babesiosis

Summary

Summary: A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.

Top Publications

  1. René Martellet M, Chene J, Chabanne L, Chalvet Monfray K, Bourdoiseau G. Clinical signs, seasonal occurrence and causative agents of canine babesiosis in France: results of a multiregional study. Vet Parasitol. 2013;197:50-8 pubmed publisher
    Canine babesiosis (or piroplasmosis) is an emerging tick-borne disease caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genera Babesia and Theileria...
  2. Chmielewska Badora J, Moniuszko A, Żukiewicz Sobczak W, Zwolinski J, Piatek J, Pancewicz S. Serological survey in persons occupationally exposed to tick-borne pathogens in cases of co-infections with Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella spp. and Babesia microti. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2012;19:271-4 pubmed
    ..burgdorferi, as anti-B. microti, A. phagocytophilum and Bartonella spp. antibodies are not more commonly prevalent in persons with occupational risk of tick bites than in healthy volunteers...
  3. Simuunza M, Weir W, Courcier E, Tait A, Shiels B. Epidemiological analysis of tick-borne diseases in Zambia. Vet Parasitol. 2011;175:331-42 pubmed publisher
    ..tick-borne diseases of livestock in sub-Saharan Africa are East Coast fever (caused by Theileria parva), babesiosis (caused by Babesia bigemina and B...
  4. Ramos C, Araújo F, Souza I, Bacanelli G, Luiz H, Russi L, et al. Real-time polymerase chain reaction based on msa2c gene for detection of Babesia bovis. Vet Parasitol. 2011;176:79-83 pubmed publisher
    ..All animals raised on a tick-free facility were negative for B. bovis in the three tests. These results suggest that msa2c q-PCR is a useful test for the detection of B. bovis infection. ..
  5. Aboulaila M, Yokoyama N, Igarashi I. Development and evaluation of a nested PCR based on spherical body protein 2 gene for the diagnosis of Babesia bovis infection. Vet Parasitol. 2010;169:45-50 pubmed publisher
    ..6% (127/145), while B. bovis RAP-1 gene nPCR detected 37.2% (51/145) of the total samples examined. This nPCR assay provides a good diagnostic tool for the laboratory diagnostic assessment of B. bovis infection in cattle worldwide...
  6. Awad H, Antunes S, Galindo R, Do Rosario V, De La Fuente J, Domingos A, et al. Prevalence and genetic diversity of Babesia and Anaplasma species in cattle in Sudan. Vet Parasitol. 2011;181:146-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study aims to provide information about the prevalence of babesiosis and anaplasmosis in the northern regions of Sudan...
  7. Tonnetti L, Eder A, Dy B, Kennedy J, Pisciotto P, Benjamin R, et al. Transfusion-transmitted Babesia microti identified through hemovigilance. Transfusion. 2009;49:2557-63 pubmed publisher
    Babesia microti, the primary cause of human babesiosis in the United States, is an intraerythrocytic parasite endemic to the Northeast and upper Midwest. Published studies indicate that B. microti increasingly poses a blood safety risk...
  8. Jongejan F, Fourie J, Chester S, Manavella C, Mallouk Y, Pollmeier M, et al. The prevention of transmission of Babesia canis canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks to dogs using a novel combination of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene. Vet Parasitol. 2011;179:343-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the treatment of dogs with CERTIFECT applied up to 28 days prior to infestation with D. reticulatus harbouring B. canis canis, successfully prevented the development of clinical signs of canine babesiosis.
  9. Trotta M, Carli E, Novari G, Furlanello T, Solano Gallego L. Clinicopathological findings, molecular detection and characterization of Babesia gibsoni infection in a sick dog from Italy. Vet Parasitol. 2009;165:318-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The nucleotide sequence was completely identical to that of Babesia gibsoni present in GenBank. This is the first molecular detection and characterization of B. gibsoni infection in a sick dog from Italy. ..
  10. Hasle G, Leinaas H, Røed K, Øines Ø. Transport of Babesia venatorum-infected Ixodes ricinus to Norway by northward migrating passerine birds. Acta Vet Scand. 2011;53:41 pubmed publisher
    Bovine babesiosis is regarded as a limited health problem for Norwegian cows, and the incidence has decreased markedly since the 1930s. Rare cases of babesiosis in splenectomised humans from infection with Babesia divergens and B...

Detail Information

Publications85

  1. René Martellet M, Chene J, Chabanne L, Chalvet Monfray K, Bourdoiseau G. Clinical signs, seasonal occurrence and causative agents of canine babesiosis in France: results of a multiregional study. Vet Parasitol. 2013;197:50-8 pubmed publisher
    Canine babesiosis (or piroplasmosis) is an emerging tick-borne disease caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genera Babesia and Theileria...
  2. Chmielewska Badora J, Moniuszko A, Żukiewicz Sobczak W, Zwolinski J, Piatek J, Pancewicz S. Serological survey in persons occupationally exposed to tick-borne pathogens in cases of co-infections with Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella spp. and Babesia microti. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2012;19:271-4 pubmed
    ..burgdorferi, as anti-B. microti, A. phagocytophilum and Bartonella spp. antibodies are not more commonly prevalent in persons with occupational risk of tick bites than in healthy volunteers...
  3. Simuunza M, Weir W, Courcier E, Tait A, Shiels B. Epidemiological analysis of tick-borne diseases in Zambia. Vet Parasitol. 2011;175:331-42 pubmed publisher
    ..tick-borne diseases of livestock in sub-Saharan Africa are East Coast fever (caused by Theileria parva), babesiosis (caused by Babesia bigemina and B...
  4. Ramos C, Araújo F, Souza I, Bacanelli G, Luiz H, Russi L, et al. Real-time polymerase chain reaction based on msa2c gene for detection of Babesia bovis. Vet Parasitol. 2011;176:79-83 pubmed publisher
    ..All animals raised on a tick-free facility were negative for B. bovis in the three tests. These results suggest that msa2c q-PCR is a useful test for the detection of B. bovis infection. ..
  5. Aboulaila M, Yokoyama N, Igarashi I. Development and evaluation of a nested PCR based on spherical body protein 2 gene for the diagnosis of Babesia bovis infection. Vet Parasitol. 2010;169:45-50 pubmed publisher
    ..6% (127/145), while B. bovis RAP-1 gene nPCR detected 37.2% (51/145) of the total samples examined. This nPCR assay provides a good diagnostic tool for the laboratory diagnostic assessment of B. bovis infection in cattle worldwide...
  6. Awad H, Antunes S, Galindo R, Do Rosario V, De La Fuente J, Domingos A, et al. Prevalence and genetic diversity of Babesia and Anaplasma species in cattle in Sudan. Vet Parasitol. 2011;181:146-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study aims to provide information about the prevalence of babesiosis and anaplasmosis in the northern regions of Sudan...
  7. Tonnetti L, Eder A, Dy B, Kennedy J, Pisciotto P, Benjamin R, et al. Transfusion-transmitted Babesia microti identified through hemovigilance. Transfusion. 2009;49:2557-63 pubmed publisher
    Babesia microti, the primary cause of human babesiosis in the United States, is an intraerythrocytic parasite endemic to the Northeast and upper Midwest. Published studies indicate that B. microti increasingly poses a blood safety risk...
  8. Jongejan F, Fourie J, Chester S, Manavella C, Mallouk Y, Pollmeier M, et al. The prevention of transmission of Babesia canis canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks to dogs using a novel combination of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene. Vet Parasitol. 2011;179:343-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the treatment of dogs with CERTIFECT applied up to 28 days prior to infestation with D. reticulatus harbouring B. canis canis, successfully prevented the development of clinical signs of canine babesiosis.
  9. Trotta M, Carli E, Novari G, Furlanello T, Solano Gallego L. Clinicopathological findings, molecular detection and characterization of Babesia gibsoni infection in a sick dog from Italy. Vet Parasitol. 2009;165:318-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The nucleotide sequence was completely identical to that of Babesia gibsoni present in GenBank. This is the first molecular detection and characterization of B. gibsoni infection in a sick dog from Italy. ..
  10. Hasle G, Leinaas H, Røed K, Øines Ø. Transport of Babesia venatorum-infected Ixodes ricinus to Norway by northward migrating passerine birds. Acta Vet Scand. 2011;53:41 pubmed publisher
    Bovine babesiosis is regarded as a limited health problem for Norwegian cows, and the incidence has decreased markedly since the 1930s. Rare cases of babesiosis in splenectomised humans from infection with Babesia divergens and B...
  11. Johnson S, Cable R, Tonnetti L, Spencer B, Rios J, Leiby D. Seroprevalence of Babesia microti in blood donors from Babesia-endemic areas of the northeastern United States: 2000 through 2007. Transfusion. 2009;49:2574-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Steps should be taken to reduce risk of transfusion-transmitted B. microti, perhaps through implementation of year-round, regional testing. ..
  12. Aboulaila M, Sivakumar T, Yokoyama N, Igarashi I. Inhibitory effect of terpene nerolidol on the growth of Babesia parasites. Parasitol Int. 2010;59:278-82 pubmed publisher
    ..05) inhibited the growth of B. microti at the dosage of 10 and 100mg/kg BW, while the inhibition was low compared with the high doses used. Therefore, nerolidol could not be used as a chemotherapeutic drug for babesiosis.
  13. Adaszek Ł, Górna M, Winiarczyk S. Electrolyte level and blood pH in dogs infected by various 18S RNA strains of Babaesia canis canis on the early stage of babesiosis. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2012;125:45-51 pubmed
    The purpose of the studies was to determine electrolyte disturbances and blood pH changes in dogs with babesiosis and possibly show a connection between the Babesia (B...
  14. da Silveira J, Rabelo E, Ribeiro M. Detection of Theileria and Babesia in brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) and marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus) in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Vet Parasitol. 2011;177:61-6 pubmed publisher
    ..14.3%), Babesia bovis (4.8%) and Babesia bigemina (4.8%). However, only one of the infected wild cervids exhibited accentuated anaemia (PCV=17%). This is first report concerning the occurrence of Theileria spp. in Brazilian cervids...
  15. Mazuz M, Molad T, Fish L, Leibovitz B, Wolkomirsky R, Fleiderovitz L, et al. Genetic diversity of Babesia bovis in virulent and attenuated strains. Parasitology. 2012;139:317-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite high polymorphism found by sequence analyses, the patterns observed and the number of repeats, order, or motifs found could not discriminate between virulent field isolates and attenuated vaccine strains of the parasite. ..
  16. Yoshinari T, Sivakumar T, Asada M, Battsetseg B, Huang X, Lan D, et al. A PCR based survey of Babesia ovata in cattle from various Asian, African and South American countries. J Vet Med Sci. 2013;75:211-4 pubmed
    ..ovata AMA-1, and that amplicons from different geographical locations were conserved. Our findings highlight the importance of designing adequate strategies to control B. ovata infection in Japan, Mongolia, and Thailand...
  17. Lin M, Huang H. Use of a doxycycline-enrofloxacin-metronidazole combination with/without diminazene diaceturate to treat naturally occurring canine babesiosis caused by Babesia gibsoni. Acta Vet Scand. 2010;52:27 pubmed publisher
    Canine babesiosis is an important worldwide, tick-borne disease caused by hemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. Babesia gibsoni is the predominant species that causes canine babesiosis in Taipei, Taiwan...
  18. Zygner W, Gójska Zygner O, Wedrychowicz H. Strong monovalent electrolyte imbalances in serum of dogs infected with Babesia canis. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2012;3:107-13 pubmed publisher
    Canine babesiosis is a systemic tick-borne protozoan disease caused by infection with parasites of the genus Babesia. Acid-base disorders and ion imbalances have been described in dogs infected with Babesia rossi in South Africa...
  19. René M, Chene J, Beaufils J, Valiente Moro C, Bourdoiseau G, Mavingui P, et al. First evidence and molecular characterization of Babesia vogeli in naturally infected dogs and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks in southern France. Vet Parasitol. 2012;187:399-407 pubmed publisher
    b>Babesiosis is an emerging tick-borne disease of animals and humans caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genera Babesia and Theileria...
  20. Ionita M, Mitrea I, Pfister K, Hamel D, Buzatu C, Silaghi C. Canine babesiosis in Romania due to Babesia canis and Babesia vogeli: a molecular approach. Parasitol Res. 2012;110:1659-64 pubmed publisher
    Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the protozoa Babesia spp. that affects dogs worldwide...
  21. Ramos C, Araújo F, Alves L, de Souza I, Guedes D, Soares C. Genetic conservation of potentially immunogenic proteins among Brazilian isolates of Babesia bovis. Vet Parasitol. 2012;187:548-52 pubmed publisher
    Bovine babesiosis caused by Babesia bovis remains an important constraint for the development of cattle industries worldwide. Effective control can be achieved by vaccination with live attenuated phenotypes of the parasite...
  22. Wroblewski H, Kovacs R, Kingery J, Overholser B, Tisdale J. High risk of QT interval prolongation and torsades de pointes associated with intravenous quinidine used for treatment of resistant malaria or babesiosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:4495-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Among 6 patients receiving quinidine for malaria or babesiosis, 4 developed QT interval prolongation and 2 experienced TdP...
  23. Kirtz G, Leschnik M, Hooijberg E, Tichy A, Leidinger E. In-clinic laboratory diagnosis of canine babesiosis (Babesia canis canis) for veterinary practitioners in Central Europe. Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere. 2012;40:87-94 pubmed
    Haematological changes in dogs and climatic conditions favourable for the vector may assist in the quick in-house diagnosis of canine babesiosis.
  24. Ranjbar Bahadori S, Eckert B, Omidian Z, Shirazi N, Shayan P. Babesia ovis as the main causative agent of sheep babesiosis in Iran. Parasitol Res. 2012;110:1531-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Babesiosis is a haemoparasitic disease with high economical losses in livestock industry worldwide. The early diagnosis and successful therapy of babesiosis belong to the key steps of control and health management of livestock...
  25. Herwaldt B, Linden J, Bosserman E, Young C, Olkowska D, Wilson M. Transfusion-associated babesiosis in the United States: a description of cases. Ann Intern Med. 2011;155:509-19 pubmed publisher
    b>Babesiosis is a potentially life-threatening disease caused by intraerythrocytic parasites, which usually are tickborne but also are transmissible by transfusion...
  26. Matjila P, Carcy B, Leisewitz A, Schetters T, Jongejan F, Gorenflot A, et al. Preliminary evaluation of the BrEMA1 gene as a tool for associating babesia rossi genotypes and clinical manifestation of canine Babesiosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:3586-92 pubmed publisher
    ..samples were collected from dogs presented to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital and diagnosed with babesiosis by the use of a thin blood smear...
  27. Penzhorn B. Why is Southern African canine babesiosis so virulent? An evolutionary perspective. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:51 pubmed publisher
    Canine babesiosis is a common, highly virulent disease in Southern Africa with even pups and juveniles being severely affected...
  28. Iqbal F, Fatima M, Shahnawaz S, Naeem M, Shaikh R, Shaikh A, et al. A study on the determination of risk factors associated with babesiosis and prevalence of Babesia sp., by PCR amplification, in small ruminants from Southern Punjab (Pakistan). Parasite. 2011;18:229-34 pubmed
    b>Babesiosis is a parasitic infection due to the multiplication of tick borne parasite, Babesia sp...
  29. Altangerel K, Sivakumar T, Battsetseg B, Battur B, Ueno A, Igarashi I, et al. Phylogenetic relationships of Mongolian Babesia bovis isolates based on the merozoite surface antigen (MSA)-1, MSA-2b, and MSA-2c genes. Vet Parasitol. 2012;184:309-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that effective preventative and control strategies are essential to control B. bovis infection in Mongolian cattle populations, and suggest that a careful approach must be adopted when using immunization techniques...
  30. Malandrin L, Jouglin M, Sun Y, Brisseau N, Chauvin A. Redescription of Babesia capreoli (Enigk and Friedhoff, 1962) from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus): isolation, cultivation, host specificity, molecular characterisation and differentiation from Babesia divergens. Int J Parasitol. 2010;40:277-84 pubmed publisher
    ..An integrated description is given of the host range, geographical distribution, biological and molecular characterisation of B. capreoli, and reference materials have been deposited at the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris...
  31. Vargas Hernández G, André M, Faria J, Munhoz T, Hernandez Rodriguez M, Machado R, et al. Molecular and serological detection of Ehrlichia canis and Babesia vogeli in dogs in Colombia. Vet Parasitol. 2012;186:254-60 pubmed publisher
    Ehrlichiosis and babesiosis are tick-borne diseases, caused mainly by Ehrlichia canis and Babesia canis, respectively, with a worldwide occurrence in dogs, whose main vector is the brown-dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus...
  32. Abutarbush S, Alqawasmeh D, Mukbel R, Al Majali A. Equine babesiosis: seroprevalence, risk factors and comparison of different diagnostic methods in Jordan. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2012;59:72-8 pubmed publisher
    ..05, OR=11.5, CI: 3.292, 39.962). This is the first study to estimate the prevalence of horse babesiosis using serological test and to identify risk factors associated with the disease in Jordan...
  33. Ramos C, Cooper S, Holman P. Molecular and serologic evidence for Babesia bovis-like parasites in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in south Texas. Vet Parasitol. 2010;172:214-20 pubmed publisher
    ..undertaken to determine if white-tailed deer in south Texas harbor Babesia bovis, a causative agent of bovine babesiosis. Blood samples from free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on two ranches in LaSalle and Webb ..
  34. Zygner W, Gójska Zygner O, Wedrychowicz H. Changes in the SUSPPUP ratio and fractional excretion of strong monovalent electrolytes in hospitalized dogs with canine babesiosis. Pol J Vet Sci. 2012;15:791-2 pubmed
    ..excretion of potassium in dogs infected with Babesia canis suggested mineralocorticoid excess in canine babesiosis. A significant increase in strong monovalent electrolyte fractional excretions in azotaemic dogs infected with B...
  35. Øines Ø, Storli K, Brun Hansen H. First case of babesiosis caused by Babesia canis canis in a dog from Norway. Vet Parasitol. 2010;171:350-3 pubmed publisher
    An Irish setter from the Oslo area was presented to the clinic with signs of babesiosis, a few days after a tick bite. Blood analysis confirmed babesiosis...
  36. Kelly P, Xu C, Lucas H, Loftis A, Abete J, Zeoli F, et al. Ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, anaplasmosis and hepatozoonosis in dogs from St. Kitts, West Indies. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53450 pubmed publisher
    ..Although tick-borne diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality in dogs in tropical areas, there is little information on the agents causing these infections in the Caribbean...
  37. Freyburger L, Lemaitre L, Medaille C, Oberli F, Fanchon L, Bergamo P. [Comparative safety study of two commercialised vaccines against canine babesiosis induced by Babesia canis]. Parasite. 2011;18:311-8 pubmed
    The safety of two vaccines available on the French market against canine babesiosis - Nobivac Piro® (NP) and Pirodog® (P) - have been evaluated...
  38. Joseph J, Roy S, Shams N, Visintainer P, Nadelman R, Hosur S, et al. Babesiosis in Lower Hudson Valley, New York, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:843-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Lyme disease has been endemic to parts of the Lower Hudson Valley of New York, United States, for >2 decades, babesiosis has emerged there only since 2001...
  39. Hildebrandt A, Gray J, Hunfeld K. Human babesiosis in Europe: what clinicians need to know. Infection. 2013;41:1057-72 pubmed publisher
    Although best known as an animal disease, human babesiosis is attracting increasing attention as a worldwide emerging zoonosis. Humans are commonly infected by the bite of ixodid ticks...
  40. Wormser G, Prasad A, Neuhaus E, Joshi S, Nowakowski J, Nelson J, et al. Emergence of resistance to azithromycin-atovaquone in immunocompromised patients with Babesia microti infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50:381-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Babesiosis is an emerging tickborne malaria-like infection principally caused by Babesia microti...
  41. Aboulaila M, Yokoyama N, Igarashi I. Development and evaluation of two nested PCR assays for the detection of Babesia bovis from cattle blood. Vet Parasitol. 2010;172:65-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The nPCR assay of BV5650 was the most sensitive for the detection of B. bovis from the field samples. The BV5650 nPCR assay provides a good diagnostic tool for laboratory diagnostic assessment of B. bovis infection in cattle worldwide...
  42. Schoeman J. Canine babesiosis. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2009;76:59-66 pubmed
    b>Babesiosis is a tick-borne disease affecting humans and many domestic and wild animals. Domestic animals showing appreciable morbidity and mortality include dogs, cats, cattle and horses...
  43. Goo Y, Terkawi M, Jia H, Aboge G, Ooka H, Nelson B, et al. Artesunate, a potential drug for treatment of Babesia infection. Parasitol Int. 2010;59:481-6 pubmed publisher
    ..microti at doses equal to and greater than 10mg/kg of body weight on days 8-10 post-infection. Taken together, these results suggest that artesunate could be a potential drug against Babesia infection...
  44. Hasle G, Bjune G, Christensson D, Røed K, Whist A, Leinaas H. Detection of Babesia divergens in southern Norway by using an immunofluorescence antibody test in cow sera. Acta Vet Scand. 2010;52:55 pubmed publisher
    The incidence of bovine babesiosis, caused by Babesia divergens (Apicomplexa: Piroplasmida) has decreased markedly since the 1930 s, but may re-emerge as a consequence of climate change and changes in legislation and pasturing practices...
  45. Zygner W, Gójska Zygner O, Wesołowska A, Wedrychowicz H. Urinary creatinine to serum creatinine ratio and renal failure index in dogs infected with Babesia canis. Acta Parasitol. 2013;58:297-303 pubmed publisher
    ..89, p < 0.001). The results of this study showed that during the course of canine babesiosis caused by B. canis in Poland acute tubular necrosis may develop.
  46. Mosqueda J, Olvera Ramírez A, Aguilar Tipacamú G, Canto G. Current advances in detection and treatment of babesiosis. Curr Med Chem. 2012;19:1504-18 pubmed
    b>Babesiosis is a disease with a world-wide distribution affecting many species of mammals principally cattle and man...
  47. Young C, Chawla A, Berardi V, Padbury J, Skowron G, Krause P. Preventing transfusion-transmitted babesiosis: preliminary experience of the first laboratory-based blood donor screening program. Transfusion. 2012;52:1523-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Babesiosis is the most common transfusion-transmitted infection reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...
  48. Kelly P, Lucas H. Failure to demonstrate Babesia, Anaplasma or Ehrlichia in thrombocytopenic dogs from St Kitts. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2009;3:561-3 pubmed
    ..Thrombocytopenia is common in dogs on St Kitts but there is no data on the possible etiological role played by infections with Anaplasma, Babesia and Ehrlichia, other than E. canis, which are known to occur in the Caribbean...
  49. Gohil S, Herrmann S, Günther S, Cooke B. Bovine babesiosis in the 21st century: advances in biology and functional genomics. Int J Parasitol. 2013;43:125-32 pubmed publisher
    Bovine babesiosis caused by the protozoan parasite, Babesia bovis, remains a significant cause of avoidable economic losses to the livestock industry in many countries throughout the world...
  50. Silva M, Henriques G, Sánchez C, Marques P, Suarez C, Oliva A. First survey for Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina infection in cattle from Central and Southern regions of Portugal using serological and DNA detection methods. Vet Parasitol. 2009;166:66-72 pubmed publisher
    Incidence of bovine babesiosis in Portugal is currently unknown...
  51. Adaszek Ł, Winiarczyk S. In vitro cultivation of Babesia canis canis parasites isolated from dogs in Poland. Parasitol Res. 2011;108:1303-7 pubmed publisher
    ..aim of this study was to perform in vitro cultivation of Babesia canis protozoa isolated from dogs with clinical babesiosis. A primary culture initiated in RPMI-1640 medium supplemented with 40% canine serum supported parasite growth in ..
  52. He L, Zhou Y, Oosthuizen M, Zhao J. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) detection of Babesia orientalis in water buffalo (Bubalus babalis, Linnaeus, 1758) in China. Vet Parasitol. 2009;165:36-40 pubmed publisher
    ..While previously B. orientalis had not been reported north of the Yangtse River, our results show that B. orientalis has spread to the north of the river. This could pose a serious threat to the water buffalo industry...
  53. Wormser G, Lombardo G, Silverblatt F, El Khoury M, Prasad A, Yelon J, et al. Babesiosis as a cause of fever in patients undergoing a splenectomy. Am Surg. 2011;77:345-7 pubmed
    b>Babesiosis is an emerging infection most commonly acquired from a tick bite. We describe three hospitalized patients with fever attributable to babesiosis after a splenectomy...
  54. Martinot M, Zadeh M, Hansmann Y, Grawey I, Christmann D, Aguillon S, et al. Babesiosis in immunocompetent patients, Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:114-6 pubmed publisher
    We report 2 cases of babesiosis in immunocompetent patients in France. A severe influenza-like disease developed in both patients 2 weeks after they had been bitten by ticks...
  55. Yeagley T, Reichard M, Hempstead J, Allen K, Parsons L, White M, et al. Detection of Babesia gibsoni and the canine small Babesia 'Spanish isolate' in blood samples obtained from dogs confiscated from dogfighting operations. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2009;235:535-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the prevalence of Babesia gibsoni infection in dogs that were confiscated from dogfighting operations...
  56. Schnittger L, Rodriguez A, Florin Christensen M, Morrison D. Babesia: a world emerging. Infect Genet Evol. 2012;12:1788-809 pubmed publisher
    ..Babesia infections of wildlife can be fatal if associated with stressful management practices; and human babesiosis, also transmitted by blood transfusion, is an increasing public-health concern...
  57. Gubernot D, Nakhasi H, Mied P, Asher D, Epstein J, Kumar S. Transfusion-transmitted babesiosis in the United States: summary of a workshop. Transfusion. 2009;49:2759-71 pubmed publisher
    ..and Drug Administration organized a public workshop to discuss the various aspects of transfusion-transmitted babesiosis in the United States including the possible strategies to identify and defer blood donors who may have been ..
  58. Zhao Y, Love K, Hall S, Beardell F. A fatal case of transfusion-transmitted babesiosis in the State of Delaware. Transfusion. 2009;49:2583-7 pubmed publisher
    Most cases of human babesiosis in North America are caused by Babesia microti, which is endemic in the northeastern and upper midwestern United States...
  59. Bhoora R, Quan M, Franssen L, Butler C, van der Kolk J, Guthrie A, et al. Development and evaluation of real-time PCR assays for the quantitative detection of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi infections in horses from South Africa. Vet Parasitol. 2010;168:201-11 pubmed publisher
    ..equi-specific qPCR assay could positively detect T. equi DNA in 80% of the samples. These results suggest that the qPCR assays are more sensitive than the RLB assay for the detection of T. equi and B. caballi infections in field samples...
  60. Semel M, Tavakkolizadeh A, Gates J. Babesiosis in the immediate postoperative period after splenectomy for trauma. Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2009;10:553-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In an immunocompetent host, Babesia microti has not been reported as a cause of postoperative fever...
  61. Bosman A, Oosthuizen M, Peirce M, Venter E, Penzhorn B. Babesia lengau sp. nov., a novel Babesia species in cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus, Schreber, 1775) populations in South Africa. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:2703-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The prevalence of infection was 28.5%. Here we describe the morphology and phylogenetic relationships of the novel species, which we have named Babesia lengau sp. nov...
  62. Zintl A, Finnerty E, Murphy T, de Waal T, Gray J. Babesias of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Ireland. Vet Res. 2011;42:7 pubmed publisher
    ..divergens, in just over half of the 18S rRNA gene. The entire gene of this deer parasite should be analysed and transmission experiments undertaken before the infectivity of B. divergens for red deer can be confirmed...
  63. Simões P, Cardoso L, Araújo M, Yisaschar Mekuzas Y, Baneth G. Babesiosis due to the canine Babesia microti-like small piroplasm in dogs-first report from Portugal and possible vertical transmission. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:50 pubmed publisher
    Canine babesiosis (or piroplasmosis) is endemic in northern Portugal, but molecularly confirmed cases of infection with small piroplasms have not been reported in the country...
  64. Martins T, Do Rosario V, Domingos A. Identification of papain-like cysteine proteases from the bovine piroplasm Babesia bigemina and evolutionary relationship of piroplasms C1 family of cysteine proteases. Exp Parasitol. 2011;127:184-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Considerable differences were observed in the cysteine protease family between Babesia and Theileria genera, and this may partially explain the diverse infection mechanisms of these tick-borne diseases...
  65. Gohil S, Kats L, Sturm A, Cooke B. Recent insights into alteration of red blood cells by Babesia bovis: moovin' forward. Trends Parasitol. 2010;26:591-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we bring together recent work on Babesia bovis parasites which are beginning to unravel the molecular mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of babesiosis and highlight some opportunities and challenges that lie ahead.
  66. Haapasalo K, Suomalainen P, Sukura A, Siikamaki H, Jokiranta T. Fatal babesiosis in man, Finland, 2004. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:1116-8 pubmed publisher
    We report an unusual case of human babesiosis in Finland in a 53-year-old man with no history of splenectomy...
  67. Muller H, Aysul N, Liu Z, Salih D, Karagenc T, Beyer D, et al. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid diagnosis of Babesia canis infections. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2010;57:63-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we aimed to establish a rapid and easy to perform DNA-based test using loop-mediated isothermal amplification to detect all three Babesia canis subspecies in one assay...
  68. Ayoob A, Hackner S, Prittie J. Clinical management of canine babesiosis. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio). 2010;20:77-89 pubmed publisher
    ..information regarding epidemiology, pathogenesis, and pathophysiology leading to the various clinical syndromes associated with canine babesiosis. Diagnosis, treatment, preventative strategies, and zoonotic implications are discussed.
  69. Antonio Alvarez J, Lopez U, Rojas C, Borgonio V, Sanchez V, Castaneda R, et al. Immunization of Bos taurus steers with Babesia bovis recombinant antigens MSA-1, MSA-2c and 12D3. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2010;57:87-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunization with rMSA-1-rMSA-2c-r12D3 proteins was not sufficient to prevent clinical symptoms against challenge, but the immunologic response was sufficient to protect steers against a mild virulent strain of B. bovis...
  70. Sikorski L, Birkenheuer A, Holowaychuk M, McCleary Wheeler A, Davis J, Littman M. Babesiosis caused by a large Babesia species in 7 immunocompromised dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2010;24:127-31 pubmed publisher
    ..A large unnamed Babesia species was detected in a dog with lymphoma. It was unknown if this was an underrecognized pathogen...
  71. Gray J, Zintl A, Hildebrandt A, Hunfeld K, Weiss L. Zoonotic babesiosis: overview of the disease and novel aspects of pathogen identity. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2010;1:3-10 pubmed publisher
    b>Babesiosis is a zoonosis caused by tick-transmitted intraerythrocytic protozoa of the Phylum Apicomplexa...
  72. Aboulaila M, Nakamura K, Govind Y, Yokoyama N, Igarashi I. Evaluation of the in vitro growth-inhibitory effect of epoxomicin on Babesia parasites. Vet Parasitol. 2010;167:19-27 pubmed publisher
    ..05) inhibition of the growth of B. microti at the non-toxic doses of 0.05 and 0.5mg/kg BW relative to control groups. Therefore, epoxomicin might be used for treatment of babesiosis.
  73. Sivakumar T, Altangerel K, Battsetseg B, Battur B, Aboulaila M, Munkhjargal T, et al. Genetic detection of Babesia bigemina from Mongolian cattle using apical membrane antigen-1 gene-based PCR assay. Vet Parasitol. 2012;187:17-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our findings also indicate that the AMA-1 nPCR assay may be a useful diagnostic tool for the specific detection of B. bigemina...
  74. Suarez C, NOH S. Emerging perspectives in the research of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. Vet Parasitol. 2011;180:109-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, acute babesiosis and anaplasmosis can be prevented quite effectively by combining tick control and vaccination with living ..
  75. Wudhikarn K, Perry E, Kemperman M, Jensen K, Kline S. Transfusion-transmitted babesiosis in an immunocompromised patient: a case report and review. Am J Med. 2011;124:800-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Babesiosis is a tick- and transfusion-borne disease caused by intraerythrocytic Babesia parasites...
  76. Otranto D, Testini G, Dantas Torres F, Latrofa M, Diniz P, de Caprariis D, et al. Diagnosis of canine vector-borne diseases in young dogs: a longitudinal study. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:3316-24 pubmed publisher
  77. Luo Y, Jia H, Terkawi M, Goo Y, Kawano S, Ooka H, et al. Identification and characterization of a novel secreted antigen 1 of Babesia microti and evaluation of its potential use in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunochromatographic test. Parasitol Int. 2011;60:119-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, analysis of the sera involved in the first case of human babesiosis in Japan (Kobe type) showed that specific antibodies were detectable in the patient and the positive donor by ..
  78. Cassini R, Zanutto S, Frangipane di Regalbono A, Gabrielli S, Calderini P, Moretti A, et al. Canine piroplasmosis in Italy: epidemiological aspects in vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Vet Parasitol. 2009;165:30-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Vector importance of both Rh. sanguineus and I. ricinus is hypothesized, but further investigation is needed...
  79. Heyman P, Cochez C, Hofhuis A, van der Giessen J, Sprong H, Porter S, et al. A clear and present danger: tick-borne diseases in Europe. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2010;8:33-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia spp., tick-borne encephalitis virus, Rickettsia spp. and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus)...
  80. Teal A, Habura A, Ennis J, Keithly J, Madison Antenucci S. A new real-time PCR assay for improved detection of the parasite Babesia microti. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:903-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Babesiosis is an emerging zoonosis with important public health implications, as the incidence of the disease has risen dramatically over the past decade...
  81. Halos L, Lebert I, Chao I, Vourc h G, Ducrot C, Abrial D, et al. Questionnaire-based survey on distribution and clinical incidence of canine babesiosis in France. BMC Vet Res. 2013;9:41 pubmed publisher
    The causative agent of canine babesiosis is the protozoan Babesia canis, transmitted by the tick Dermacentor reticulatus within France...
  82. Leiby D. Transfusion-transmitted Babesia spp.: bull's-eye on Babesia microti. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2011;24:14-28 pubmed publisher
    Babesia spp. are intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites of animals and humans that cause babesiosis, a zoonotic disease transmitted primarily by tick vectors...