synephrine

Summary

Summary: Sympathetic alpha-adrenergic agonist with actions like PHENYLEPHRINE. It is used as a vasoconstrictor in circulatory failure, asthma, nasal congestion, and glaucoma.

Top Publications

  1. Tang F, Tao L, Luo X, Ding L, Guo M, Nie L, et al. Determination of octopamine, synephrine and tyramine in Citrus herbs by ionic liquid improved 'green' chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2006;1125:182-8 pubmed
    ..solutions of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) were used as 'green' mobile phases to determine octopamine, synephrine and tyramine by liquid chromatography...
  2. Pellati F, Benvenuti S, Melegari M. High-performance liquid chromatography methods for the analysis of adrenergic amines and flavanones in Citrus aurantium L. var. amara. Phytochem Anal. 2004;15:220-5 pubmed
    ..was used for the simultaneous separation and determination of naturally occurring adrenergic amines (octopamine, synephrine and tyramine) in fruits and dry extracts of Citrus aurantium L. var...
  3. Brown C, McGrath J, Midgley J, Muir A, O Brien J, Thonoor C, et al. Activities of octopamine and synephrine stereoisomers on alpha-adrenoceptors. Br J Pharmacol. 1988;93:417-29 pubmed
    1. The activities of the (-)- and (+)-forms of m- and p-octopamine and m- and p-synephrine on alpha 1-adrenoceptors from rat aorta and anococcygeus and alpha 2-adrenoceptors from rabbit saphenous vein were compared with those of ..
  4. Song D, Suh H, Jung J, Wie M, Son K, Kim Y. Antidepressant-like effects of p-synephrine in mouse models of immobility tests. Neurosci Lett. 1996;214:107-10 pubmed
    We studied the effects of p-synephrine on the immobility behaviors and on the spontaneous motor activity in mice...
  5. Rossato L, de Pinho P, Silva R, Carmo H, Carvalho F, Bastos M, et al. Development and validation of a GC/IT-MS method for simultaneous quantitation of para and meta-synephrine in biological samples. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2010;52:721-6 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Synephrine, the most abundant active component of C...
  6. Stephensen T, Sarlay R. Ventricular fibrillation associated with use of synephrine containing dietary supplement. Mil Med. 2009;174:1313-9 pubmed
    ..experienced an episode of ventricular fibrillation associated with the use of a dietary supplement containing synephrine. Recommendations for both physicians and the military regarding monitoring the use of these substances by active ..
  7. Nelson B, Putzbach K, Sharpless K, Sander L. Mass spectrometric determination of the predominant adrenergic protoalkaloids in bitter orange (Citrus aurantium). J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:9769-75 pubmed
    The predominant adrenergic protoalkaloid found in the peel and fruit of bitter orange, Citrus aurantium, is synephrine. Synephrine is reputed to have thermogenic properties and is used as a dietary supplement to enhance energy and promote ..
  8. Sale C, Harris R, Delves S, Corbett J. Metabolic and physiological effects of ingesting extracts of bitter orange, green tea and guarana at rest and during treadmill walking in overweight males. Int J Obes (Lond). 2006;30:764-73 pubmed
  9. Ishiuchi S, Asakawa T, Mitsuda H, Miyazaki M, Chakraborty S, Fujii M. Gas-phase spectroscopy of synephrine by laser desorption supersonic jet technique. J Phys Chem A. 2011;115:10363-9 pubmed publisher
    In our previous work, we found that synephrine has six conformers in the gas phase, while adrenaline, which is a catecholamine and has the same side chain as synephrine, has been reported to have only two conformers...
  10. Seifert J, Nelson A, Devonish J, Burke E, Stohs S. Effect of acute administration of an herbal preparation on blood pressure and heart rate in humans. Int J Med Sci. 2011;8:192-7 pubmed
    ..The primary protoalkaloidal ingredient in bitter orange extract is p-synephrine which has some structural similarities to ephedrine and nor-epinephrine, but exhibits markedly different ..

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Tang F, Tao L, Luo X, Ding L, Guo M, Nie L, et al. Determination of octopamine, synephrine and tyramine in Citrus herbs by ionic liquid improved 'green' chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2006;1125:182-8 pubmed
    ..solutions of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) were used as 'green' mobile phases to determine octopamine, synephrine and tyramine by liquid chromatography...
  2. Pellati F, Benvenuti S, Melegari M. High-performance liquid chromatography methods for the analysis of adrenergic amines and flavanones in Citrus aurantium L. var. amara. Phytochem Anal. 2004;15:220-5 pubmed
    ..was used for the simultaneous separation and determination of naturally occurring adrenergic amines (octopamine, synephrine and tyramine) in fruits and dry extracts of Citrus aurantium L. var...
  3. Brown C, McGrath J, Midgley J, Muir A, O Brien J, Thonoor C, et al. Activities of octopamine and synephrine stereoisomers on alpha-adrenoceptors. Br J Pharmacol. 1988;93:417-29 pubmed
    1. The activities of the (-)- and (+)-forms of m- and p-octopamine and m- and p-synephrine on alpha 1-adrenoceptors from rat aorta and anococcygeus and alpha 2-adrenoceptors from rabbit saphenous vein were compared with those of ..
  4. Song D, Suh H, Jung J, Wie M, Son K, Kim Y. Antidepressant-like effects of p-synephrine in mouse models of immobility tests. Neurosci Lett. 1996;214:107-10 pubmed
    We studied the effects of p-synephrine on the immobility behaviors and on the spontaneous motor activity in mice...
  5. Rossato L, de Pinho P, Silva R, Carmo H, Carvalho F, Bastos M, et al. Development and validation of a GC/IT-MS method for simultaneous quantitation of para and meta-synephrine in biological samples. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2010;52:721-6 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Synephrine, the most abundant active component of C...
  6. Stephensen T, Sarlay R. Ventricular fibrillation associated with use of synephrine containing dietary supplement. Mil Med. 2009;174:1313-9 pubmed
    ..experienced an episode of ventricular fibrillation associated with the use of a dietary supplement containing synephrine. Recommendations for both physicians and the military regarding monitoring the use of these substances by active ..
  7. Nelson B, Putzbach K, Sharpless K, Sander L. Mass spectrometric determination of the predominant adrenergic protoalkaloids in bitter orange (Citrus aurantium). J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:9769-75 pubmed
    The predominant adrenergic protoalkaloid found in the peel and fruit of bitter orange, Citrus aurantium, is synephrine. Synephrine is reputed to have thermogenic properties and is used as a dietary supplement to enhance energy and promote ..
  8. Sale C, Harris R, Delves S, Corbett J. Metabolic and physiological effects of ingesting extracts of bitter orange, green tea and guarana at rest and during treadmill walking in overweight males. Int J Obes (Lond). 2006;30:764-73 pubmed
  9. Ishiuchi S, Asakawa T, Mitsuda H, Miyazaki M, Chakraborty S, Fujii M. Gas-phase spectroscopy of synephrine by laser desorption supersonic jet technique. J Phys Chem A. 2011;115:10363-9 pubmed publisher
    In our previous work, we found that synephrine has six conformers in the gas phase, while adrenaline, which is a catecholamine and has the same side chain as synephrine, has been reported to have only two conformers...
  10. Seifert J, Nelson A, Devonish J, Burke E, Stohs S. Effect of acute administration of an herbal preparation on blood pressure and heart rate in humans. Int J Med Sci. 2011;8:192-7 pubmed
    ..The primary protoalkaloidal ingredient in bitter orange extract is p-synephrine which has some structural similarities to ephedrine and nor-epinephrine, but exhibits markedly different ..
  11. Dragull K, Breksa A, Cain B. Synephrine content of juice from Satsuma mandarins (Citrus unshiu Marcovitch). J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:8874-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Synephrine, the main protoalkaloid in Citrus species, is commonly analyzed as the active component in citrus peel-containing herbal supplements, but the edible parts of mandarins have been largely ignored...
  12. Smedema J, Muller G. Coronary spasm and thrombosis in a bodybuilder using a nutritional supplement containing synephrine, octopamine, tyramine and caffeine. S Afr Med J. 2008;98:372-3 pubmed
  13. Tsujita T, Takaku T. Lipolysis induced by segment wall extract from Satsuma mandarin orange (Citrus unshu Mark). J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2007;53:547-51 pubmed
    ..High concentration of synephrine, which is an adrenergic amine, was detected in the peel or segment wall extract, whereas it was not detected in ..
  14. Huang Y, Lin H, Chang Y, Yang Y, Lee S, Hong C. Hemodynamic effects of synephrine treatment in portal hypertensive rats. Jpn J Pharmacol. 2001;85:183-8 pubmed
    b>Synephrine, a sympathomimetic alpha1-adrenoceptor agonist, has been shown to induce dose-dependent portal hypotensive effects after acute intravenous infusion...
  15. Penzak S, Jann M, Cold J, Hon Y, Desai H, Gurley B. Seville (sour) orange juice: synephrine content and cardiovascular effects in normotensive adults. J Clin Pharmacol. 2001;41:1059-63 pubmed
    The Seville orange extract Citrus aurantium contains m-synephrine (phenylephrine) and octopamine; it causes cardiac disturbances in animals and is used by humans for weight loss...
  16. Pellati F, Benvenuti S, Melegari M, Firenzuoli F. Determination of adrenergic agonists from extracts and herbal products of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara by LC. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2002;29:1113-9 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to set up a HPLC method to separate adrenergic amines (dl-octopamine, dl-synephrine and tyramine) and to determine their content in fruits, extracts and herbal products of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara...
  17. Stohs S, Preuss H, Shara M. A review of the human clinical studies involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine. Int J Med Sci. 2012;9:527-38 pubmed
    ..as unpublished human studies involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine, providing information and an assessment of the safety and efficacy of these widely used products...
  18. Haller C, Duan M, Jacob P, Benowitz N. Human pharmacology of a performance-enhancing dietary supplement under resting and exercise conditions. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2008;65:833-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of exercise on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of stimulant herbals is unknown...
  19. Bent S, Padula A, Neuhaus J. Safety and efficacy of citrus aurantium for weight loss. Am J Cardiol. 2004;94:1359-61 pubmed
  20. Haaz S, Fontaine K, Cutter G, Limdi N, Perumean Chaney S, Allison D. Citrus aurantium and synephrine alkaloids in the treatment of overweight and obesity: an update. Obes Rev. 2006;7:79-88 pubmed
    ..Another substance, Citrus aurantium, which contains several compounds including synephrine alkaloids, has been suggested as a safe alternative...
  21. Hansen D, Juliar B, White G, Pellicore L. Developmental toxicity of Citrus aurantium in rats. Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2011;92:216-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The major component in the bitter orange extract is synephrine which is chemically similar to ephedrine...
  22. Thomas J, Munir J, McIntyre P, Ferguson M. STEMI in a 24-year-old man after use of a synephrine-containing dietary supplement: a case report and review of the literature. Tex Heart Inst J. 2009;36:586-90 pubmed
    ..This case of STEMI--associated as it is with the use of a synephrine-containing product by a person without risk factors for coronary artery disease--is to our knowledge the 1st ..
  23. Ma G, Bavadekar S, Schaneberg B, Khan I, Feller D. Effects of synephrine and beta-phenethylamine on human alpha-adrenoceptor subtypes. Planta Med. 2010;76:981-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Synephrine and beta-phenethylamine, two naturally occurring compounds, are structurally related to ephedrine...
  24. Bouchard N, Howland M, Greller H, Hoffman R, Nelson L. Ischemic stroke associated with use of an ephedra-free dietary supplement containing synephrine. Mayo Clin Proc. 2005;80:541-5 pubmed
    ..Many of these contain synephrine, a sympathomimetic amine from the plant Citrus aurantium...
  25. Arbo M, Schmitt G, Limberger M, Charão M, Moro A, Ribeiro G, et al. Subchronic toxicity of Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae) extract and p-synephrine in mice. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2009;54:114-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to the wide use of C. aurantium/p-synephrine-containing products, this research was undertaken to evaluate its subchronic toxicity in mice and their actions ..
  26. Hibino T, Yuzurihara M, Kase Y, Takeda A. synephrine, a component of Evodiae Fructus, constricts isolated rat aorta via adrenergic and serotonergic receptors. J Pharmacol Sci. 2009;111:73-81 pubmed
    We investigated the effects of Evodiae Fructus and synephrine, one of the components of Evodiae Fructus, on blood vessels. We found that Evodiae Fructus (1 x 10(-6) - 3 x 10(-4) g/mL) had constrictive effects on rat aorta...
  27. Slezak T, Francis P, Anastos N, Barnett N. Determination of synephrine in weight-loss products using high performance liquid chromatography with acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence detection. Anal Chim Acta. 2007;593:98-102 pubmed
    ..for these reactions was 680+/-5 nm and, using flow injection analysis methodology, limits of detection for synephrine, octopamine, tyramine and hordenine were found to be between 1x10(-9) and 1x10(-8) M...
  28. Peixoto J, Comar J, Moreira C, Soares A, de Oliveira A, Bracht A, et al. Effects of Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) fruit extracts and p-synephrine on metabolic fluxes in the rat liver. Molecules. 2012;17:5854-69 pubmed publisher
    ..An important fruit component is p-synephrine, which is structurally similar to the adrenergic agents...
  29. Pellati F, Benvenuti S, Melegari M. Enantioselective LC analysis of synephrine in natural products on a protein-based chiral stationary phase. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2005;37:839-49 pubmed
    ..LC method with photodiode array detection (PAD) was developed for the enantioseparation of (+/-)-synephrine from C. aurantium L. var...
  30. Rossato L, Costa V, Limberger R, Bastos M, Remião F. Synephrine: from trace concentrations to massive consumption in weight-loss. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49:8-16 pubmed publisher
    b>Synephrine is cited as 'the active component' of plants and dietary supplements used in weight loss...
  31. Mattoli L, Cangi F, Maidecchi A, Ghiara C, Tubaro M, Traldi P. A rapid liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry(n) method for evaluation of synephrine in Citrus aurantium L. samples. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:9860-6 pubmed
    ..the safety of the immature bitter orange fruit and its extracts is a debated argument due to the presence of synephrine, a constituent known as a sympathomimetic agent...
  32. Stohs S, Preuss H, Keith S, Keith P, Miller H, Kaats G. Effects of p-synephrine alone and in combination with selected bioflavonoids on resting metabolism, blood pressure, heart rate and self-reported mood changes. Int J Med Sci. 2011;8:295-301 pubmed
    ..Its primary protoalkaloid is p-synephrine. Most studies involving bitter orange extract and p-synephrine have used products with multiple ingredients...
  33. Mercader J, Wanecq E, Chen J, Carpene C. Isopropylnorsynephrine is a stronger lipolytic agent in human adipocytes than synephrine and other amines present in Citrus aurantium. J Physiol Biochem. 2011;67:443-52 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Synephrine, octopamine, tyramine, and other alkaloids have been repeatedly identified and quantified in Citrus members of ..
  34. Arbo M, Larentis E, Linck V, Aboy A, Pimentel A, Henriques A, et al. Concentrations of p-synephrine in fruits and leaves of Citrus species (Rutaceae) and the acute toxicity testing of Citrus aurantium extract and p-synephrine. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:2770-5 pubmed publisher
    Dietary supplements containing bitter orange unripe fruit extract/p-synephrine are consumed worldwide for lose weight...
  35. Fugh Berman A, Myers A. Citrus aurantium, an ingredient of dietary supplements marketed for weight loss: current status of clinical and basic research. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2004;229:698-704 pubmed
    ..aurantium may also have the potential to cause adverse health effects. C. aurantium contains synephrine (oxedrine), which is structurally similar to epinephrine...
  36. Chen G, Zhang L, Zhao J, Ye J. Determination of hesperidin and synephrine in Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2002;373:169-73 pubmed
    ..with electrochemical detection (CE-ED) has been developed for the determination of hesperidin (HP) and synephrine (SP) in the Chinese traditional herbal drug, Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae, the dried rind of the ripe fruits of ..
  37. Wüst S, Tischner D, John M, Tuckermann J, Menzfeld C, Hanisch U, et al. Therapeutic and adverse effects of a non-steroidal glucocorticoid receptor ligand in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8202 pubmed publisher
  38. Shi Q, Liu Z, Yang Y, Geng P, Zhu Y, Zhang Q, et al. Identification of anti-asthmatic compounds in Pericarpium citri reticulatae and evaluation of their synergistic effects. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2009;30:567-75 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the anti-asthmatic mechanisms of the traditional Chinese medicine Pericarpium citri reticulatae (PCR)...
  39. Arbo M, Franco M, Larentis E, Garcia S, Sebben V, Leal M, et al. Screening for in vivo (anti)estrogenic activity of ephedrine and p-synephrine and their natural sources Ephedra sinica Stapf. (Ephedraceae) and Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae) in rats. Arch Toxicol. 2009;83:95-9 pubmed publisher
    ..sinica 85.5 and 855.0 mg/kg/day, C. aurantium 25.0 and 50.0 mg/kg/day, ephedrine 5.0 mg/kg/day and p-synephrine 50.0 mg/kg/day for three consecutive days by oral gavage. For detection of antiestrogenicity, tamoxifen 20...
  40. Liu Y, Cao J, Zheng Y, Chen Y. Sensitive determination of norepinephrine, synephrine, and isoproterenol by capillary electrophoresis with indirect electrochemiluminescence detection. J Sep Sci. 2008;31:2463-9 pubmed publisher
    A new and sensitive method for the determination of norepinephrine (NE), synephrine, and isoproterenol was developed by CE separation and indirect electrochemiluminescence detection (ECL) based on their quenching effects on the tris(2,2'-..
  41. Orhan I, Naz Q, Kartal M, Tosun F, Sener B, Choudhary M. In vitro anticholinesterase activity of various alkaloids. Z Naturforsch C. 2007;62:684-8 pubmed
    ..colchicine (tropolone-type), allantoin (imidazolidine-type), trigonelline (pyridine-type) as well as octopamine, synephrine, and capsaicin (exocyclic amine-type) were tested in vitro for their inhibitory activity against ..
  42. Peng Z, Yi F, Guo B, Lin J. Temperature effects on the enantioselectivity of basic analytes in capillary EKC using sulfated beta-CDs as chiral selectors. Electrophoresis. 2007;28:3753-8 pubmed
    ..The temperature effects on enantioselectivities of basic analytes (ephedrine, norephedrine, synephrine, and epinephrine) were investigated in detail over a temperature range of 20-60 degrees C...
  43. Ko H, Wang Y, Liou K, Chen C, Chen C, Wang W, et al. Anti-inflammatory effects and mechanisms of the ethanol extract of Evodia rutaecarpa and its bioactive components on neutrophils and microglial cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007;555:211-7 pubmed
    ..previously identified four bioactive compounds (dehydroevodiamine (I), evodiamine (II), rutaecarpine (III), and synephrine (IV)) from the ethanol extract of E. rutaecarpa, but their effects and mechanism(s) of action remain unclear...
  44. Liu Z, Song Z, Zhang L, Li L, Wang Y. [Determination of three chemical components in Fructus aurantii immaturus]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006;31:1425-7 pubmed
    ..To determine the contents of 3 kinds of components in Fructus aurantii immaturus...
  45. D Andrea G, Terrazzino S, Fortin D, Cocco P, Balbi T, Leon A. Elusive amines and primary headaches: historical background and prospectives. Neurol Sci. 2003;24 Suppl 2:S65-7 pubmed
    Although the role of trace amines such as tyramine, octopamine and synephrine in the pathogenesis of migraine has been debated for decades, this issue remains still unresolved...
  46. Louw V, Louw H. Citrus aurantium--beware of the bitter orange. S Afr Med J. 2008;98:496 pubmed
  47. Huang S, Hu S, Shi J, Yang Y. [Studies on chemical constituents from the flower of Citrus aurantium]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2001;24:865-7 pubmed
  48. Kim K, Kim H, Jung J, Woo R, Kim H, Suh H, et al. Characterization of antidepressant-like effects of p-synephrine stereoisomers. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2001;364:21-6 pubmed
    We previously reported that p-synephrine has antidepressant-like activity in the murine models of forced swimming and tail suspension...
  49. Wang W, Xu X, Bin Q, Ling J, Chen G. A new method for fabrication of an integrated indium tin oxide electrode on electrophoresis microchips with amperometric detection and its application for determination of synephrine and hesperidin in pericarpium citri reticulatae. Electrophoresis. 2006;27:4174-81 pubmed
    ..On this microchip, a new method was established to separate and determine synephrine and hesperidin, which are the main electroactively bioactive ingredients of pericarpium citri reticulatae, by AD...
  50. Marcus D, Grollman A. Ephedra-free is not danger-free. Science. 2003;301:1669-71; author reply 1669-71 pubmed
  51. Hansen D, George N, White G, Pellicore L, Abdel Rahman A, Fabricant D. Physiological effects following administration of Citrus aurantium for 28 days in rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2012;261:236-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Bitter orange contains, among other compounds, synephrine, a chemical that is chemically similar to ephedrine...
  52. Jordan S, Murty M, Pilon K. Products containing bitter orange or synephrine: suspected cardiovascular adverse reactions. CMAJ. 2004;171:993-4 pubmed
  53. Fan J, Tian Z, Tong S, Zhang X, Xie Y, Xu R, et al. A novel molecularly imprinted polymer of the specific ionic liquid monomer for selective separation of synephrine from methanol-water media. Food Chem. 2013;141:3578-85 pubmed publisher
    ..as functional monomer was prepared via precipitation polymerization, which can be used to selectively separate synephrine (SYN) from methanol-water media...
  54. Stohs S, Preuss H, Shara M. The safety of Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine. Phytother Res. 2011;25:1421-8 pubmed publisher
    Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract and its principal protoalkaloidal constituent p-synephrine are widely used in weight loss and weight management as well as in sports performance products...
  55. Kim N, Pham N, Quinn R, Kwon H. R-(-)-beta-O-methylsynephrine, a natural product, inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;399:20-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results indicate that this compound could be a novel basis for a small molecule targeting angiogenesis...
  56. Bartley G, Breksa A, Ishida B. PCR amplification and cloning of tyrosine decarboxylase involved in synephrine biosynthesis in Citrus. N Biotechnol. 2010;27:308-16 pubmed publisher
    The phenolic amine synephrine is a vascoconstrictor and bronchiectatic agent and holds promise as an aid to weight management and obesity reduction...
  57. Rapisarda P, Calabretta M, Romano G, Intrigliolo F. Nitrogen metabolism components as a tool to discriminate between organic and conventional citrus fruits. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:2664-9 pubmed
    ..In addition to the classic quality parameters, total nitrogen (N) and synephrine contents in juice and (15)N/(14)N isotope ratio (expressed as delta(15)N per thousand) in proteins of pulp and ..
  58. Li X, Ma Z, Lin S, Gu X, Mao S. [Determination of synephrine and N-methyltyramine in Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae viride by HPLC]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004;29:537-9 pubmed
    To establish a quantitative method for determination of synephrine and N-methyltyramine in Citri Reticulatae.
  59. Niemann R, Gay M. Determination of ephedrine alkaloids and synephrine in dietary supplements by column-switching cation exchange high-performance liquid chromatography with scanning-wavelength ultraviolet and fluorescence detection. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:5630-8 pubmed
    ..ephedrine, (+)-pseudoephedrine, (-)-N-methylephedrine, (+)-N-methylpseudoephedrine, and (+/-)-synephrine in finished dietary supplement products. Test portions were extracted in acidified aqueous acetone...
  60. Garcia Carmona F, Cabanes J, Garcia Canovas F. Kinetic study of sinephrine oxidation by mushroom tyrosinase. Biochem Int. 1987;14:1003-13 pubmed
  61. Li Q, Huang C, Huang Y. Sensitive determination of synephrine by flow-injection chemiluminescence. Luminescence. 2006;21:43-8 pubmed
    ..light emission produced by the oxidation of luminol by potassium ferricyanide in basic medium was enhanced by synephrine, an anti-obesity drug...
  62. Medana C, Calza P, Giancotti V, Dal Bello F, Aragno M, Baiocchi C. Study of the photocatalytic transformation of synephrine: a biogenic amine relevant in anti-doping analysis. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2013;405:1105-13 pubmed publisher
    ..results in anti-doping analysis of octopamine requires clarification as to whether its methylated derivative synephrine could be a metabolic precursor of octopamine itself...