These differences indicate that the immunological response is not homogenous in all abomasal mucosa and that evaluating the response from a single abomasal region may not be representative of the cellular response across the abomasum...
  61. Newton S, Munn E. The development of vaccines against gastrointestinal nematode parasites, particularly Haemonchus contortus. Parasitol Today. 1999;15:116-22 pubmed
    ..Here, Sue Newton and Ed Munn review the most recent advances in these two main approaches to this problem...
  62. Waller P, Bernes G, Rudby Martin L, Ljungström B, Rydzik A. Evaluation of copper supplementation to control Haemonchus contortus infections of sheep in Sweden. Acta Vet Scand. 2004;45:149-60 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that there is little, if any, benefit from a parasite control standpoint in recommending copper therapy, specifically to control parasites in Swedish sheep flocks...
  63. LeJambre L, Windon R, Smith W. Vaccination against Haemonchus contortus: performance of native parasite gut membrane glycoproteins in Merino lambs grazing contaminated pasture. Vet Parasitol. 2008;153:302-12 pubmed publisher
    ..It was concluded that if similar protective effects could be obtained with recombinant versions of the proteins present in either H11 or H-gal-GP, then the prospects for a commercial Haemonchus vaccine were real...
  64. Burke J, Terrill T, Kallu R, Miller J, Mosjidis J. Use of copper oxide wire particles to control gastrointestinal nematodes in goats. J Anim Sci. 2007;85:2753-61 pubmed
    ..Copper oxide does not appear to be effective in controlling newly acquired L4 stage (preadult) larvae, which also feed on blood, leading to decreased PCV in newly infected goats...
  65. Miller J, Horohov D. Immunological aspects of nematode parasite control in sheep. J Anim Sci. 2006;84 Suppl:E124-32 pubmed
    ..The potential for using vaccines has been investigated, with variable results, for several decades. The few successes and potential new antigen candidates will also be reviewed...
  66. Perez J, Garcia P, Hernandez S, Martinez Moreno A, Martin de las Mulas J, Camara S. Pathological and immunohistochemical study of the abomasum and abomasal lymph nodes in goats experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus. Vet Res. 2001;32:463-73 pubmed
    ..These reactions may have been responsible for the reduction in the number of worms found in the abomasum between 3 and 7 wpi...
  67. Meeusen E, Balic A, Bowles V. Cells, cytokines and other molecules associated with rejection of gastrointestinal nematode parasites. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2005;108:121-5 pubmed
    ..In addition, other molecules, in particular carbohydrate binding galectins, may be involved in strengthening the final effector phase of the rejection response...
  68. Samarasinghe B, Knox D, Britton C. Factors affecting susceptibility to RNA interference in Haemonchus contortus and in vivo silencing of an H11 aminopeptidase gene. Int J Parasitol. 2011;41:51-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in this study we have established that RNAi is a valid and feasible approach to identify essential gene function. However, using current methods, this may be limited to genes expressed in accessible sites...
  69. Cachat E, Newlands G, Ekoja S, McAllister H, Smith W. Attempts to immunize sheep against Haemonchus contortus using a cocktail of recombinant proteases derived from the protective antigen, H-gal-GP. Parasite Immunol. 2010;32:414-9 pubmed publisher
  70. Saddiqi H, Iqbal Z, Khan M, Sarwar M, Muhammad G, Yaseen M, et al. Evaluation of three Pakistani sheep breeds for their natural resistance to artificial infection of Haemonchus contortus. Vet Parasitol. 2010;168:141-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Breed x week interaction also remained significant (P<0.05) in most of the parameters for Lohi breed. The results suggested that Lohi breed expressed a significant innate resistance to artificial infection of H. contortus...
  71. Kemp J, Robinson N, Meeusen E, Piedrafita D. The relationship between the rapid rejection of Haemonchus contortus larvae with cells and mediators in abomasal tissues in immune sheep. Int J Parasitol. 2009;39:1589-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies using specific inhibitors in this ex vivo tissue explant model may delineate the relative role of each cell population and mediator in the rapid rejection process...
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    ..They and the derivative Katahdin breed seem relatively resistant to parasitism. The Dorper, in contrast, was developed in more arid regions and exhibited little parasite resistance...
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