flurothyl

Summary

Summary: A convulsant primarily used in experimental animals. It was formerly used to induce convulsions as a alternative to electroshock therapy.

Top Publications

  1. Baraban S, Schwartzkroin P. Flurothyl seizure susceptibility in rats following prenatal methylazoxymethanol treatment. Epilepsy Res. 1996;23:189-94 pubmed
    ..the present study, we evaluated (i) whether prenatal exposure to MAMac results in a lowered seizure threshold to flurothyl and (ii) if there is a correlation between the number of ectopic cells in MAMac-exposed hippocampus and ..
  2. Lansky P, Veliskova J, Velisek L. An indirect method for absorption rate estimation: flurothyl-induced seizures. Bull Math Biol. 1997;59:569-79 pubmed
    This paper develops a method to estimate a minimal amount of flurothyl necessary to induce the seizures (the seizure threshold)...
  3. Rho J, Kim D, Robbins C, Anderson G, Schwartzkroin P. Age-dependent differences in flurothyl seizure sensitivity in mice treated with a ketogenic diet. Epilepsy Res. 1999;37:233-40 pubmed
    ..In the present study, the effects of a KGD on flurothyl seizure susceptibility were examined in normal juvenile mice after a dietary duration of 3, 7, or 12 days, and ..
  4. Liptáková S, Velisek L, Veliskova J, Moshe S. Effect of ganaxolone on flurothyl seizures in developing rats. Epilepsia. 2000;41:788-93 pubmed
    ..was administered intraperitoneally in different doses at various time points before flurothyl testing. The incidence and threshold of clonic and tonic-clonic flurothyl seizures were evaluated...
  5. Ferland R, Gross R, Applegate C. Differences in hippocampal mitotic activity within the dorsal and ventral hippocampus following flurothyl seizures in mice. Neurosci Lett. 2002;332:131-5 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the amount of mitotic activity differs between the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and suggests that seizure activity is capable of differentially driving mitotic activity in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus. ..
  6. Papandrea D, Kukol W, Anderson T, Herron B, Ferland R. Analysis of flurothyl-induced myoclonus in inbred strains of mice. Epilepsy Res. 2009;87:130-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Inbred strains of mice were administered eight daily flurothyl exposures, a 28-day rest period, and a final flurothyl retest...
  7. VELISEK L, VELISKOVA J, Giorgi F, Moshe S. Sex-specific control of flurothyl-induced tonic-clonic seizures by the substantia nigra pars reticulata during development. Exp Neurol. 2006;201:203-11 pubmed
    ..role of the SNR in the tonic-clonic seizures induced in male, female and neonatally castrated male rats using flurothyl. In adult female rats, vaginal impedance determined the changes in progesterone/estrogen ratio...
  8. Isaeva E, Isaev D, Khazipov R, Holmes G. Selective impairment of GABAergic synaptic transmission in the flurothyl model of neonatal seizures. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;23:1559-66 pubmed
    ..b>Flurothyl was used to induce multiple recurrent seizures in rat pups during the first postnatal days...
  9. Mhyre T, Applegate C. Persistent regional increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the flurothyl model of epileptogenesis are dependent upon the kindling status of the animal. Neuroscience. 2003;121:1031-45 pubmed
    ..In the flurothyl (HFE) model of kindling mice exposed to successive flurothyl trials over 8 days express a rapid, long-lasting ..
  10. Ferland R, Gross R, Applegate C. Increased mitotic activity in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of adult C57BL/6J mice exposed to the flurothyl kindling model of epileptogenesis. Neuroscience. 2002;115:669-83 pubmed
    Repeated flurothyl-induced generalized forebrain seizures result in a progressive and permanent lowering of the generalized seizure threshold in mice and an increase in the percentage of animals expressing forebrain-brainstem seizures, ..

Detail Information

Publications89

  1. Baraban S, Schwartzkroin P. Flurothyl seizure susceptibility in rats following prenatal methylazoxymethanol treatment. Epilepsy Res. 1996;23:189-94 pubmed
    ..the present study, we evaluated (i) whether prenatal exposure to MAMac results in a lowered seizure threshold to flurothyl and (ii) if there is a correlation between the number of ectopic cells in MAMac-exposed hippocampus and ..
  2. Lansky P, Veliskova J, Velisek L. An indirect method for absorption rate estimation: flurothyl-induced seizures. Bull Math Biol. 1997;59:569-79 pubmed
    This paper develops a method to estimate a minimal amount of flurothyl necessary to induce the seizures (the seizure threshold)...
  3. Rho J, Kim D, Robbins C, Anderson G, Schwartzkroin P. Age-dependent differences in flurothyl seizure sensitivity in mice treated with a ketogenic diet. Epilepsy Res. 1999;37:233-40 pubmed
    ..In the present study, the effects of a KGD on flurothyl seizure susceptibility were examined in normal juvenile mice after a dietary duration of 3, 7, or 12 days, and ..
  4. Liptáková S, Velisek L, Veliskova J, Moshe S. Effect of ganaxolone on flurothyl seizures in developing rats. Epilepsia. 2000;41:788-93 pubmed
    ..was administered intraperitoneally in different doses at various time points before flurothyl testing. The incidence and threshold of clonic and tonic-clonic flurothyl seizures were evaluated...
  5. Ferland R, Gross R, Applegate C. Differences in hippocampal mitotic activity within the dorsal and ventral hippocampus following flurothyl seizures in mice. Neurosci Lett. 2002;332:131-5 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the amount of mitotic activity differs between the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and suggests that seizure activity is capable of differentially driving mitotic activity in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus. ..
  6. Papandrea D, Kukol W, Anderson T, Herron B, Ferland R. Analysis of flurothyl-induced myoclonus in inbred strains of mice. Epilepsy Res. 2009;87:130-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Inbred strains of mice were administered eight daily flurothyl exposures, a 28-day rest period, and a final flurothyl retest...
  7. VELISEK L, VELISKOVA J, Giorgi F, Moshe S. Sex-specific control of flurothyl-induced tonic-clonic seizures by the substantia nigra pars reticulata during development. Exp Neurol. 2006;201:203-11 pubmed
    ..role of the SNR in the tonic-clonic seizures induced in male, female and neonatally castrated male rats using flurothyl. In adult female rats, vaginal impedance determined the changes in progesterone/estrogen ratio...
  8. Isaeva E, Isaev D, Khazipov R, Holmes G. Selective impairment of GABAergic synaptic transmission in the flurothyl model of neonatal seizures. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;23:1559-66 pubmed
    ..b>Flurothyl was used to induce multiple recurrent seizures in rat pups during the first postnatal days...
  9. Mhyre T, Applegate C. Persistent regional increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the flurothyl model of epileptogenesis are dependent upon the kindling status of the animal. Neuroscience. 2003;121:1031-45 pubmed
    ..In the flurothyl (HFE) model of kindling mice exposed to successive flurothyl trials over 8 days express a rapid, long-lasting ..
  10. Ferland R, Gross R, Applegate C. Increased mitotic activity in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of adult C57BL/6J mice exposed to the flurothyl kindling model of epileptogenesis. Neuroscience. 2002;115:669-83 pubmed
    Repeated flurothyl-induced generalized forebrain seizures result in a progressive and permanent lowering of the generalized seizure threshold in mice and an increase in the percentage of animals expressing forebrain-brainstem seizures, ..
  11. Papandrea D, Anderson T, Herron B, Ferland R. Dissociation of seizure traits in inbred strains of mice using the flurothyl kindling model of epileptogenesis. Exp Neurol. 2009;215:60-8 pubmed publisher
    ..study examined, through analysis of inbred strains of mice, whether the seizure characteristics observed in the flurothyl kindling model are under genetic control...
  12. Paez Martinez N, Cruz S, López Rubalcava C. Comparative study of the effects of toluene, benzene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, diethyl ether, and flurothyl on anxiety and nociception in mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2003;193:9-16 pubmed
    ..ppm), benzene (1000-4000 ppm), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCE, 2000-12000 ppm), diethyl ether (10,000-30,000) or flurothyl (200-600 ppm)...
  13. Lin H, Hangya B, Fox S, Muller R. Repetitive convulsant-induced seizures reduce the number but not precision of hippocampal place cells. J Neurosci. 2012;32:4163-78 pubmed publisher
    Repetitive one-per-day seizures induced in otherwise normal rats by the volatile convulsant flurothyl decrease the accuracy of locating a hidden goal without changing the mean location of goal selection...
  14. Ni H, Zhao D, Tian T. Ketogenic diet change cPLA2/clusterin and autophagy related gene expression and correlate with cognitive deficits and hippocampal MFs sprouting following neonatal seizures. Epilepsy Res. 2016;120:13-8 pubmed publisher
    ..On postnatal day 9 (P9), 48 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups: flurothyl-induced recurrent seizures group and control group...
  15. Fu C, Cawthon B, Clinkscales W, Bruce A, Winzenburger P, Ess K. GABAergic interneuron development and function is modulated by the Tsc1 gene. Cereb Cortex. 2012;22:2111-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of these cellular changes are evident in the decreased seizure threshold on exposure to the proconvulsant flurothyl. These findings support an important role for the Tsc1 gene during GABAergic interneuron development, function, ..
  16. Schwechter E, VELISKOVA J, VELISEK L. Correlation between extracellular glucose and seizure susceptibility in adult rats. Ann Neurol. 2003;53:91-101 pubmed
    ..After 2 weeks, blood glucose concentration was measured, and the rats were subjected to flurothyl seizure test...
  17. Silveira D, Schachter S, Schomer D, Holmes G. Flurothyl-induced seizures in rats activate Fos in brainstem catecholaminergic neurons. Epilepsy Res. 2000;39:1-12 pubmed
    ..Adult female rats were sacrificed 2 h after flurothyl-induced seizures...
  18. Ruskin D, Svedova J, Cote J, SANDAU U, Rho J, Kawamura M, et al. Ketogenic diet improves core symptoms of autism in BTBR mice. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e65021 pubmed publisher
    ..experiments, spontaneous intrahippocampal EEGs and tests of seizure susceptibility (6 Hz corneal stimulation, flurothyl, SKF83822, pentylenetetrazole) were compared between BTBR and control (C57Bl/6) mice...
  19. Wenzel H, Patel L, Robbins C, Emmi A, Yeung R, Schwartzkroin P. Morphology of cerebral lesions in the Eker rat model of tuberous sclerosis. Acta Neuropathol. 2004;108:97-108 pubmed
    ..Irradiated Eker rats had a tendency toward lower seizure thresholds (latencies to flurothyl-induced seizures) than seen in non-irradiated Eker rats (significant difference) or irradiated wild-type rats (..
  20. Lamar T, Vanoye C, Calhoun J, Wong J, Dutton S, Jorge B, et al. SCN3A deficiency associated with increased seizure susceptibility. Neurobiol Dis. 2017;102:38-48 pubmed publisher
    ..However, they displayed increased susceptibility to electroconvulsive (6Hz) and chemiconvulsive (flurothyl and kainic acid) induced seizures...
  21. Kadiyala S, Yannix J, Nalwalk J, Papandrea D, Beyer B, Herron B, et al. Eight Flurothyl-Induced Generalized Seizures Lead to the Rapid Evolution of Spontaneous Seizures in Mice: A Model of Epileptogenesis with Seizure Remission. J Neurosci. 2016;36:7485-96 pubmed publisher
    ..a primary generalized seizure model of epilepsy following repeated exposure to the GABAA receptor antagonist, flurothyl, in which mice develop spontaneous seizures that remit within 1 month...
  22. Lucas M, Lenck Santini P, Holmes G, Scott R. Impaired cognition in rats with cortical dysplasia: additional impact of early-life seizures. Brain. 2011;134:1684-93 pubmed publisher
    ..From the day of birth to 9 days of age, half the pups received 50 flurothyl-induced seizures...
  23. Braun J, Schroeder T, Buehner S, Dohmen P, Moshirzadeh M, Grosse J, et al. Splanchnic oxygen transport, hepatic function and gastrointestinal barrier after normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2004;48:697-703 pubmed
    ..Normothermic CPB causes an increase of gastrointestinal permeability. The intestinal barrier function prior to surgery was accountable for the degree of loss of intestinal barrier function following surgery. ..
  24. Simeone T, Matthews S, Samson K, Simeone K. Regulation of brain PPARgamma2 contributes to ketogenic diet anti-seizure efficacy. Exp Neurol. 2017;287:54-64 pubmed publisher
    ..supporting the association of PPAR?2 in mediating KD actions, the KD significantly prolonged the latency to flurothyl-induced seizure in WT mice by ~20-35% (P<0...
  25. Cole T, Robbins C, Wenzel H, Schwartzkroin P, Palmiter R. Seizures and neuronal damage in mice lacking vesicular zinc. Epilepsy Res. 2000;39:153-69 pubmed
    ..antagonist, bicuculline, and no differences in seizure threshold were seen in response to pentylenetetrazol or flurothyl. However, ZnT3-/- mice were much more susceptible than wild-type mice to limbic seizures elicited by kainic acid,..
  26. Zhou J, Shatskikh T, Liu X, Holmes G. Impaired single cell firing and long-term potentiation parallels memory impairment following recurrent seizures. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;25:3667-77 pubmed
    ..LTP and CA1 place-cell activity were examined in separate groups of freely moving rats, before and after 10 flurothyl-induced seizures...
  27. Cilio M, Bolanos A, Liu Z, Schmid R, Yang Y, Stafstrom C, et al. Anticonvulsant action and long-term effects of gabapentin in the immature brain. Neuropharmacology. 2001;40:139-47 pubmed
    ..Effectiveness of GBP on seizure threshold was tested using flurothyl inhalation in 10 separate age groups of animals ranging from the newborn period to adulthood...
  28. Towfighi J, Housman C, Mauger D, Vannucci R. Effect of seizures on cerebral hypoxic-ischemic lesions in immature rats. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1999;113:83-95 pubmed
    ..Seizures were induced chemically by the subcutaneous injection of kainic acid (KA) or inhalation of flurothyl vapor. Three types of experiments were conducted in each age group and for each convulsant...
  29. Makinson C, Dutt K, Lin F, Papale L, Shankar A, Barela A, et al. An Scn1a epilepsy mutation in Scn8a alters seizure susceptibility and behavior. Exp Neurol. 2016;275 Pt 1:46-58 pubmed publisher
    ..that Scn8a(med) and Scn8a(med-jo) mice carrying mutations in the Scn8a gene display increased resistance to flurothyl and kainic acid-induced seizures; however, they also exhibit spontaneous absence seizures...
  30. Wiley J, Fagaldé R, Bühler K, LaVecchia K, Balster R. Evaluation of 1,1,1-trichloroethane and flurothyl locomotor effects following diazepam treatment in mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2002;71:163-9 pubmed
    ..b>Flurothyl, a vapor with convulsive properties, had no pronounced effects on locomotor activity at subconvulsant ..
  31. Krasowski M. Contradicting a unitary theory of general anesthetic action: a history of three compounds from 1901 to 2001. Bull Anesth Hist. 2003;21:1, 4-8, 21 passim pubmed
  32. Veliskova J, Liptáková S, Hussain S. The effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist 2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid microinfusions into the adult male rat substantia nigra pars reticulata are site-specific. Neurosci Lett. 2001;316:108-10 pubmed
    ..of 2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid (AP7) into the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR) in adult male rats on flurothyl-induced clonic seizures. AP7 infusions in the SNR had dose- and region-specific effects...
  33. Schank J, Liles L, Weinshenker D. Reduced anticonvulsant efficacy of valproic acid in dopamine beta-hydroxylase knockout mice. Epilepsy Res. 2005;65:23-31 pubmed
    ..To test this hypothesis, we measured flurothyl-induced seizure susceptibility and severity parameters after both acute and chronic VPA treatments in dopamine ..
  34. Velisek L, Moshe S, Xu S, Cammer W. Reduced susceptibility to seizures in carbonic anhydrase II deficient mutant mice. Epilepsy Res. 1993;14:115-21 pubmed
    ..In flurothyl-induced seizures, CA deficient mice displayed longer latencies to the onset of both clonic and tonic-clonic ..
  35. KAAS G, Zhong C, Eason D, Ross D, Vachhani R, Ming G, et al. TET1 controls CNS 5-methylcytosine hydroxylation, active DNA demethylation, gene transcription, and memory formation. Neuron. 2013;79:1086-93 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we show that neuronal Tet1 regulates DNA methylation levels and that its expression, independent of its catalytic activity, regulates the expression of CNS activity-dependent genes and memory formation. ..
  36. Gernert M, Loscher W. Lack of robust anticonvulsant effects of muscimol microinfusions in the anterior substantia nigra of kindled rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2001;432:35-41 pubmed
    ..Using flurothyl to induce clonic seizures, it was reported that bilateral microinfusions of muscimol into the anterior ..
  37. VELISEK L. Prenatal corticosteroid exposure alters early developmental seizures and behavior. Epilepsy Res. 2011;95:9-19 pubmed publisher
    ..4mg/kg) or vehicle. On postnatal day (P)15, seizures were induced by flurothyl or kainic acid (3.5 or 5.0mg/kg). Horizontal bar holding was determined prior to seizures and again on P17...
  38. Slamberova R. Flurothyl seizures susceptibility is increased in prenatally methamphetamine-exposed adult male and female rats. Epilepsy Res. 2005;65:121-4 pubmed
    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure on flurothyl seizures. Adult prenatally MA-exposed male rats had decreased threshold of the first fasciculation and clonic seizure...
  39. Bo T, Jiang Y, Cao H, Wang J, Wu X. Long-term effects of seizures in neonatal rats on spatial learning ability and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor expression in the brain. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2004;152:137-42 pubmed
    ..and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor expression in adult rat brain, a seizure was induced by inhalant flurothyl daily in neonatal Wistar rats from postnatal day 6 (P6)...
  40. Mares J, Pometlova M, Deykun K, Krýsl D, Rokyta R. An isolated epileptic seizure elicits learning impairment which could be prevented by melatonin. Epilepsy Behav. 2012;23:199-204 pubmed publisher
    We tested the relation between a single short tonic-clonic seizure elicited by flurothyl vapors and changes of learning in Morris water maze (MWM) in Wistar rats. Oxidative stress usually accompanies seizures...
  41. Veliskova J, Loscher W, Moshe S. Regional and age specific effects of zolpidem microinfusions in the substantia nigra on seizures. Epilepsy Res. 1998;30:107-14 pubmed
    ..site) microinfusions in the anterior or in the posterior SNR (SNRanterior or SNRposterior, respectively) on flurothyl-induced clonic and tonic-clonic seizures...
  42. Karnam H, Zhou J, Huang L, Zhao Q, Shatskikh T, Holmes G. Early life seizures cause long-standing impairment of the hippocampal map. Exp Neurol. 2009;217:378-87 pubmed publisher
    ..recorded the activity of place cells from hippocampal subfield CA1 in freely moving rats subjected to 100 brief flurothyl-induced seizures during the first weeks of life and then tested them in the Morris water maze and radial-arm ..
  43. Lado F, VELISEK L, Moshe S. The effect of electrical stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on seizures is frequency dependent. Epilepsia. 2003;44:157-64 pubmed
    ..the effects of three stimulation frequencies, 130 Hz, 260 Hz, and 800 Hz, on generalized clonic and tonic-clonic flurothyl seizures. Adult male rats were implanted with concentric bipolar stimulating electrodes in the STN bilaterally...
  44. Gerstin K, Gong D, Abdallah M, Winegar B, Eger E, Gray A. Mutation of KCNK5 or Kir3.2 potassium channels in mice does not change minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration. Anesth Analg. 2003;96:1345-9, table of contents pubmed
    ..the weaver mice did not differ from control mice in their susceptibility to convulsions from the nonimmobilizers flurothyl [di-(2,2,2,-trifluoroethyl)ether] or 2N (1,2-dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane)...
  45. Ahern T, Javors M, Eagles D, Martillotti J, Mitchell H, Liles L, et al. The effects of chronic norepinephrine transporter inactivation on seizure susceptibility in mice. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006;31:730-8 pubmed
    ..the effects of chronic administration (via osmotic minipump) of the selective NET inhibitor reboxetine on flurothyl-induced seizures in mice...
  46. Minlebaev M, Khazipov R. Antiepileptic effects of endogenous beta-hydroxybutyrate in suckling infant rats. Epilepsy Res. 2011;95:100-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Seizures were induced by the volatile convulsant agent flurothyl. One hour after blockade of physiological ketogenesis using combined administration of beta-oxidation inhibitors ..
  47. Weinshenker D, Szot P, Miller N, Rust N, Hohmann J, Pyati U, et al. Genetic comparison of seizure control by norepinephrine and neuropeptide Y. J Neurosci. 2001;21:7764-9 pubmed
    ..were only slightly more sensitive than DBH KO mice to seizures induced by kainic acid, pentylenetetrazole, or flurothyl, although DKO mice were uniquely prone to handling-induced seizures...
  48. Szot P, Weinshenker D, White S, Robbins C, Rust N, Schwartzkroin P, et al. Norepinephrine-deficient mice have increased susceptibility to seizure-inducing stimuli. J Neurosci. 1999;19:10985-92 pubmed
    ..beta-hydroxylase null mutant (Dbh -/-) mouse using four different convulsant stimuli: 2,2,2-trifluroethyl ether (flurothyl), pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), kainic acid, and high-decibel sound...
  49. VELISKOVA J, Miller A, Nunes M, Brown L. Regional neural activity within the substantia nigra during peri-ictal flurothyl generalized seizure stages. Neurobiol Dis. 2005;20:752-9 pubmed
    ..In rats, we used flurothyl to induce generalized seizures over a controlled time period and 2-deoxyglucose autoradiography mapping ..
  50. Tabb K, Boss Williams K, Weiss J, Weinshenker D. Rats bred for susceptibility to depression-like phenotypes have higher kainic acid-induced seizure mortality than their depression-resistant counterparts. Epilepsy Res. 2007;74:140-6 pubmed
    ..In contrast, most line differences were not recapitulated when flurothyl was used to elicit seizures...
  51. Szot P, White S, Shen D, Anderson G. Valproic acid, but not lamotrigine, suppresses seizure-induced c-fos and c-Jun mRNA expression. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2005;135:285-9 pubmed
    ..The consequence of this suppression of IEGs following a generalized seizure may be viewed either as a neuroprotective or detrimental effect upon the brain. ..
  52. Kim D, Jang T. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression and effect of celecoxib in flurothyl-induced neonatal seizure. Int J Exp Pathol. 2006;87:73-8 pubmed
    ..of COX-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES) by Western blot analysis and immnohistochemistry in flurothyl-induced neonatal seizure and also studied the effect of celecoxib on seizure induction...
  53. Zhou J, Lenck Santini P, Zhao Q, Holmes G. Effect of interictal spikes on single-cell firing patterns in the hippocampus. Epilepsia. 2007;48:720-31 pubmed
    ..We studied IS in two seizure models; pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and recurrent flurothyl models...
  54. Ni H, Feng X, Xiao Z, Tao L, Jin M. Dynamic pattern of gene expression of ZnT-4, caspase-3, LC3, and PRG-3 in rat cerebral cortex following flurothyl-induced recurrent neonatal seizures. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2011;143:1607-15 pubmed publisher
    ..A seizure was induced by inhalant flurothyl daily in neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats from postnatal day 6 (P6)...
  55. Huang L, Yang S, Liou C, Hung P, Lai M, Wang C, et al. Pentylenetetrazol-induced recurrent seizures in rat pups: time course on spatial learning and long-term effects. Epilepsia. 2002;43:567-73 pubmed
    ..Seizure threshold was examined by inhalant flurothyl. To assess presence or absence of spontaneous seizures, rats were video recorded for 4 h/day for 10 consecutive ..
  56. VELISEK L, VELISKOVA J, Moshe S. Electrical stimulation of substantia nigra pars reticulata is anticonvulsant in adult and young male rats. Exp Neurol. 2002;173:145-52 pubmed
    ..The rats were stimulated with continuous constant current pulses (130 Hz) and simultaneously challenged with flurothyl to induce seizures. Control rats had the electrodes implanted but were not stimulated...
  57. Rubio C, Rubio Osornio M, Retana Marquez S, Verónica Custodio M, Paz C. In vivo experimental models of epilepsy. Cent Nerv Syst Agents Med Chem. 2010;10:298-309 pubmed
    ..Notwithstanding, these experimental models of epilepsy have allowed a partial understanding of most of the underlying mechanisms of this disease. ..
  58. Khan O, Zhao Q, Miller F, Holmes G. Interictal spikes in developing rats cause long-standing cognitive deficits. Neurobiol Dis. 2010;39:362-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Rat pups were given a low dose of flurothyl for 4h for 10 days during continuous electroencephalographic monitoring...
  59. Oommen J, Kraus A, Fisher R. Intraventricular administration of gabapentin in the rat increases flurothyl seizure threshold. Neurosci Lett. 2007;417:308-11 pubmed
    We investigated efficacy of prolonged intraventricular gabapentin (GBP) infusion in the rat flurothyl epilepsy model. Sprague-Dawley rats, under anesthesia, were implanted with bilateral Alzet model 2001 osmotic pumps...
  60. Tian T, Li L, Zhang S, Ni H. Long-Term Effects of Ketogenic Diet on Subsequent Seizure-Induced Brain Injury During Early Adulthood: Relationship of Seizure Thresholds to Zinc Transporter-Related Gene Expressions. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2016;174:369-376 pubmed
    ..We have previously shown upregulated expression of ZnT-3; MT-3 in hippocampus of neonatal rats submitted to flurothyl-induced recurrent seizures, which was restored by pretreatment with ketogenic diet (KD)...
  61. Ni H, Jiang Y, Xiao Z, Tao L, Jin M, Wu X. Dynamic pattern of gene expression of ZnT-1, ZnT-3 and PRG-1 in rat brain following flurothyl-induced recurrent neonatal seizures. Toxicol Lett. 2010;194:86-93 pubmed publisher
    ..A seizure was induced by inhalant flurothyl daily in neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats from postnatal day 6 (P6)...
  62. Woolley C. Estradiol facilitates kainic acid-induced, but not flurothyl-induced, behavioral seizure activity in adult female rats. Epilepsia. 2000;41:510-5 pubmed
    ..induced by estradiol are paralleled by increased susceptibility to limbic (kainic acid induced) or generalized (flurothyl induced) behavioral seizures...
  63. Velisek L, Veliskova J, Etgen A, Stanton P, Moshe S. Region-specific modulation of limbic seizure susceptibility by ovarian steroids. Brain Res. 1999;842:132-8 pubmed
    ..used to evaluate the effects of ovarian steroids on epileptiform activity in hippocampal slices in vitro and on flurothyl-induced seizures in vivo...
  64. Nunes M, Liptáková S, Veliskova J, Sperber E, Moshe S. Malnutrition increases dentate granule cell proliferation in immature rats after status epilepticus. Epilepsia. 2000;41 Suppl 6:S48-52 pubmed
    ..was designed to determine whether neonatally malnourished rats are different from nourished rats in terms of flurothyl seizure susceptibility at postnatal day (P)15, in the behavioral manifestations of seizures, and in status ..
  65. Szot P, Weinshenker D, Rho J, Storey T, Schwartzkroin P. Norepinephrine is required for the anticonvulsant effect of the ketogenic diet. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2001;129:211-4 pubmed
    ..When exposed to the convulsant flurothyl, Dbh +/- mice fed the KD had significantly longer latencies to myoclonic jerk (MJ) and generalized clonic-tonic (..
  66. Eger E, Gong D, Xing Y, Raines D, Flood P. Acetylcholine receptors and thresholds for convulsions from flurothyl and 1,2-dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane. Anesth Analg. 2002;95:1611-5, table of contents pubmed
    ..The nonimmobilizer flurothyl [di-(2,2,2,-trifluoroethyl)ether] blocks the action of gamma-aminobutyric acid on gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) ..
  67. Araki H, Kobayashi Y, Hashimoto Y, Futagami K, Kawasaki H, Gomita Y. Characteristics of flurothyl-induced seizures and the effect of antiepileptic drugs on flurothyl-induced seizures in Mongolian gerbils. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2002;74:141-7 pubmed
    We investigated the characteristics of the flurothyl-induced seizures and the effects of antiepileptic drugs on the flurothyl-induced seizure model in a previously untested Mongolian gerbil species...
  68. Hashimoto Y, Araki H, Futagami K, Kawasaki H, Gomita Y. Effects of valproate, phenytoin, and zonisamide on clonic and tonic seizures induced by acute and repeated exposure of mice to flurothyl. Physiol Behav. 2003;78:465-9 pubmed
    The effects of valproate (VPA), zonisamide (ZNS), and phenytoin (PHT) on flurothyl (FE)-induced generalized seizure were investigated in mice...
  69. McDonald T, Borges K. Impaired hippocampal glucose metabolism during and after flurothyl-induced seizures in mice: Reduced phosphorylation coincides with reduced activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase. Epilepsia. 2017;58:1172-1180 pubmed publisher
    ..in glucose metabolism and the enzymes involved in the hippocampus ictally and postictally in the acute mouse flurothyl seizure model. [U-13 C]-Glucose was injected (i.p...
  70. Ni H, Jiang Y, Tao L, Jin M, Wu X. ZnT-1, ZnT-3, CaMK II, PRG-1 expressions in hippocampus following neonatal seizure-induced cognitive deficit in rats. Toxicol Lett. 2009;184:145-50 pubmed publisher
    ..A seizure was induced by inhalant flurothyl daily in neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats from postnatal day 6 (P6)...
  71. Hoffmann A, Zhao Q, Holmes G. Cognitive impairment following status epilepticus and recurrent seizures during early development: support for the "two-hit hypothesis". Epilepsy Behav. 2004;5:873-7 pubmed
    ..In this study, immature rats were exposed to status epilepticus (SE) followed by a series of 25 flurothyl-induced seizures, SE alone, 25 flurothyl-induced seizures alone, or no seizures...
  72. Golub M, Kornetsky C. Effects of testing age and fostering experience on seizure susceptibility of rats treated prenatally with chlorpromazine. Dev Psychobiol. 1975;8:519-24 pubmed
    ..A striking effect of the fostering experience itself on the seizure threshold prevented conclusions about the relative importance of prenatal and postnatal influences. ..
  73. Hemb M, Cammarota M, Nunes M. Effects of early malnutrition, isolation and seizures on memory and spatial learning in the developing rat. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2010;28:303-7 pubmed publisher
    ..URS and NRS groups suffered three daily Flurothyl-induced seizures from P2 to P4. The USE and NSE groups suffered a status epilepticus (SE) on P15...
  74. Bo T, Chen Y, Mao D, Zhu X, Li Y. [Long-term effects of recurrent seizures in neonate period on gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor alpha1 and beta2 subunits expression in adult brain: experiment with rats]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2007;87:275-8 pubmed
    ..Thirty-two 7-day-old SD rats were randomly divided into 2 equal groups: seizure group, inhaling flurothyl to induce seizure daily for 6 days, and control group...
  75. Ferland R, Williams J, Gross R, Applegate C. The effects of brain-irradiation-induced decreases in hippocampal mitotic activity on flurothyl-induced epileptogenesis in adult C57BL/6J mice. Exp Neurol. 2003;179:71-82 pubmed
    ..the effect of alterations in hippocampal mitotic activity on changes in seizure threshold and phenotype using flurothyl kindling...
  76. Reddy D, Kuruba R. Experimental models of status epilepticus and neuronal injury for evaluation of therapeutic interventions. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14:18284-318 pubmed publisher
    ..Pharmacological models include kainic acid, pilocarpine, flurothyl, organophosphates and other convulsants that induce SE in rodents...
  77. Isaeva E, Isaev D, Khazipov R, Holmes G. Long-term suppression of GABAergic activity by neonatal seizures in rat somatosensory cortex. Epilepsy Res. 2009;87:286-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that recurrent flurothyl-induced seizures result in a marked reduction in amplitude of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (..
  78. Applegate C, Tecott L. Global increases in seizure susceptibility in mice lacking 5-HT2C receptors: a behavioral analysis. Exp Neurol. 1998;154:522-30 pubmed
    ..kindled from the olfactory bulb, exposed to corneal electroshock, or tested with the chemoconvulsant, flurothyl. In all paradigms, mice lacking the 5-HT2C receptor were significantly more seizure susceptible than wild-type ..
  79. Velisek L, Veliskova J, Moshe S. Site-specific effects of local pH changes in the substantia nigra pars reticulata on flurothyl-induced seizures. Brain Res. 1998;782:310-3 pubmed
    ..Two levels of pH were compared: 6.7 and 7.4. Rats were challenged with flurothyl and the threshold for clonic and tonic-clonic seizures was determined...