Summary: Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Parasites in food webs: the ultimate missing links
    Kevin D Lafferty
    Western Ecological Research Center, U S Geological Survey c o Marine Science Institute, UC, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
    Ecol Lett 11:533-46. 2008
  2. pmc Extreme diversity of tropical parasitoid wasps exposed by iterative integration of natural history, DNA barcoding, morphology, and collections
    M Alex Smith
    The Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, University of Guelph, Guelph Ontario, N1G 2W1 Canada
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:12359-64. 2008
  3. ncbi Introduced species and their missing parasites
    Mark E Torchin
    Marine Science Institute and Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA
    Nature 421:628-30. 2003
  4. ncbi Experimental evolution of parasites
    D Ebert
    Universitat Basel, Zoologisches Institut, Rheinsprung 9, 4051 Basel, Switzerland
    Science 282:1432-5. 1998
  5. ncbi Is a healthy ecosystem one that is rich in parasites?
    Peter J Hudson
    Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    Trends Ecol Evol 21:381-5. 2006
  6. pmc The RON2-AMA1 interaction is a critical step in moving junction-dependent invasion by apicomplexan parasites
    Mauld Lamarque
    UMR 5235 CNRS, Université de Montpellier 2, Montpellier, France
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1001276. 2011
  7. ncbi Elucidating the transcriptome of Fasciola hepatica - a key to fundamental and biotechnological discoveries for a neglected parasite
    Neil D Young
    Department of Veterinary Science, The University of Melbourne, 250 Princes Highway, Werribee, Victoria 3030, Australia
    Biotechnol Adv 28:222-31. 2010
  8. ncbi Divergence of the mitochondrial genome structure in the apicomplexan parasites, Babesia and Theileria
    Kenji Hikosaka
    Laboratory of Malariology, International Research Center of Infectious Diseases, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan
    Mol Biol Evol 27:1107-16. 2010
  9. pmc Chemical rescue of malaria parasites lacking an apicoplast defines organelle function in blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum
    Ellen Yeh
    Department of Pathology, Stanford Medical School, Stanford, California, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 9:e1001138. 2011
  10. pmc Parasites dominate food web links
    Kevin D Lafferty
    Western Ecological Research Center, U S Geological Survey, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:11211-6. 2006

Detail Information

Publications318 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Parasites in food webs: the ultimate missing links
    Kevin D Lafferty
    Western Ecological Research Center, U S Geological Survey c o Marine Science Institute, UC, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
    Ecol Lett 11:533-46. 2008
    ..The value of this effort hinges on whether parasites affect food-web properties...
  2. pmc Extreme diversity of tropical parasitoid wasps exposed by iterative integration of natural history, DNA barcoding, morphology, and collections
    M Alex Smith
    The Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, University of Guelph, Guelph Ontario, N1G 2W1 Canada
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:12359-64. 2008
  3. ncbi Introduced species and their missing parasites
    Mark E Torchin
    Marine Science Institute and Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA
    Nature 421:628-30. 2003
    ..Because some parasites can reduce host density and decrease body size, an invader that leaves parasites behind and encounters few new ..
  4. ncbi Experimental evolution of parasites
    D Ebert
    Universitat Basel, Zoologisches Institut, Rheinsprung 9, 4051 Basel, Switzerland
    Science 282:1432-5. 1998
    ..Understanding why parasite virulence seldom escalates similarly in natural populations could help us to manage virulence and deal with emerging diseases...
  5. ncbi Is a healthy ecosystem one that is rich in parasites?
    Peter J Hudson
    Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    Trends Ecol Evol 21:381-5. 2006
    Historically, the role of parasites in ecosystem functioning has been considered trivial because a cursory examination reveals that their relative biomass is low compared with that of other trophic groups...
  6. pmc The RON2-AMA1 interaction is a critical step in moving junction-dependent invasion by apicomplexan parasites
    Mauld Lamarque
    UMR 5235 CNRS, Université de Montpellier 2, Montpellier, France
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1001276. 2011
    Obligate intracellular Apicomplexa parasites share a unique invasion mechanism involving a tight interaction between the host cell and the parasite surfaces called the moving junction (MJ)...
  7. ncbi Elucidating the transcriptome of Fasciola hepatica - a key to fundamental and biotechnological discoveries for a neglected parasite
    Neil D Young
    Department of Veterinary Science, The University of Melbourne, 250 Princes Highway, Werribee, Victoria 3030, Australia
    Biotechnol Adv 28:222-31. 2010
    ..the way for future, comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of other developmental stages of this and related parasites, such as F...
  8. ncbi Divergence of the mitochondrial genome structure in the apicomplexan parasites, Babesia and Theileria
    Kenji Hikosaka
    Laboratory of Malariology, International Research Center of Infectious Diseases, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan
    Mol Biol Evol 27:1107-16. 2010
    ..These results suggest that the Theileria mt genome is highly diverse with lineage-specific evolution in two Theileria species: genome inversion in T. orientalis and gene-embedded long TIR in T. equi...
  9. pmc Chemical rescue of malaria parasites lacking an apicoplast defines organelle function in blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum
    Ellen Yeh
    Department of Pathology, Stanford Medical School, Stanford, California, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 9:e1001138. 2011
    Plasmodium spp parasites harbor an unusual plastid organelle called the apicoplast. Due to its prokaryotic origin and essential function, the apicoplast is a key target for development of new anti-malarials...
  10. pmc Parasites dominate food web links
    Kevin D Lafferty
    Western Ecological Research Center, U S Geological Survey, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:11211-6. 2006
    Parasitism is the most common animal lifestyle, yet food webs rarely include parasites. The few earlier studies have indicated that including parasites leads to obvious increases in species richness, number of links, and food chain ..
  11. pmc Host centrality in food web networks determines parasite diversity
    Tavis K Anderson
    Graduate Program in Ecology and Evolution, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e26798. 2011
    b>Parasites significantly alter topological metrics describing food web structure, yet few studies have explored the relationship between food web topology and parasite diversity.
  12. ncbi Species coextinctions and the biodiversity crisis
    Lian Pin Koh
    Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, 14 Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543
    Science 305:1632-4. 2004
    ..and their hosts across a wide range of coevolved interspecific systems: pollinating Ficus wasps and Ficus, parasites and their hosts, butterflies and their larval host plants, and ant butterflies and their host ants...
  13. ncbi The robustness and restoration of a network of ecological networks
    Michael J O Pocock
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UG, UK
    Science 335:973-7. 2012
    ..This type of information can be used in restoration management, because it identifies the plant taxa that can potentially lead to disproportionate gains in biodiversity...
  14. pmc A common scaling rule for abundance, energetics, and production of parasitic and free-living species
    Ryan F Hechinger
    Marine Science Institute and Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
    Science 333:445-8. 2011
    ..However, the theory and its empirical tests have never simultaneously examined parasites alongside free-living species...
  15. pmc DNA barcodes affirm that 16 species of apparently generalist tropical parasitoid flies (Diptera, Tachinidae) are not all generalists
    M Alex Smith
    Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:4967-72. 2007
  16. ncbi Environmental parasitology: relevancy of parasites in monitoring environmental pollution
    Bernd Sures
    Zoology I, Department of Ecology and Parasitology, University of Karlsruhe, Kornblumenstrasse 13, D 76128 Karlsruhe, Germany
    Trends Parasitol 20:170-7. 2004
  17. ncbi Falcipains and other cysteine proteases of malaria parasites
    Philip J Rosenthal
    Department of Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
    Adv Exp Med Biol 712:30-48. 2011
    A number of cysteine proteases of malaria parasites have been described and many more are suggested by analysis of the Plasmodium falciparum genome sequence...
  18. pmc Controlling and coordinating development in vector-transmitted parasites
    Keith R Matthews
    Centre for Immunity, Infection, and Evolution, Institute for Immunology and Infection Research, Ashworth Laboratories, School of Biological Sciences, King s Buildings, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Science 331:1149-53. 2011
    Vector-borne parasites cause major human diseases of the developing world, including malaria, human African trypanosomiasis, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, filariasis, and schistosomiasis...
  19. ncbi Parasites, democratization, and the liberalization of values across contemporary countries
    Randy Thornhill
    Department of Biology, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 0001, USA
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 84:113-31. 2009
    ..Apparently, the psychology of xenophobia and ethnocentrism links these values to avoidance and management of parasites. Also as predicted, we show that the antipoles of each of the above values--individualism (hence, liberalism), ..
  20. ncbi Posttranscriptional control and the role of RNA-binding proteins in gene regulation in trypanosomatid protozoan parasites
    Sandra M Fernández-Moya
    Instituto de Parasitologia y Biomedicina Lopez Neyra, CSIC, Avenida del Conocimiento, S N, 18100 Armilla, Granada, Spain
    Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA 1:34-46. 2010
    ..We suggest that trypanosomatids transduce environmental signals into mRNA and protein abundance through posttranslational modification of RBPs...
  21. pmc Chemotherapy, within-host ecology and the fitness of drug-resistant malaria parasites
    Silvie Huijben
    Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Departments of Biology and Entomology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16827, USA
    Evolution 64:2952-68. 2010
    A major determinant of the rate at which drug-resistant malaria parasites spread through a population is the ecology of resistant and sensitive parasites sharing the same host...
  22. ncbi Microsporidia parasites disrupt the responses to cadmium exposure in a gammarid
    Eric Gismondi
    Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie Biodiversité Ecosystèmes LIEBE, Universite Paul Verlaine Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Campus Bridoux, Avenue du général Delestraint, 57070 Metz, France
    Environ Pollut 160:17-23. 2012
    Microsporidia parasites are commonly found in amphipods, where they are often asymptomatic, vertically-transmitted and have several effects on host sexuality and behaviour...
  23. ncbi Food web topology and parasites in the pelagic zone of a subarctic lake
    Per Arne Amundsen
    Department of Aquatic Biosciences, Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of Tromsø, Tromsø N 9037, Norway
    J Anim Ecol 78:563-72. 2009
    1. Parasites permeate trophic webs with their often complex life cycles, but few studies have included parasitism in food web analyses...
  24. ncbi A molecular evolutionary framework for the phylum Nematoda
    M L Blaxter
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, UK
    Nature 392:71-5. 1998
    ..We clarify the relationship of C. elegans to major parasitic groups; this will allow more effective exploitation of our genetic and biological knowledge of this model species...
  25. pmc The global cysteine peptidase landscape in parasites
    Holly J Atkinson
    UCSF Graduate Program in Biological and Medical Informatics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158 2330, USA
    Trends Parasitol 25:573-81. 2009
    The accumulation of sequenced genomes has expanded the already sizeable population of cysteine peptidases from parasites. Characterization of a few of these enzymes has ascribed key roles to peptidases in parasite life cycles and has ..
  26. pmc Status of intestinal parasites infection among primary school children in Kampongcham, Cambodia
    Kyu Jae Lee
    Department of Parasitology Wonju College of Medicine and IFBB, Yonsei University, Wonju 220 701, Korea
    Korean J Parasitol 40:153-5. 2002
    ..coli 7.6%, G. lamblia 3.2%, I. butschlii 3.2%, and E. histolytica 0.8%. More than two different kinds of parasites were found in 16.7% of the stool samples...
  27. pmc Humoral immune response to mixed PfAMA1 alleles; multivalent PfAMA1 vaccines induce broad specificity
    Kwadwo A Kusi
    Department of Parasitology, Biomedical Primate Research Centre, Rijswijk, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 4:e8110. 2009
    ..or 3D7), the cross-reactive fraction alone, on basis of weight, had the same functional capacity on homologous parasites as the total affinity-purified IgGs (cross-reactive+strain-specific)...
  28. pmc Simultaneous transcription of duplicated var2csa gene copies in individual Plasmodium falciparum parasites
    Kim J M Brolin
    Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Nobels vag 16, Karolinska Institutet, SE 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Genome Biol 10:R117. 2009
    ..Sequence variations introduced upon duplication of these genes provide discriminative possibilities to analyze allele-specific transcription with a bearing towards understanding gene dosage impact on parasite biology...
  29. pmc Colloquium paper: homage to Linnaeus: how many parasites? How many hosts?
    Andy Dobson
    EEB, Guyot Hall, Princeton University, Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:11482-9. 2008 onto patterns of host diversity, we can make very little prediction about geographical patterns of threat to parasites. If the threats reflect those experienced by avian hosts, then we expect climate change to be a major threat to ..
  30. ncbi Network analysis shining light on parasite ecology and diversity
    Robert Poulin
    Department of Zoology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Trends Parasitol 26:492-8. 2010
    ..It also summarizes the first findings to emerge from network analyses of host-parasite interactions and identifies promising future directions made possible by this approach...
  31. pmc Differential transcriptomic responses of Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, Mollusca) to bacteria and metazoan parasites, Schistosoma mansoni and Echinostoma paraensei (Digenea, Platyhelminthes)
    Coen M Adema
    Center for Evolutionary and Theoretical Immunology, Biology MSC03 2020, 1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    Mol Immunol 47:849-60. 2010
    ..bacteria (Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus, respectively), or infection with compatible trematode parasites (Schistosoma mansoni or Echinostoma paraensei, 20 miracidia/snail), relative to controls, using universal ..
  32. ncbi A photosynthetic alveolate closely related to apicomplexan parasites
    Robert B Moore
    School of Molecular and Microbial Biosciences, University of Sydney, Darlington, New South Wales 2006, Australia
    Nature 451:959-63. 2008
    ..ribosomal RNA genes indicate that the organism is the closest known photosynthetic relative to apicomplexan parasites and that its plastid shares an origin with the apicoplasts...
  33. pmc Persistent digestive disorders in the tropics: causative infectious pathogens and reference diagnostic tests
    Sören L Becker
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland
    BMC Infect Dis 13:37. 2013
    ..We provide an overview of pathogens causing digestive disorders in the tropics and evaluate available reference tests...
  34. ncbi Waterborne transmission of protozoan parasites: review of worldwide outbreaks - an update 2004-2010
    Selma Baldursson
    University of Cologne, Faculty of Medicine, Center of Anatomy, Institute II, Medical and Molecular Parasitology, Joseph Stelzmann Strasse 35, D 50937 Cologne, Germany
    Water Res 45:6603-14. 2011
    ..In those countries that are likely affected most a lack of surveillance systems is noticeable. However, countries that established surveillance systems did not establish an international standardization of reporting systems...
  35. pmc Phylogenomics of the reproductive parasite Wolbachia pipientis wMel: a streamlined genome overrun by mobile genetic elements
    Martin Wu
    The Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Maryland, USA
    PLoS Biol 2:E69. 2004
    ..With the availability of the complete genomes of both species and excellent genetic tools for the host, the wMel-D. melanogaster symbiosis is now an ideal system for studying the biology and evolution of Wolbachia infections...
  36. pmc Evolutionarily divergent, unstable filamentous actin is essential for gliding motility in apicomplexan parasites
    Kristen M Skillman
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002280. 2011
    Apicomplexan parasites rely on a novel form of actin-based motility called gliding, which depends on parasite actin polymerization, to migrate through their hosts and invade cells...
  37. ncbi Evolution of complex life cycles in helminth parasites
    Geoff A Parker
    Population and Evolutionary Biology Research Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB, UK
    Nature 425:480-4. 2003
    ..These two processes should also apply in helminths with penetrative infective stages, although the mathematical conditions differ...
  38. pmc Identification of intracellular and plasma membrane calcium channel homologues in pathogenic parasites
    David L Prole
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 6:e26218. 2011
    ..The genomes of many pathogenic parasites have recently been sequenced, opening the way for rational design of targeted therapies...
  39. pmc Genome-wide identification of molecular mimicry candidates in parasites
    Philipp Ludin
    Institute of Cell Biology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
    PLoS ONE 6:e17546. 2011
    Among the many strategies employed by parasites for immune evasion and host manipulation, one of the most fascinating is molecular mimicry...
  40. ncbi Kin selection and parasite evolution: higher and lower virulence with hard and soft selection
    L Chao
    Department of Biology, University of California San Diego 92093, USA
    Q Rev Biol 75:261-75. 2000
    Conventional models predict that low genetic relatedness among parasites that coinfect the same host leads to the evolution of high parasite virulence. Such models assume adaptive responses to hard selection only...
  41. ncbi Coevolution in multidimensional trait space favours escape from parasites and pathogens
    R Tucker Gilman
    National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis, Knoxville, Tennessee 37916, USA
    Nature 483:328-30. 2012
    Almost all species are subject to continuous attack by parasites and pathogens...
  42. ncbi RNA interference as a resistance mechanism against crop parasites in Africa: a 'Trojan horse' approach
    Steven Runo
    Kenyatta University, Biochemistry and Biotechnology Department, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya
    Pest Manag Sci 67:129-36. 2011
    Biological crop pests cause serious economic losses. In Africa, the most prevalent parasites are insect pests, plant pathogenic root-knot nematodes, viruses and parasitic plants...
  43. pmc Co-infection of HIV and intestinal parasites in rural area of China
    Li Guang Tian
    National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, WHO Collaborating Centre for Malaria, Schistosomiasis and Filariasis, Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Biology Ministry of Health, Shanghai 200025, China
    Parasit Vectors 5:36. 2012
    ..The aim of the present survey was to assess the IPI infection status among a representative sample of HIV-positive Chinese in rural Anhui province, and compare the findings with those from a cohort of non-infected individuals...
  44. ncbi Redox control in trypanosomatids, parasitic protozoa with trypanothione-based thiol metabolism
    R Luise Krauth-Siegel
    Biochemie Zentrum der Universitat Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1780:1236-48. 2008
    ..Thus, cellular thiol redox homeostasis is maintained by the biosynthesis and reduction of trypanothione. Nearly all proteins of the parasite-specific trypanothione metabolism have proved to be essential...
  45. ncbi Central carbon metabolism of Leishmania parasites
    Eleanor C Saunders
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Melbourne, 30 Flemington Rd, Parkville, 3010, Victoria, Australia
    Parasitology 137:1303-13. 2010
    Leishmania spp. are sandfly-transmitted protozoa parasites that cause a spectrum of diseases in humans...
  46. pmc Modulation of dendritic cell responses by parasites: a common strategy to survive
    Cesar A Terrazas
    Unidad de Biomedicina, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico UNAM, 54090 Tlalnepantla, Estado de Mexico, Mexico
    J Biomed Biotechnol 2010:357106. 2010
    ..Dendritic cells are key elements for the development of immunity against parasites; they control the responses required to eliminate these pathogens while maintaining host homeostasis...
  47. ncbi Sensitivity of parasites to free radical damage by antiparasitic drugs
    R Docampo
    Rockerfeller University, New York, NY 10021
    Chem Biol Interact 73:1-27. 1990
    Over the last few years a remarkable progress has been made in the understanding of parasites biochemistry, molecular biology, and immunology...
  48. ncbi Emphasizing the ecology in parasite community ecology
    Amy B Pedersen
    Institute of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Trends Ecol Evol 22:133-9. 2007
    In natural systems, individuals are often co-infected by many species of parasites. However, the significance of interactions between species and the processes that shape within-host parasite communities remain unclear...
  49. ncbi Coevolution of symbiotic mutualists and parasites in a community context
    Peter H Thrall
    CSIRO Plant Industry, GPO Box 1600, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia
    Trends Ecol Evol 22:120-6. 2007
    ..Testing these predictions on a geographical scale would contribute significantly to the predictive science of coevolution, and to our ability to manage biological interactions embedded in increasingly fragmented landscapes...
  50. ncbi The ecological significance of manipulative parasites
    Thierry Lefevre
    GEMI UMR CNRS IRD 2724, 911 Avenue Agropolis, BP 64501, 34394 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
    Trends Ecol Evol 24:41-8. 2009
    The diversity of ways in which host manipulation by parasites interferes with ecological and evolutionary processes governing biotic interactions has been recently documented, and indicates that manipulative parasites are full ..
  51. pmc RNA interference in protozoan parasites: achievements and challenges
    Nikolay G Kolev
    Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, 295 Congress Avenue, New Haven, CT 06536 0812, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 10:1156-63. 2011
    Protozoan parasites that profoundly affect mankind represent an exceptionally diverse group of organisms, including Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Entamoeba, Giardia, trypanosomes, and Leishmania...
  52. ncbi The cost of being common: evidence from natural Daphnia populations
    Justyna Wolinska
    Indiana University, Department of Biology, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA
    Evolution 63:1893-901. 2009
    The Red Queen coevolutionary hypothesis predicts that parasites drive oscillations in host genotype frequencies due to frequency-dependent selection where common hosts are at disadvantage...
  53. pmc Experimental evolution, genetic analysis and genome re-sequencing reveal the mutation conferring artemisinin resistance in an isogenic lineage of malaria parasites
    Paul Hunt
    Institute for Immunology and Infection Research, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    BMC Genomics 11:499. 2010
    ..been used to map genes of interest, such as those conferring chloroquine or quinine resistance in malaria parasites. Next-generation sequencing technologies now present the possibility of determining genome-wide genetic ..
  54. ncbi When parasites become prey: ecological and epidemiological significance of eating parasites
    Pieter T J Johnson
    Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Colorado, Ramaley N122, Campus Box 334, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
    Trends Ecol Evol 25:362-71. 2010
    Recent efforts to include parasites in food webs have drawn attention to a previously ignored facet of foraging ecology: parasites commonly function as prey within ecosystems...
  55. ncbi A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation
    Megan A Greischar
    Department of Biology, Indiana University, 1001 E 3rd St, Bloomington, IN 47405 3700, USA
    Ecol Lett 10:418-34. 2007
    The study of parasite local adaptation, whereby parasites perform better on sympatric hosts than on allopatric hosts and/or better on their own host population than do other parasites, is of great importance to both basic and applied ..
  56. ncbi Metabolite profiling of the intraerythrocytic malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum by (1)H NMR spectroscopy
    Rongwei Teng
    Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia
    NMR Biomed 22:292-302. 2009
    ..used to identify and quantify compounds in extracts prepared from mature trophozoite-stage Plasmodium falciparum parasites isolated by saponin-permeabilisation of the host erythrocyte...
  57. ncbi Ecosystem energetic implications of parasite and free-living biomass in three estuaries
    Armand M Kuris
    Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Biology and Marine Science Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA
    Nature 454:515-8. 2008
    b>Parasites can have strong impacts but are thought to contribute little biomass to ecosystems. We quantified the biomass of free-living and parasitic species in three estuaries on the Pacific coast of California and Baja California...
  58. ncbi Mucin and Toll-like receptors in host defense against intestinal parasites
    Darcy M Moncada
    Institute of Parasitology of McGill University, Macdonald Campus, 21, 111 Lakeshore Road, Ste Anne de Bellevue, H9X 3V9, Quebec, Canada
    Trends Parasitol 19:305-11. 2003
    ..The latest work in the field and the use of parasite model systems to illustrate the delicate host-parasite interaction at the mucosal surface of the gut are discussed here...
  59. ncbi Improvement on the visualization of cytoskeletal structures of protozoan parasites using high-resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM)
    Celso Sant'Anna
    Laboratorio de Ultraestrutura Celular Hertha Meyer, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro CCS, Rio de Janeiro, Bloco G, Cidade Universitaria, 21949 900, Brazil
    Histochem Cell Biol 124:87-95. 2005
    ..we show the contribution of the FESEM to the detailed description of cytoskeletal structures of the protozoan parasites Herpetomonas megaseliae, Trypanosoma brucei and Giardia lamblia. High-resolution images of detergent extracted H...
  60. ncbi Evolution of multihost parasites
    Sylvain Gandon
    Génétique et Evolution des Maladies Infectieuses, UMR CNRS IRD 2724, Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, 911 Avenue Agropolis, 34394 Montpellier 5, France
    Evolution 58:455-69. 2004
    Multihost parasites can infect different types of hosts or even different host species. Epidemiological models have shown the importance of the diversity of potential hosts for understanding the dynamics of infectious disease (e.g...
  61. ncbi Natural regulatory T cells and parasites: a common quest for host homeostasis
    Yasmine Belkaid
    Mucosal Immunology Unit, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Immunol Rev 212:287-300. 2006
    ..We discuss the hypothesis that parasites have evolved means to manipulate the host's natural Treg population, thereby generating conditions that secure ..
  62. ncbi Effect of sexual segregation on host-parasite interaction: model simulation for abomasal parasite dynamics in alpine ibex (Capraibex)
    Nicola Ferrari
    Dipartimento di Patologia Animale, Igiene e Sanita Pubblica Veterinaria, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Italy
    Int J Parasitol 40:1285-93. 2010
    ..A mathematical model, simulating the interaction between abomasal parasites and a hypothetical alpine ibex (Capraibex) host population composed of its two sexes, was developed to predict ..
  63. pmc Identification of putative potassium channel homologues in pathogenic protozoa
    David L Prole
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 7:e32264. 2012
    ..The genomes of many protozoan parasites have recently been sequenced, allowing rational design of targeted therapies...
  64. pmc The role of host traits, season and group size on parasite burdens in a cooperative mammal
    Hermien Viljoen
    Mammal Research Institute, Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 6:e27003. 2011
    The distribution of parasites among hosts is often characterised by a high degree of heterogeneity with a small number of hosts harbouring the majority of parasites...
  65. ncbi Can parasites really reveal environmental impact?
    Victor M Vidal-Martinez
    Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN CINVESTAV IPN Unidad Mérida, Merida, Yucatan, Mexico
    Trends Parasitol 26:44-51. 2010
    This review assesses the usefulness of parasites as bioindicators of environmental impact...
  66. pmc Regulatory T cells and parasites
    T P Velavan
    Institute for Tropical Medicine, University of Tubingen, 72074 Tubingen, Germany
    J Biomed Biotechnol 2011:520940. 2011
    Human host encounters a wide array of parasites; however, the crucial aspect is the failure of the host immune system to clear these parasites despite antigen recognition...
  67. pmc Variation in resistance to parasitism in aphids is due to symbionts not host genotype
    Kerry M Oliver
    Department of Entomology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:12795-800. 2005
    ..Thus, acquisition of a heritable symbiont appears to be a major mode of adaptation to natural enemy pressure in these insects...
  68. ncbi Heat shock protein 90 from neglected protozoan parasites
    Nainita Roy
    Department of Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1823:707-11. 2012
    ..Clearly studies on Hsp90 from protozoan parasites promise to reveal important new paradigms in Hsp90 biology while exploring its potential as an anti-infective ..
  69. ncbi Are there general laws in parasite ecology?
    R Poulin
    Department of Zoology, University of Otago, P O Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
    Parasitology 134:763-76. 2007
    ..e. the parasite community level, appear highly contingent and far from universal. The general laws uncovered to date are proving valuable, as they offer glimpses of the underlying processes shaping parasite ecology and diversity...
  70. ncbi Critical roles of the mitochondrial complex II in oocyst formation of rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei
    Akina Hino
    Department of Biomedical Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    J Biochem 152:259-68. 2012
    ..To elucidate the role of TCA metabolism and ETC in malaria parasites, we deleted the gene for flavoprotein (Fp) subunit, Pbsdha, one of four components of complex II, a catalytic ..
  71. ncbi Including parasites in food webs
    James E Byers
    Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia, 140 E Green Street, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    Trends Parasitol 25:55-7. 2009
    ..Comparisons of food webs including and excluding host-parasite interactions demonstrate the influence of parasites on community dynamics...
  72. ncbi Newer diagnostic approaches to intestinal protozoa
    Lisette van Lieshout
    Department of Parasitology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 23:488-93. 2010
    ..To update the reader on the latest developments in the laboratory diagnosis of intestinal protozoa...
  73. ncbi Cysteine peptidases of kinetoplastid parasites
    Conor R Caffrey
    Sandler Center for Drug Discovery, California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, Byers Hall, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, USA
    Adv Exp Med Biol 712:84-99. 2011
    We review Clan CA Family C1 peptidases of kinetoplastid parasites (Trypanosoma and Leishmania) with respect to biochemical and genetic diversity, genomic organization and stage-specificity and control of expression...
  74. pmc Rerooting the evolutionary tree of malaria parasites
    Diana C Outlaw
    Department of Biological Sciences, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:13183-7. 2011
    Malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) have plagued humans for millennia. Less well known are related parasites (Haemosporida), with diverse life cycles and dipteran vectors that infect other vertebrates...
  75. ncbi The life-history impact and implications of multiple parasites for bumble bee queens
    Samina T Rutrecht
    Department of Zoology, School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland
    Int J Parasitol 38:799-808. 2008
    ..Of 160 queens, 67% were parasitised by one or more members of a five-species parasite community. The impact of parasites varied from being highly virulent to undetectable under benign laboratory conditions...
  76. ncbi Oxidative stress and the effect of parasites on a carotenoid-based ornament
    F Mougeot
    Estación Experimental de Zonas Aridas, CSIC, General Segura 1, 04001 Almeria, Spain
    J Exp Biol 213:400-7. 2010
    ..In the present study, we explored interactions between parasites, oxidative stress and the carotenoid-based ornamentation of red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus...
  77. pmc Functional effects of parasites on food web properties during the spring diatom bloom in Lake Pavin: a linear inverse modeling analysis
    Boutheina Grami
    Université de La Rochelle CNRS, UMR 6250 Littoral Environnement et Sociétés LIENSs, La Rochelle, France
    PLoS ONE 6:e23273. 2011
    ..Model results support recent theories on the probable impact of parasites on food web function...
  78. ncbi Parasites and immunoregulatory T cells
    Yasmine Belkaid
    Mucosal Immunology Unit, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Curr Opin Immunol 18:406-12. 2006
    ..Recent findings implicate various populations of regulatory T cells in this homeostatic regulation...
  79. ncbi Low-molecular-mass antioxidants in parasites
    R Luise Krauth-Siegel
    Biochemie Zentrum der Universitat Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
    Antioxid Redox Signal 17:583-607. 2012
    ..Parasitic organisms show a remarkable diversity with respect to the nature and functions of their main low-molecular-mass antioxidants and many of them developed pathways that do not have a counterpart in their mammalian hosts...
  80. ncbi The genome of the protist parasite Entamoeba histolytica
    Brendan Loftus
    TIGR, 9712 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA
    Nature 433:865-8. 2005
    ..Analysis of the genome provides new insights into the workings and genome evolution of a major human pathogen...
  81. ncbi Parasites as biological tags in population studies of marine organisms: an update
    K MacKenzie
    Department of Zoology, The University of Aberdeen, Scotland, UK
    Parasitology 124:S153-63. 2002
    This paper reviews the work published over the past decade on the use of parasites as biological tags in population studies of marine fish, mammals and invertebrates...
  82. ncbi The diversity of parasites
    R Poulin
    Department of Zoology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Q Rev Biol 75:277-93. 2000
    ..Studying the diversity of parasites is particularly relevant because sympatric diversification may be important in some parasite taxa, and because ..
  83. ncbi Molecular phylogenetics and reproductive incompatibility in a complex of cryptic species of aphid parasitoids
    John M Heraty
    Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    Mol Phylogenet Evol 45:480-93. 2007
    ..Our evidence on molecular differentiation and reproductive incompatibility supports recognition of at least five cryptic species in the A. varipes complex. We discuss likely reasons for the high rate of speciation in this complex...
  84. doi N-myristoyltransferase: a prospective drug target for protozoan parasites
    Paul W Bowyer
    Division of Cell and Molecular Biology, Centre for Molecular Microbiology and Infection, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK
    ChemMedChem 3:402-8. 2008
  85. pmc Barcoding a quantified food web: crypsis, concepts, ecology and hypotheses
    M Alex Smith
    Biodiversity Institute of Ontario and Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada
    PLoS ONE 6:e14424. 2011
    ..This will be most poignantly felt in food webs that have not yet been quantified. Here, more accurate and precise connections will be within the grasp of any researcher for the first time...
  86. ncbi Leishmania amazonensis infection impairs differentiation and function of human dendritic cells
    Cecilia Favali
    Centro de Pesquisas Goncalo Moniz, Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil
    J Leukoc Biol 82:1401-6. 2007
    ..The presence of live L. amazonensis parasites during DC differentiation led to a significant decrease in CD80 (92%) and CD1a (56%) expression and an increase ..
  87. ncbi Intestinal parasites among presumably healthy individuals in Lebanon
    Bassem R Saab
    Department of Family Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon
    Saudi Med J 25:34-7. 2004
    To determine the prevalence period of intestinal parasites among presumably healthy subjects in Lebanon.
  88. pmc Gene expression in trypanosomatid parasites
    Santiago Martinez-Calvillo
    Unidad de Biomedicina, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Av de los Barrios 1, Col Los Reyes Iztacala, Tlalnepantla, Edo de Mexico, CP 54090, Mexico
    J Biomed Biotechnol 2010:525241. 2010
    The parasites Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma brucei, and Trypanosoma cruzi are the trypanosomatid protozoa that cause the deadly human diseases leishmaniasis, African sleeping sickness, and Chagas disease, respectively...
  89. pmc Modulation of Leishmania ABC protein gene expression through life stages and among drug-resistant parasites
    Philippe Leprohon
    Centre de Recherche en Infectiologie, 2705 Boul Laurier, Quebec, Quebec G1V 4G2, Canada
    Eukaryot Cell 5:1713-25. 2006
    ..Leishmania major and Leishmania infantum and that some orthologues are found in the genome of the related parasites Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi...
  90. ncbi Seasonal prevalence of intestinal parasites in the United States during 2000
    Omar M Amin
    Parasitology Center, Inc, Tempe, Arizona 85281, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 66:799-803. 2002
    ..fecal specimens from 2,896 patients in 48 states and the District of Columbia tested positive for intestinal parasites during the year 2000. Multiple infections with 2-4 parasitic species constituted 10% of 916 infected cases...
  91. pmc Diverse expression patterns of subgroups of the rif multigene family during Plasmodium falciparum gametocytogenesis
    Michaela Petter
    Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg, Germany
    PLoS ONE 3:e3779. 2008
    The maturation of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in the human host takes several days, during which the parasites need to efficiently evade the host immune system...
  92. ncbi Parasites: proxies for host genealogy and ecology?
    Caroline M Nieberding
    Zoogeographical Research Unit, University of Liege, B 4000 Sart Tilman, Belgium
    Trends Ecol Evol 22:156-65. 2007
    ..Recently, it has been suggested that genetic information from some parasites can complement genetic data from their hosts...
  93. ncbi Trace elements, innate immune response and parasites
    Maria Teresa Rivera
    Lab Biologia Cellular, DUBC, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Clin Chem Lab Med 41:1020-5. 2003
    ..Some interactions of trace elements with innate immunity and acute inflammatory response are reviewed in this article with a special focus on selenium deficiency and Trypanosoma cruzi infection...
  94. ncbi Avian haematozoan parasites and their associations with mosquitoes across Southwest Pacific Islands
    F Ishtiaq
    Edward Grey Institute, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Mol Ecol 17:4545-55. 2008
    The degree to which haematozoan parasites can exploit a range of vectors and hosts has both ecological and evolutionary implications for their transmission and biogeography...
  95. pmc Critical role of a K+ channel in Plasmodium berghei transmission revealed by targeted gene disruption
    Peter Ellekvist
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:6398-402. 2008
    ..We hypothesize that these two K(+) channels mediate the transport of K(+) in the parasites, and thus are important for parasite survival...
  96. pmc Prevalence of bacteria and intestinal parasites among food-handlers in Gondar town, northwest Ethiopia
    Gashaw Andargie
    Department of Health Management and Health Economics, School of Public Health, Gondar College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, PO Box 196, Gondar, Ethiopia
    J Health Popul Nutr 26:451-5. 2008
    ..The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of bacteria and intestinal parasites among 127 food-handlers working in the cafeterias of the University of Gondar and the Gondar Teachers Training ..
  97. ncbi Evidence for strong host clone-parasite species interactions in the Daphnia microparasite system
    Ellen Decaestecker
    Laboratory of Aquatic Ecology, Catholic University of Leuven, Ch De Beriotstraat 32, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Evolution 57:784-92. 2003
    ..if resistance is based on (potentially costly) general defense mechanisms, it may be positively correlated among parasites. In an experimental study, we confronted 19 clones from one Daphnia magna population with two bacterial and ..
  98. ncbi Origin of the parasites of an invading species, the Australian cane toad (Bufo marinus): are the lungworms Australian or American?
    Sylvain Dubey
    School of Biological Sciences A08, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
    Mol Ecol 17:4418-24. 2008
    Phylogeographical analyses that identify the geographical origin of parasites in invading species can clarify the parasites' potential for biological control of the invader and the risks posed by the parasite to native species...
  99. ncbi In-silico characterization of the effects of phosphorylated tyrosines 86 and 106 on structure and binding of MAL: insight into hyperinflammatory response to infection by the human malaria parasites
    Umar H K Niazi
    NUST Center of Virology and Immunology, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan
    J Recept Signal Transduct Res 31:53-65. 2011
    ..organisms and in some individuals can produce a hyperinflammatory response to infection by the human malaria parasites Plasmodium falciparum and vivax, leading to a more severe form of the disease-cerebral malaria (CM)...
  100. ncbi The evolutionary implications of conflict between parasites with different transmission modes
    Edward O Jones
    Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, England, United Kingdom
    Evolution 64:2408-16. 2010
    Understanding the processes that shape the evolution of parasites is a key challenge for evolutionary biology...
  101. pmc Review of zoonotic parasites in medical and veterinary fields in the Republic of Korea
    Heejeong Youn
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
    Korean J Parasitol 47:S133-41. 2009
    Zoonotic parasites are animal parasites that can infect humans...

Research Grants75

  1. CFI Pathogen Inactivation Technology
    Trevor P Castor; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In addition to viruses, bacteria and parasites such as Babesia spp. and Plasmodium spp. are major threats of spreading diseases through transfusion...
  2. Vaccine Development for Falciparum Malaria in Pregnant Women and Their Offspring
    Ian C Michelow; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..strategies, select and test optimal malaria vaccine epitopes, cultivate and genetically manipulate malaria parasites, perform cell-based infection assays, interrogate the malaria genome/proteome databases, use sophisticated cell ..
    Buddy Ullman; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..and enzymes of the pyrimidine and purine salvage pathways in Toxoplasma gondii and related apicomplexan parasites, including Cryptosporidium, Sarcocystis, and Plasmodium...
  4. Impacts of surface receptors [Toll like receptor (TLRs) and Fc gamma receptors (F
    Collins Ouma; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of SMA is multi-factorial and has been attributed to direct destruction of red blood cells (RBCs) by parasites, hemolysis of non-parasitized RBCs, suppression of erythropoiesis, erythrophagocytosis, and dysregulation in ..
  5. Killed But Metabolically Active Leishmania: a novel protozoan vaccine technology
    Noah Craft; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Over many millennia protozoan parasites have evolved complex life cycles that facilitate transmission and evasion of host immune systems...
  6. Mucosal Memory T Cells at the Vanguard of Human Host Defense
    Donna L Farber; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..sites including influenza, tuberculosis, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rotavirus, and numerous intestinal parasites and bacteria pose substantial threats to world health, and have eluded the generation of protective vaccines...
  7. Regulatory Oxygenases in Vasculopathic Rickettsioses
    SANJEEV SAHNI; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..rickettsii and R. prowazekii. Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular parasites characterized by tropism for vascular endothelium of their mammalian hosts...
  8. Enhanced Membrane Systems for Supplying Quality Drinking Water
    Andrew Feiring; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..coli are frequently implicated in waterborne disease outbreaks as are noroviruses and the protozoan parasites Giardia intestinalis and Cryptosporidium...
  9. Membrane Ion-channels in Helminth Parasites: Anthelmintic Resistance and Sites of
    RICHARD JOHN MARTIN; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): 'Membrane Ion-channels in Helminth Parasites: Resistance and Sites of Action for Anthelmintics'The Neglected Tropical Diseases include the Soil-Transmitted Nematode (STN) parasites (..
    Edward J Pearce; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..absence of IL-4, a major product of Th2 cells, infected mice die rapidly after eggs begin to be produced by the parasites, due to an immunopathologic response in which NO and TNF[unreadable] (products of classically activated, M1 ..
  11. International Symposium on Proline Metabolism and Human Health
    Donald F Becker; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..into proline metabolism is helping our understanding of cancer preventing mechanisms, how disease carrying parasites (e.g., Trypanosoma brucei, African sleeping sickness) and pathogenic bacteria (e.g...
  12. Diagnostic array for aseptic encephalitis
    Darrell P Chandler; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..These diseases can be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites. Viruses are the most common cause of encephalitis, with >85% of all aseptic encephalitis caused by ..
  13. Pathogenesis of Oxidative Stress in Chagas Disease
    Nisha Jain Garg; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cruzi damages the heart tissue via three distinct mechanisms: (1) iCa+2 stress is caused by invading parasites, which results in alteration of mt membrane potential and initiates reactive oxygen species (ROS) release, (2) ..
  14. Antigen receptor inputs: linking structural, molecular, and cellular responses
    Jonathan P Schneck; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Many immune responses, for example responses to parasites, to tumors and to some viruses, are often blunted because T cells respond to antigen by turning off, rather than ..
  15. The Role of Glycolipids and CD1 in the Immunology of Leishmania Infection
    Laurence U Buxbaum; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Leishmaniasis is the number two killer worldwide after malaria for death caused by parasites. Leishmaniasis cases have been increasing due to development and wars moving people into parasite-infested areas...
  16. Role of Lipoproteins in Chagasic heart disease
    ..Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated an accumulation of LDL around parasites in the myocardium of infected mice...
  17. Multiplex Serodiagnostic Protein Microarray
    PHILIP LOUIS FELGNER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Currently, we have expressed and printed more than 14,000 individual proteins from 6 bacteria, 17 viruses, and 2 parasites. The chips are probed with serum from infected patients and healthy controls to identify the dominant antibody ..
  18. A Systems Biology Approach to the Model Apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii
    William J Sullivan Jr; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..As major emerging and reemerging pathogens, Apicomplexan parasites infect more than a third of the world's population...
  19. Cytosine DNA Methylation and Transcriptional Repression in African Trypanosomes
    KEVIN MILITELLO; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..First, the leves of 5- methylcytosine at specific loci in wild-type and TbDMT-/- parasites will be compared, and we expect to observe no 5-methylcytosine in the TbDMT-/- parasites...
  20. RNA polymerase II transcription in trypanosomes
    ARTHUR GUNZL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The trypanosomatid parasites Trypanosoma brucei, T. cruzi and Leishmania spp. cause the major human diseases African Sleeping Sickness, Chagas'disease, and Leishmaniasis, respectively...
  21. The role of polyphosphate and acidocalcisomes in Trypanosoma brucei
    Roberto Docampo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of compounds (pyrophosphate analogs) that produced radical cures in animal models of diseases caused by several parasites. Further exploration of the composition and function of the acidocalcisome in T...
  22. Integration of mucosal immune responses through the enteric nervous system
    DANIEL S MUCIDA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Although most of its microbes are represented by non- invasive commensals, the intestine is also a target for parasites, viruses, fungi and pathogenic bacteria...
    David P Bartel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the phenomenon known as "RNA interference," which protects animals, plants, and fungi from viruses and genomic parasites. The goals are to learn about the biochemical mechanism and biological functions of RNAi in yeast species that ..
  24. Insulin, IGF and Insulin Signaling: effects on Anopheles lifespan and immunity
    MICHAEL ALLEN RIEHLE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Since malaria parasites must develop for up to two weeks in the mosquito there is opportunity to disrupt this development by enhancing ..
  25. Selectivity and Permeation in the Human Voltage-gated Proton Channel, hHv1
    Susan M E Smith; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..ROS produced by NADPH oxidase in white blood cells help kill bacteria, fungi, parasites, and other microbial invaders...
  26. Polyamine Metabolism in Leishmania
    Buddy Ullman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..protocols to test mechanism;2) to perform complementary infectivity studies with the wild type and mutant parasites in peritoneal macrophages derived from the Arg1flox/flox;Tie2cre and Tie2cre strains;3) to establish the role of ..
  27. Role of liver fluke granulin in cholangiocarcinogenesis
    Jason P Mulvenna; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Infection with the food-borne liver fluke parasites Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis is a strong risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), bile duct cancer, in Thailand, Laos and other ..
  28. Hunting for Endogenous Ligands for Invariant Natural Killer T Cells
    Peng George Wang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..which has a broad immunological influence, including protection against autoimmune diseases, host responses to parasites and bacteria, and anti-tumor responses...
  29. Phylogenomics and functional diversification of the Heterochromatin Protein 1 gen
    MIA TAUNA LEVINE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This dynamic evolution implicates a molecular arms race between heterochromatin's abundant selfish genomic parasites and these heterochromatin-associated host proteins...
  30. Functional impact of IL33 polymorphisms on asthma &other Th2-mediated diseases
    Kathleen C Barnes; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..long been observed, and individuals with a history of asthma appear to be 'protected'from helminthic parasites (i.e., Schistosoma mansoni). Many genes have been associated with asthma, but to date very few have replicated...
  31. Development of Small Antimicrobial Peptide Mimics as Drug-Resistant and Susceptib
    Richard W Scott; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Therefore, it is crucial to discover new classes of drugs for anti-malarial drug design to combat resistant parasites. We propose that antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) may provide the basis of a novel class of antimalarials...
  32. International Workshop on Opportunistic Protists (IWOP-12, 13 and 14)
    Louis M Weiss; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..has also begun serving as a forum for researchers of kinetoplastid flagellates and other eukaryotic microbial parasites that are caused by different genotypes or present pathologies in immune deficient individuals distinct from that ..
  33. The Molecular Basis of Allorecognition in Social Amoeba
    Gad Shaulsky; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The MHC facilitates identification of parasites in infection processes, and graft rejection in transplantation medicine There is evidence for the involvement of ..
  34. Development of an Inhibitor of Toxoplasma gondii
    Richard D Wood; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..gondii and other Apicomplexan parasites that controls their invasive machinery necessary for survival...
  35. Treating cutaneous leishmaniasis by radio-frequency induced heat (RFH) therapy
    Abhay R Satoskar; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Infections caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania include cutaneous (CL), mucosal (ML) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL)...
  36. Functions of nuclear non-canonical poly(A) polymerases in Trypanosomes
    Ruslan Aphasizhev; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the main subject of this application, and related ncPAP2, which is a processive PAP that is nonessential for parasites. The working model is that antisense, and probably other transcripts, are adenylated by ncPAP1 and thus targeted ..
  37. Toward suicidal automation of porphyric Leishmania for photodynamic vaccination
    Kwang Poo Chang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Moreover, the immunity was elicited without apparent persistence of the parasites and with long-term memory, as shown by its adoptive transfer to naive animals...
  38. Molecular epidemiology of drug resistance and population genetic structure of Pla
    Fangli Lu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, there were differences in the evolution of CQ resistance between parasites from Yunnan and Hainan, the exact mechanism needs to be investigated...
  39. Simianizing hepatitis C: Defining the species-tropism of a hepatotropic virus
    Charles M Rice; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the reservoir for several important pathogens, including hepatitis B (HBV) and C viruses (HCV) and the malaria parasites, all of which represent serious global health problems...
  40. Defining target specificity of oxadiazole 2-oxides in Ancylostoma ceylanicum
    Jon J Vermeire; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..major health burden in the developing world, with hundreds of millions currently afflicted by these bloodfeeding parasites. Future efforts to substantially reduce hookworm disease will likely require the joining of conventional control ..
    Salvatore J Turco; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The ability of infectious metacyclic parasites to enter, survive and differentiate into amastigotes following ingestion by macrophages will be studied;where ..
  42. Effector and Memory Anti-Malaria CD8+ Cell Responses
    FIDEL P ZAVALA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These studies will be facilitated by the availability of TCR transgenic mice and transgenic parasites expressing model CD8 epitopes developed in my laboratory...
  43. P. papatasi midgut molecules: gene function and assessing TBV candidates
    JOSE MARCELO contact RAMALHO ORTIGAO; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..proteins thought to be involved in Leishmania development within the sand fly;elucidating how these proteins interact with Leishmania parasites undoubtedly will lead to the development of novel strategies to fight parasite transmission.
  44. Base J and transcription termination in Leishmania
    PETER JOHN MYLER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Leishmania parasites infect humans worldwide, leading to substantial morbidity and mortality...
  45. HIV-CNS Diseases and Parasitic Zoonoses in the Eastern Cape, South Africa
    HELENE CARABIN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: This project will identify processes that occur when people with HIV interact with parasites that both humans and animals can carry...
  46. Development of a Chloroquine Replacement Drug
    MICHAEL KEVIN RISCOE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..For each of the 1 million people killed each year there are hundreds that are severely sickened by malaria parasites. Indeed, malaria is one of the most frequent causes of sickness and death in the world today but especially in ..
  47. CRISPR Cas genes and Legionella pneumophila infection
    Nicholas P Cianciotto; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..loci are found in >400 different bacteria, including in a variety of pathogenic organisms and intracellular parasites, and the potential role of CRISPRCas in pathogenicity and intracellular infection has not been directly examined...
  48. Role of mucin-type O-glycosylation in Trypanosoma cruzi biology
    Christopher M West; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..evidences suggest that surface glycoinositolphospholipids (GIPLs) and mucin-type glycoproteins protect the parasites from proteases, complement, lytic antibodies, phagocytosis, and function as potential immunomodulators that ..
  49. The role of Histidine rich protein II in cerebral malaria
    Priya Pal; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Malaria parasites cause ~1.2 million deaths annually...
  50. Mechanisms of Resistance and Susceptibility to African Trypanosome Infection
    Stephen L Hajduk; Fiscal Year: 2013 its composition might be altered to produce "variant TLFs" with activity against the human sleeping sickness parasites (Aim 1)...
    Larry Simpson; Fiscal Year: 2013 a unique post-transcriptional RNA modification process occurring in the mitochondria of trypanosomatid parasites. Editing modifies the sequences of 12 of 16 mitochondrial mRNAs transcribed from mitochondrial DNA "cryptogenes" ..
  52. Role of chemokines in the T cell response to ocular toxoplasmosis
    Christopher A Hunter; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..imagining of the retina is proposed, using fluorescently-labeled antigen-specific T cells and transgenic parasites to assess how the absence of CXCR3 or CXCL10 influence the behavior of T cells...
  53. Identifying novel anti-infectives by high through-put screening in whole animals
    Frederick M Ausubel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our approach is applicable to many different classes of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. It has several advantages over traditional drug discovery: (i) In addition to identifying conventional ..
  54. The role of the interaction between the C-terminal domain of RNA pol II and a his
    Uchechi E Ukaegbu; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In addition, it was recently shown that rodent parasites do not utilize epigenetic memory to control the expression of their virulence genes...
  55. Changes in antioxidants and susceptibility to parasites
    DEBORAH KRISTAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Intestinal parasites infect more than 1 billion people worldwide and are especially common in developing countries where total food consumption is often limited...
  56. Regulation of a Novel Trypanosome RNA Binding Protein by Arginine Methylation
    Kaylen Lott; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..project is to identify mechanisms by which arginine (arg) methylation regulates gene expression in kinetoplastid parasites. Kinetoplastids, including Trypanosoma brucei, T. cruzi, and Leishmania spp...
  57. Molecular Genetic Tools for Parasitic Helminths
    Edward J Pearce; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Helminth (worm) parasites take an enormous toll on human health, especially in developing countries...
    David A Thorley-Lawson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..combined with parasite preparations including whole extracts from infected RBCs, intact infected RBCs, purified parasites, the parasite by product hemozoin (known TLR ligand) and parasites lacking PfEMP1 (known BCR ligand). 2...
  59. Infectious Disease Genomics and Bioinformatics Training in Brazil
    Jessica C Kissinger; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The focus of research at the CPqRR Is tropical parasites, their vectors and their hosts. These organisms include: Plasmodium sp., Trypanosoma cruzi...
  60. Geographically robust rapid assay for T. cruzi infection
    SYAMAL X RAYCHAUDHURI; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Current methods to detect infection involve serological screening using whole parasites, or crude lysates and confirmation tests in the USA use a complex radioimmunoprecipitation assay (RIPA)...
  61. Synthetic Oligosaccharides for Probing Infection and Innate Immunity
    Geert Jan Boons; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Microbial components such as LPS of Gram-negative bacteria and GPIs of parasites are recognized by receptors of the innate immune system of the host resulting in defense responses...
  62. Identification of G6PD inhibitors for the development of novel antimalarial drugs
    Lars Bode; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Since G6PD deficiency is a proven principle against malarial parasites and since the parasite enzyme differs structurally and mechanistically from the human host enzyme, PfGluPho is ..
  63. Spatiotemporal Regulation of Membrane Raft Trafficking in Virus Activated Cells
    Tione Buranda; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..As obligate intracellular parasites, hantaviruses depend on cellular mechanisms for entry and release from their host cells...
  64. Plasmodium Genus and P. falciparum - P. vivax FISH Assays
    Jyotsna Shah; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We demonstrated that the limit of detection was 1 to 9 parasites/300 fields at 1000X and that the FISH assays are very reproducible...
  65. Development of novel therapeutics for a neglected tropical disease leishmaniasis
    ABHAY R contact SATOSKAR; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Transmitted by sand fly vectors, Leishmania are obligate intracellular parasites that cause a wide range of diseases, including cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (MCL) and visceral leishmaniasis (..
    Stephen M Beverley; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our laboratory has focused on metabolic pathways identified through the study of antifolate-resistant Leishmania parasites, which has lead us into studies of the metabolism of the unconjugated pteridine biopterin and the conjugated ..
  67. The role of sand fly saliva in visceralization of Leishmania parasites
    Gregory Lanzaro; Fiscal Year: 2009
    It is well known that substances in the saliva of Phlebotomine sand flies enhance pathogenesis of leishmanial parasites in their mammalian hosts and exacerbates the pathology these parasites produce...
  68. Lectin-Carbohydrate Interactions in the Host-Parasite System
    Xiao Qiang Yu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    b>Parasites are causative agents of some insect-borne infectious diseases such as malaria and filariasis. Insects respond to infection by parasites with both cellular and humoral immune responses...
    SYDNEY CRAIG; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..In contrast, most parasites are unable to synthesize purines via de novo pathways, and must rely on enzymes in salvage pathways, including ..
  70. SP resistance markers & falciparum malaria transmission
    Fabian Mendez; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..of resistance are less well understood and little is known about the capacity for transmission of resistant parasites. Recently we reported that parasite mutations conferring low-level resistance to SP, even though insufficient to ..
    Steven Williams; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..Detection and identification of filarial parasites in human blood samples and in mosquitoes is a difficult and time-consuming process when using traditional ..
  72. Multiplex Screening ELISA for Giardia, Cryptosporidium and E. histolytica
    JOEL F HERBEIN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The current lack of a low-cost screening fecal antigen test for enteric parasites compromises the healthcare of individuals presenting with diarrhea, as the only screening test available today ..
    Akhil Vaidya; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..the plasma membrane with an electrochemical gradient for such transport remains virtually unknown in malaria parasites. The fact that erythrocytic stages of malaria parasites derive their ATP mainly through substrate-level ..
  74. 2012 International Conference on Anaerobic Parasites (ICAP)
    PATRICIA JEAN JOHNSON; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This application seeks support for th International Conference on Anaerobic Parasites V (ICAP V)...
  75. Brugia Malayi Genome Project
    Elodie Ghedin; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Accounts from ancient civilizations describe the role that filarial parasites have had on human hosts for centuries...