spores

Summary

Summary: The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.

Top Publications

  1. Ferrandino F. Effect of crop growth and canopy filtration on the dynamics of plant disease epidemics spread by aerially dispersed spores. Phytopathology. 2008;98:492-503 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects that these crop growth-related factors have on plant disease epidemics spread by airborne spores are evaluated using mathematical models and their importance is discussed...
  2. Escobar Cortés K, Barra Carrasco J, Paredes Sabja D. Proteases and sonication specifically remove the exosporium layer of spores of Clostridium difficile strain 630. J Microbiol Methods. 2013;93:25-31 pubmed publisher
    Clostridium difficile spores are the means through which this anaerobic pathogen may persist in hospital surfaces and in the host. There is a lack of knowledge in the proteins that localize to the surface of C...
  3. Qiu X, Setlow P. Structural and genetic analysis of X-ray scattering by spores of Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:7620-2 pubmed publisher
    Dormant spores of Bacillus subtilis exhibit two prominent X-ray scattering peaks...
  4. Chiyoda S, Ishizaki K, Kataoka H, Yamato K, Kohchi T. Direct transformation of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L. by particle bombardment using immature thalli developing from spores. Plant Cell Rep. 2008;27:1467-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report an improved direct transformation system of M. polymorpha using immature thalli developing from spores. Hygromycin-resistant transformants were obtained on selective media by transformation with a plasmid carrying the ..
  5. D Amato G, Cecchi L, Liccardi G. Thunderstorm-related asthma: not only grass pollen and spores. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;121:537-8; author reply 538 pubmed
  6. Wang W, Mulakala C, Ward S, Jung G, Luong H, Pham D, et al. Retrocyclins kill bacilli and germinating spores of Bacillus anthracis and inactivate anthrax lethal toxin. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:32755-64 pubmed
    ..anthracis (Sterne) and rendered their germinating spores nonviable, they also inactivated the enzymatic activity of anthrax lethal factor and protected murine RAW-264...
  7. Cheng C, Mathews D, Schaller G, Kieber J. Cytokinin-dependent specification of the functional megaspore in the Arabidopsis female gametophyte. Plant J. 2013;73:929-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, this study reveals a chalazal-localized sporophytic cytokinin signal that plays an important role in FM specification in FG development...
  8. Wang G, Zhang P, Setlow P, Li Y. Kinetics of germination of wet-heat-treated individual spores of Bacillus species, monitored by Raman spectroscopy and differential interference contrast microscopy. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:3368-79 pubmed publisher
    ..monitor the kinetics of nutrient and nonnutrient germination of multiple individual untreated and wet-heat-treated spores of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus megaterium, as well as of several isogenic Bacillus subtilis strains...
  9. Gao S, Chen X, Yi Q, Wang G, Pan G, Lin A, et al. A strategy for the proliferation of Ulva prolifera, main causative species of green tides, with formation of sporangia by fragmentation. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e8571 pubmed publisher
    ..prolifera, changes of the photosynthetic properties of cells during sporangia formation, and development of spores. The results suggested that disks less than 1...
  10. Zhang Z, Wang C, Li L. [Effects of Gadol and Ganoderma spores on the adiponectin signal pathway in hypertrophic myocardium of spontaneous hypertensive rats]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2009;29:233-7 pubmed
    ..the adiponectin signal pathway in hypertrophic myocardium of spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) and to observe the effects of Gadol (GD) and Ganoderma spores (GS) on the hemodynamic parameters and the adiponectin signal pathway of SHR.

Locale

Detail Information

Publications70

  1. Ferrandino F. Effect of crop growth and canopy filtration on the dynamics of plant disease epidemics spread by aerially dispersed spores. Phytopathology. 2008;98:492-503 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects that these crop growth-related factors have on plant disease epidemics spread by airborne spores are evaluated using mathematical models and their importance is discussed...
  2. Escobar Cortés K, Barra Carrasco J, Paredes Sabja D. Proteases and sonication specifically remove the exosporium layer of spores of Clostridium difficile strain 630. J Microbiol Methods. 2013;93:25-31 pubmed publisher
    Clostridium difficile spores are the means through which this anaerobic pathogen may persist in hospital surfaces and in the host. There is a lack of knowledge in the proteins that localize to the surface of C...
  3. Qiu X, Setlow P. Structural and genetic analysis of X-ray scattering by spores of Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:7620-2 pubmed publisher
    Dormant spores of Bacillus subtilis exhibit two prominent X-ray scattering peaks...
  4. Chiyoda S, Ishizaki K, Kataoka H, Yamato K, Kohchi T. Direct transformation of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L. by particle bombardment using immature thalli developing from spores. Plant Cell Rep. 2008;27:1467-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report an improved direct transformation system of M. polymorpha using immature thalli developing from spores. Hygromycin-resistant transformants were obtained on selective media by transformation with a plasmid carrying the ..
  5. D Amato G, Cecchi L, Liccardi G. Thunderstorm-related asthma: not only grass pollen and spores. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;121:537-8; author reply 538 pubmed
  6. Wang W, Mulakala C, Ward S, Jung G, Luong H, Pham D, et al. Retrocyclins kill bacilli and germinating spores of Bacillus anthracis and inactivate anthrax lethal toxin. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:32755-64 pubmed
    ..anthracis (Sterne) and rendered their germinating spores nonviable, they also inactivated the enzymatic activity of anthrax lethal factor and protected murine RAW-264...
  7. Cheng C, Mathews D, Schaller G, Kieber J. Cytokinin-dependent specification of the functional megaspore in the Arabidopsis female gametophyte. Plant J. 2013;73:929-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, this study reveals a chalazal-localized sporophytic cytokinin signal that plays an important role in FM specification in FG development...
  8. Wang G, Zhang P, Setlow P, Li Y. Kinetics of germination of wet-heat-treated individual spores of Bacillus species, monitored by Raman spectroscopy and differential interference contrast microscopy. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:3368-79 pubmed publisher
    ..monitor the kinetics of nutrient and nonnutrient germination of multiple individual untreated and wet-heat-treated spores of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus megaterium, as well as of several isogenic Bacillus subtilis strains...
  9. Gao S, Chen X, Yi Q, Wang G, Pan G, Lin A, et al. A strategy for the proliferation of Ulva prolifera, main causative species of green tides, with formation of sporangia by fragmentation. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e8571 pubmed publisher
    ..prolifera, changes of the photosynthetic properties of cells during sporangia formation, and development of spores. The results suggested that disks less than 1...
  10. Zhang Z, Wang C, Li L. [Effects of Gadol and Ganoderma spores on the adiponectin signal pathway in hypertrophic myocardium of spontaneous hypertensive rats]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2009;29:233-7 pubmed
    ..the adiponectin signal pathway in hypertrophic myocardium of spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) and to observe the effects of Gadol (GD) and Ganoderma spores (GS) on the hemodynamic parameters and the adiponectin signal pathway of SHR.
  11. Lin A, Shen S, Wang J, Yan B. Reproduction diversity of Enteromorpha prolifera. J Integr Plant Biol. 2008;50:622-9 pubmed publisher
    ..prolifera mainly depends on asexual methods. The results presented here contribute to increasing our understanding about how the opportunistic macroalgae successfully maintain colonization and excessive growth...
  12. Huang J, La Ragione R, Nunez A, Cutting S. Immunostimulatory activity of Bacillus spores. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2008;53:195-203 pubmed publisher
    ..subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus flexus to evaluate the nature of interaction between spores and the GALT...
  13. Cruz A, Horii S, Ochiai S, Yasuda A, Ishii T. Isolation and analysis of bacteria associated with spores of Gigaspora margarita. J Appl Microbiol. 2008;104:1711-7 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this work was to observe bacteria associated with the spores of Gigaspora margarita, an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF).
  14. Ballesteros D, Walters C. Water properties in fern spores: sorption characteristics relating to water affinity, glassy states, and storage stability. J Exp Bot. 2007;58:1185-96 pubmed
    Ex situ conservation of ferns may be accomplished by maintaining the viability of stored spores for many years...
  15. Lönnell N, Hylander K, Jonsson B, Sundberg S. The fate of the missing spores--patterns of realized dispersal beyond the closest vicinity of a sporulating moss. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41987 pubmed publisher
    ..The estimated density of spores causing establishments at the further distances (2-6 spores/m²) was realistic when compared to the estimated ..
  16. De Groot G, During H, Ansell S, Schneider H, Bremer P, Wubs E, et al. Diverse spore rains and limited local exchange shape fern genetic diversity in a recently created habitat colonized by long-distance dispersal. Ann Bot. 2012;109:965-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Young populations in recent, disjunct habitats form a useful study system to improve our understanding of the genetic impact of long-distance dispersal...
  17. Schuette S, Wood A, Geisler M, Geisler Lee J, Ligrone R, Renzaglia K. Novel localization of callose in the spores of Physcomitrella patens and phylogenomics of the callose synthase gene family. Ann Bot. 2009;103:749-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Correlated light, fluorescence and immuno-electron microscopy was conducted on the developing spores of Physcomitrella patens to probe for callose...
  18. Shin H. Rapid attachment of spores of the fouling alga Ulva fasciata on biofilms. J Environ Biol. 2008;29:613-9 pubmed
    Attachment of spores of Ulva fasciata to natural biofilms was examined to probe the basis for specificity in settlement...
  19. Rawsthorne H, Dock C, Jaykus L. PCR-based method using propidium monoazide to distinguish viable from nonviable Bacillus subtilis spores. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:2936-9 pubmed publisher
    ..describes a molecular-based method which is able to discriminate between viable and inactivated Bacillus subtilis spores by utilizing the DNA-intercalating dye propidium monoazide...
  20. Fernandes J, Eaton P, Gomes A, Pintado M, Xavier Malcata F. Study of the antibacterial effects of chitosans on Bacillus cereus (and its spores) by atomic force microscopy imaging and nanoindentation. Ultramicroscopy. 2009;109:854-60 pubmed publisher
    ..eventually led to the death of the vegetative form by preventing the uptake of nutrients yet did not affect the spores since these can survive for extended periods without nutrients...
  21. Peck M, Plowman J, Aldus C, Wyatt G, Izurieta W, Stringer S, et al. Development and application of a new method for specific and sensitive enumeration of spores of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum types B, E, and F in foods and food materials. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:6607-14 pubmed publisher
    ..a selective enrichment culture with multiplex PCR has been developed and validated to enumerate specifically the spores of nonproteolytic C. botulinum...
  22. Wheeldon L, Worthington T, Lambert P, Hilton A, Lowden C, Elliott T. Antimicrobial efficacy of copper surfaces against spores and vegetative cells of Clostridium difficile: the germination theory. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008;62:522-5 pubmed publisher
    Persistent contamination of surfaces by spores of Clostridium difficile is a major factor influencing the spread of C. difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD) in the clinical setting...
  23. Morin H, Tremblay M, Plante E, Pare C, Majeau N, Hogue R, et al. High avidity binding of engineered papaya mosaic virus virus-like particles to resting spores of Plasmodiophora brassicae. J Biotechnol. 2007;128:423-34 pubmed
    ..virus (PapMV) like particles (VLPs) were used as a platform for fusion of affinity peptides binding to resting spores of Plasmodiophora brassicae-a major pathogen of crucifers...
  24. Frawley D, Samaan M, Bull R, Robertson J, Mateczun A, Turnbull P. Recovery efficiencies of anthrax spores and ricin from nonporous or nonabsorbent and porous or absorbent surfaces by a variety of sampling methods*. J Forensic Sci. 2008;53:1102-7 pubmed publisher
    ..to be contaminated after the release of environmentally stable bioaggressive agents, as exemplified by anthrax spores and ricin...
  25. Li L, Saga N, Mikami K. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity and asymmetrical accumulation of F-actin are necessary for establishment of cell polarity in the early development of monospores from the marine red alga Porphyra yezoensis. J Exp Bot. 2008;59:3575-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results also indicate that PI3K-dependent F-actin asymmetry is evolutionally conserved in relation to the establishment of cell polarity in migrating eukaryotic cells...
  26. Zhang P, Kong L, Setlow P, Li Y. Characterization of wet-heat inactivation of single spores of bacillus species by dual-trap Raman spectroscopy and elastic light scattering. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:1796-805 pubmed publisher
    ..light scattering (ELS) were used to investigate dynamic processes during high-temperature treatment of individual spores of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, and Bacillus subtilis in water...
  27. Baxter L, Tripathy S, Ishaque N, Boot N, Cabral A, Kemen E, et al. Signatures of adaptation to obligate biotrophy in the Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis genome. Science. 2010;330:1549-1551 pubmed publisher
    ..These attributes comprise a genomic signature of evolution toward obligate biotrophy...
  28. Dey R, Hoffman P, Glomski I. Germination and amplification of anthrax spores by soil-dwelling amoebas. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:8075-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These soils are typically rich in organic matter and calcium that promote survival of resilient B. anthracis spores. Outbreaks of anthrax tend to occur in warm weather following rains that are believed to concentrate spores in low-..
  29. Mander L, Wesseln C, McElwain J, Punyasena S. Tracking taphonomic regimes using chemical and mechanical damage of pollen and spores: an example from the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49153 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that the patterns of vegetation change at Astartekløft represent a real biological response to environmental change at the Tr-J...
  30. Cuadrado M, Marques A, Diamant A, Sitja Bobadilla A, Palenzuela O, Alvarez Pellitero P, et al. Ultrastructure of Enteromyxum leei (Diamant, Lom, & Dyková, 1994) (Myxozoa), an enteric parasite infecting gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and sharpsnout sea bream (Diplodus puntazzo). J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2008;55:178-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Within sporogonic stages, nonsporogonic secondary cells were observed accompanying two developing spores. Mature spores had a binucleated sporoplasm in which glycogen stores were abundant and no sporoplasmosomes were ..
  31. Roberts K, Smith C, Snelling A, Kerr K, Banfield K, Sleigh P, et al. Aerial dissemination of Clostridium difficile spores. BMC Infect Dis. 2008;8:7 pubmed publisher
    ..difficile spores. However previous studies have failed to isolate C. difficile from air in hospitals...
  32. Grabner D, El Matbouli M. Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa: Malacosporea) portal of entry into the fish host. Dis Aquat Organ. 2010;90:197-206 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, spores of T...
  33. Shikata T, Iseki M, Matsunaga S, Higashi S, Kamei Y, Watanabe M. Blue and red light-induced germination of resting spores in the red-tide diatom Leptocylindrus danicus. Photochem Photobiol. 2011;87:590-7 pubmed publisher
    Photophysiological and pharmacological approaches were used to examine light-induced germination of resting spores in the red-tide diatom Leptocylindrus danicus...
  34. Hua C, Wang Y, Zheng X, Dou D, Zhang Z, Govers F, et al. A Phytophthora sojae G-protein alpha subunit is involved in chemotaxis to soybean isoflavones. Eukaryot Cell. 2008;7:2133-40 pubmed publisher
    ....
  35. Brown R, Lemmon B. Spores before sporophytes: hypothesizing the origin of sporogenesis at the algal-plant transition. New Phytol. 2011;190:875-81 pubmed publisher
    Fossil spores from mid-Ordovician deposits (475 million yr old) are the first indication of plants on land and predate megafossils of plants by 30-50 million yr...
  36. Plomp M, Leighton T, Wheeler K, Malkin A. The high-resolution architecture and structural dynamics of Bacillus spores. Biophys J. 2005;88:603-8 pubmed
    ..The dimensions of individual Bacillus atrophaeus spores decrease reversibly by 12% in response to a change in the environment from fully hydrated to air-dried state, ..
  37. Robold A, Hardham A. During attachment Phytophthora spores secrete proteins containing thrombospondin type 1 repeats. Curr Genet. 2005;47:307-15 pubmed
    ..In this paper, we report the cloning of a gene, PcVsv1, encoding a protein secreted during attachment of spores of Phytophthora, a genus of highly destructive plant pathogens...
  38. Koper O, Klabunde J, Marchin G, Klabunde K, Stoimenov P, Bohra L. Nanoscale powders and formulations with biocidal activity toward spores and vegetative cells of bacillus species, viruses, and toxins. Curr Microbiol. 2002;44:49-55 pubmed
    ..Likewise, spore forms of the Bacillus species are decontaminated within several hours. Dry contact with aflatoxins and contact with MS2 bacteriophage (surrogate of human enterovirus) in water also causes decontamination in minutes. ..
  39. Garcia L, Shimizu R, Bruckner D. Detection of microsporidial spores in fecal specimens from patients diagnosed with cryptosporidiosis. J Clin Microbiol. 1994;32:1739-41 pubmed
    ..parvum only, 25 (42%) with microsporidia only, and 17 (28%) with both C. parvum and microsporidia. These findings emphasize the importance of considering both organisms as potential causative agents of diarrhea in compromised patients. ..
  40. Vajda V, Raine J, Hollis C. Indication of global deforestation at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary by New Zealand fern spike. Science. 2001;294:1700-2 pubmed
    ..Recovery of New Zealand plant communities followed a pattern consistent with major climatic perturbations occurring after an impact winter that was possibly preceded by global wildfires. ..
  41. Ebel C, Mariconti L, Gruissem W. Plant retinoblastoma homologues control nuclear proliferation in the female gametophyte. Nature. 2004;429:776-80 pubmed
    Haploid spores of plants divide mitotically to form multicellular gametophytes...
  42. Vajda V, McLoughlin S. Fungal proliferation at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Science. 2004;303:1489 pubmed
  43. van Gerwen S, Rombouts F, van t Riet K, Zwietering M. A data analysis of the irradiation parameter D10 for bacteria and spores under various conditions. J Food Prot. 1999;62:1024-32 pubmed
    ..The best first step appeared to be a classification of the data into vegetative bacteria and spores. As expected, spores were found to have significantly higher D10 values (average 2...
  44. Wolfrum E, Huang J, Blake D, Maness P, Huang Z, Fiest J, et al. Photocatalytic oxidation of bacteria, bacterial and fungal spores, and model biofilm components to carbon dioxide on titanium dioxide-coated surfaces. Environ Sci Technol. 2002;36:3412-9 pubmed
    We report carbon mass balance and kinetic data for the total oxidation of cells, spores, and biomolecules deposited on illuminated titanium dioxide surfaces in contact with air...
  45. Valperga S, de Jogna Prat S, de Valperga G, Lazarte S, de Trejo A, Diaz N, et al. [Microsporidian spores in the stool specimens of toddlers, with or without diarrhea, from Tucumán, Argentina]. Rev Argent Microbiol. 1999;31:157-64 pubmed
    An investigation has been carried out from September 1995 to December 1997 to search for microsporidian spores in the stool specimens of 344 toddlers aged 1 to 24 months, hospitalized at a pediatric institution in Tucumán...
  46. Salmi M, Bushart T, Stout S, Roux S. Profile and analysis of gene expression changes during early development in germinating spores of Ceratopteris richardii. Plant Physiol. 2005;138:1734-45 pubmed
    Analysis of an expressed sequence tag library with more than 5,000 sequences from spores of the fern Ceratopteris richardii reveals that more than 3,900 of them represent distinct genes, and almost 70% of these have significant similarity ..
  47. Quintanilla L, Amigo J, Pangua E, Pajarón S. Effect of storage method on spore viability in five globally threatened fern species. Ann Bot. 2002;90:461-7 pubmed
    ..In the case of the hygrophilous species C. macrocarpa and W. radicans, 6 or 12 months' dry storage killed most spores. Only Woodwardia radicans germinated in the dark during wet storage at 20 degrees C...
  48. Judelson H, Blanco F. The spores of Phytophthora: weapons of the plant destroyer. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2005;3:47-58 pubmed
    ..These fungus-like eukaryotes, which are taxonomically classified as oomycetes, generate asexual and sexual spores with characteristics that greatly contribute to their pathogenic success...
  49. Konopińska A. Monitoring of Alternaria Ness and Cladosporium Link airborne spores in Lublin (Poland) in 2002. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2004;11:347-9 pubmed
    The concentration of Alternaria and Cladosporium spores was monitored throughout the year 2002 in Lublin (Eastern Poland). Fungal spores were sampled with Lanzoni VPPS 2000 volumetric spore trap...
  50. Baxter D, Perkins J, McGhee C, Seltzer J. A regional comparison of mold spore concentrations outdoors and inside "clean" and "mold contaminated" Southern California buildings. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2005;2:8-18 pubmed
    ..In addition, coastal and inland outdoor locations were measured. Seven categories (total spores, Ascospores/Basidiospores, Cladosporium, Smut/Myxomycetes-like, Aspergillus/Penicillium (AS/PE), Alternaria, and ..
  51. Clark Burton N, Adhikari A, Grinshpun S, Hornung R, Reponen T. The effect of filter material on bioaerosol collection of Bacillus subtilis spores used as a Bacillus anthracis simulant. J Environ Monit. 2005;7:475-80 pubmed
    ..In summary, the MCE and 1 microm PTFE filters in combination with vortexing and shaker extraction demonstrated the best performance for the filter collection and extraction of BG spores.
  52. Floriano P, Christodoulides N, Romanovicz D, Bernard B, Simmons G, Cavell M, et al. Membrane-based on-line optical analysis system for rapid detection of bacteria and spores. Biosens Bioelectron. 2005;20:2079-88 pubmed
    ..microchip technology towards the development of a new method for detecting and enumerating bacterial cells and spores. This new approach is based on the immuno-localization of bacterial spores captured on a membrane filter microchip ..
  53. Luna V, Stewart B, Bergeron D, Clausen C, Plorde J, Fritsche T. Use of the fluorochrome calcofluor white in the screening of stool specimens for spores of microsporidia. Am J Clin Pathol. 1995;103:656-9 pubmed
    ..Direct detection methods for microsporidial spores in stool include chromotrope-based, fluorochrome, and immunofluorescent stains...
  54. Weber R, Bryan R, Owen R, Wilcox C, Gorelkin L, Visvesvara G. Improved light-microscopical detection of microsporidia spores in stool and duodenal aspirates. The Enteric Opportunistic Infections Working Group. N Engl J Med. 1992;326:161-6 pubmed
    ..We have developed a new method to detect microsporidia spores in feces and duodenal aspirates.
  55. Wu Z, Blomquist G, Westermark S, Wang X. Application of PCR and probe hybridization techniques in detection of airborne fungal spores in environmental samples. J Environ Monit. 2002;4:673-8 pubmed
    ..The detection sensitivity for PCR amplifications was 9 to 73 spores and 1.3 to 19.3 CFUs per PCR reaction. The hybridization detection limit was 2 to 4 spores and 0.2 to 1.2 CFU...
  56. Joint I, Tait K, Callow M, Callow J, Milton D, Williams P, et al. Cell-to-cell communication across the prokaryote-eukaryote boundary. Science. 2002;298:1207 pubmed
  57. Sliva D, Sedlak M, Slivova V, Valachovicova T, Lloyd F, Ho N. Biologic activity of spores and dried powder from Ganoderma lucidum for the inhibition of highly invasive human breast and prostate cancer cells. J Altern Complement Med. 2003;9:491-7 pubmed
    ..Because the dried powder of ganoderma is commercially available as a dietary supplement itself, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the biologic activity of samples of Ganoderma lucidum from different sources...
  58. Cortezzo D, Setlow B, Setlow P. Analysis of the action of compounds that inhibit the germination of spores of Bacillus species. J Appl Microbiol. 2004;96:725-41 pubmed
    To determine the mechanism of action of inhibitors of the germination of spores of Bacillus species, and where these inhibitors act in the germination process.
  59. Latijnhouwers M, Ligterink W, Vleeshouwers V, van West P, Govers F. A Galpha subunit controls zoospore motility and virulence in the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Mol Microbiol. 2004;51:925-36 pubmed
    ..The results prove that PiGPA1 is crucial for zoospore motility and for pathogenicity in an important oomycete plant pathogen...
  60. Dolgikh V, Sokolova J, Issi I. Activities of enzymes of carbohydrate and energy metabolism of the spores of the microsporidian, Nosema grylli. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 1997;44:246-9 pubmed
    The presence of 14 enzymes was investigated using purified spores of the microsporidian Nosema grylli from fat body of the crickets Gryllus bimaculatus. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49), phosphoglucomutase (EC 5.4.2...
  61. Bretagne S, Foulet F, Alkassoum W, Fleury Feith J, Develoux M. [Prevalence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi spores in the stool of AIDS patients and African children not infected by HIV]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 1993;86:351-7 pubmed
    ..E. bieneusi spores were searched for in stool smears of two populations using a modified chromotrope 2R staining...
  62. Moura H, Schwartz D, Bornay Llinares F, Sodre F, Wallace S, Visvesvara G. A new and improved "quick-hot Gram-chromotrope" technique that differentially stains microsporidian spores in clinical samples, including paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1997;121:888-93 pubmed
    ..describes a new and improved "quick-hot Gram-chromotrope" staining technique that detects microsporidian spores in clinical specimens, such as stool, urine, saliva, nasopharyngeal fluid, and bronchoalveolar lavage samples, as ..
  63. Hirvonen M, Ruotsalainen M, Savolainen K, Nevalainen A. Effect of viability of actinomycete spores on their ability to stimulate production of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in RAW264.7 macrophages. Toxicology. 1997;124:105-14 pubmed
    b>Spores of actinomycetes, mesophilic gram-positive bacteria, isolated from moldy houses, induced the expression of inducible NO-synthase (iNOS) with a subsequent NO-production in RAW264.7 macrophages...
  64. Kishi Y, Clements C, Mahadeo D, Cotter D, Sameshima M. High levels of actin tyrosine phosphorylation: correlation with the dormant state of Dictyostelium spores. J Cell Sci. 1998;111 ( Pt 19):2923-32 pubmed
    ..removal of nutrients, the amoebae of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum differentiate into dormant spores which survive starvation stress...
  65. Sitja Bobadilla A, Alvarez Pellitero P. Leptotheca sparidarum n. sp. (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida), a parasite from cultured common dentex (Dentex dentex L.) and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) (Teleostei: Sparidae). J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2001;48:627-39 pubmed
    ..It is distinguished from all the previously described species by spore morphometrics. Spores with two equal polar capsules and one binucleated sporoplasm. Spore measurements from D. dentex were 5-7...
  66. Mathivanan N, Kabilan V, Murugesan K. Purification, characterization, and antifungal activity of chitinase from Fusarium chlamydosporum, a mycoparasite to groundnut rust, Puccinia arachidis. Can J Microbiol. 1998;44:646-51 pubmed
    ..The results from these experiments indicated that chitinase of F. chlamydosporum plays an important role in the biocontrol of groundnut rust...
  67. Saran S, Meima M, Alvarez Curto E, Weening K, Rozen D, Schaap P. cAMP signaling in Dictyostelium. Complexity of cAMP synthesis, degradation and detection. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2002;23:793-802 pubmed
    ..We also briefly discuss the two modes of detection of cAMP...
  68. Walter M. Efficacy and durability of Bacillus anthracis bacteriophages used against spores. J Environ Health. 2003;66:9-15, 24; quiz 27-8 pubmed
    ..The work reported in this article indicates that bacteriophages may help reduce risk from anthrax spores. Dose-response studies demonstrated that higher concentrations of mixed Bacillus anthracis bacteriophages (3...
  69. Kasprzyk I, Rzepowska B, Wasylów M. Fungal spores in the atmosphere of Rzeszów (South-East Poland). Ann Agric Environ Med. 2004;11:285-9 pubmed
    ..For the analysis, 10 easy to identify fungal spores were chosen from ones regarded as allergenic: Alternaria, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Drechslera (type), Epiccocum, ..
  70. Obermayer R, Leitch I, Hanson L, Bennett M. Nuclear DNA C-values in 30 species double the familial representation in pteridophytes. Ann Bot. 2002;90:209-17 pubmed
    ..7 pg in Psilotum nudum var. gasa. Superimposing C-value data onto a robust phylogeny of pteridophytes suggests some possible trends in C-value evolution and highlights areas for future work...