meningomyelocele

Summary

Summary: Congenital, or rarely acquired, herniation of meningeal and spinal cord tissue through a bony defect in the vertebral column. The majority of these defects occur in the lumbosacral region. Clinical features include PARAPLEGIA, loss of sensation in the lower body, and incontinence. This condition may be associated with the ARNOLD-CHIARI MALFORMATION and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp35-6)

Top Publications

  1. Lewis D, Tolosa J, Kaufmann M, Goodman M, Farrell C, Berghella V. Elective cesarean delivery and long-term motor function or ambulation status in infants with meningomyelocele. Obstet Gynecol. 2004;103:469-73 pubmed
    ..To determine if elective cesarean delivery, when compared with trial of labor, is associated with better long-term motor function or ambulation status in infants with myelomeningocele...
  2. Tubbs R, Bui C, Rice W, Loukas M, Naftel R, Holcombe M, et al. Critical analysis of the Chiari malformation Type I found in children with lipomyelomeningocele. J Neurosurg. 2007;106:196-200 pubmed
    ..Occasional comments are found in the literature regarding patients with lipomyelomeningocele and concomitant Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I). The object of this study was to explore the association between these two conditions...
  3. Wefer B, Ehlken B, Bremer J, Burgdörfer H, Domurath B, Hampel C, et al. Treatment outcomes and resource use of patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity receiving botulinum toxin A (BOTOX) therapy in Germany. World J Urol. 2010;28:385-90 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate treatment outcomes and resource consumption of patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) before and after botulinum toxin A (Botox) therapy in Germany...
  4. Apkon S, Fenton L, Coll J. Bone mineral density in children with myelomeningocele. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2009;51:63-7 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a significant relationship with low BMD in children who are wheelchair-dependent, a trend in those with higher neurological levels, and no relationship between fractures and reduced BMD...
  5. Bowman R, Boshnjaku V, McLone D. The changing incidence of myelomeningocele and its impact on pediatric neurosurgery: a review from the Children's Memorial Hospital. Childs Nerv Syst. 2009;25:801-6 pubmed publisher
    ..39 per 1,000 live births. The declining prevalence of myelomeningocele, the most common NTD, is secondary to several factors including folic acid fortification, prenatal diagnosis with termination of affected fetuses, and unknown factors...
  6. Neel K, Salem M, Soliman S. Total endoscopic management (TEM approach) of children with non-compliant neuropathic bladder: a preliminary report. J Pediatr Urol. 2008;4:124-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We also evaluated whether this combined therapy can lower intravesical pressure, increase bladder capacity, gain social continence and protect the upper tract from recurrent urinary tract infection...
  7. Kose K, Inanmaz M, Uslu M, Bal E, Caliskan I. Kyphectomy for congenital kyphosis due to meningomyelocele: a case treated with a modified approach to skin healing. Int Wound J. 2012;9:311-5 pubmed publisher
    This study is a case report of a meningomyelocele patient with congenital kyphosis who was treated with kyphectomy and a special approach to soft tissue healing...
  8. Dennis M, Barnes M. The cognitive phenotype of spina bifida meningomyelocele. Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2010;16:31-9 pubmed publisher
    ..phenotype is a product of both assets and deficits that specifies what individuals with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) can and cannot do and why they can or cannot do it...
  9. Hannay H, Walker A, Dennis M, Kramer L, Blaser S, Fletcher J. Auditory interhemispheric transfer in relation to patterns of partial agenesis and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum in spina bifida meningomyelocele. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2008;14:771-81 pubmed publisher
    Spina bifida meningomyelocele with hydrocephalus (SBM) is commonly associated with anomalies of the corpus callosum (CC)...
  10. Tran P, Au K, Morrison A, Fletcher J, Ostermaier K, Tyerman G, et al. Association of retinoic acid receptor genes with meningomyelocele. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2011;91:39-43 pubmed publisher
    ..5-2 per 1000 live births in the United States. One of the most common and severe neural tube defects is meningomyelocele (MM) resulting from failed closure of the caudal end of the neural tube...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Lewis D, Tolosa J, Kaufmann M, Goodman M, Farrell C, Berghella V. Elective cesarean delivery and long-term motor function or ambulation status in infants with meningomyelocele. Obstet Gynecol. 2004;103:469-73 pubmed
    ..To determine if elective cesarean delivery, when compared with trial of labor, is associated with better long-term motor function or ambulation status in infants with myelomeningocele...
  2. Tubbs R, Bui C, Rice W, Loukas M, Naftel R, Holcombe M, et al. Critical analysis of the Chiari malformation Type I found in children with lipomyelomeningocele. J Neurosurg. 2007;106:196-200 pubmed
    ..Occasional comments are found in the literature regarding patients with lipomyelomeningocele and concomitant Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I). The object of this study was to explore the association between these two conditions...
  3. Wefer B, Ehlken B, Bremer J, Burgdörfer H, Domurath B, Hampel C, et al. Treatment outcomes and resource use of patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity receiving botulinum toxin A (BOTOX) therapy in Germany. World J Urol. 2010;28:385-90 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate treatment outcomes and resource consumption of patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) before and after botulinum toxin A (Botox) therapy in Germany...
  4. Apkon S, Fenton L, Coll J. Bone mineral density in children with myelomeningocele. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2009;51:63-7 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a significant relationship with low BMD in children who are wheelchair-dependent, a trend in those with higher neurological levels, and no relationship between fractures and reduced BMD...
  5. Bowman R, Boshnjaku V, McLone D. The changing incidence of myelomeningocele and its impact on pediatric neurosurgery: a review from the Children's Memorial Hospital. Childs Nerv Syst. 2009;25:801-6 pubmed publisher
    ..39 per 1,000 live births. The declining prevalence of myelomeningocele, the most common NTD, is secondary to several factors including folic acid fortification, prenatal diagnosis with termination of affected fetuses, and unknown factors...
  6. Neel K, Salem M, Soliman S. Total endoscopic management (TEM approach) of children with non-compliant neuropathic bladder: a preliminary report. J Pediatr Urol. 2008;4:124-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We also evaluated whether this combined therapy can lower intravesical pressure, increase bladder capacity, gain social continence and protect the upper tract from recurrent urinary tract infection...
  7. Kose K, Inanmaz M, Uslu M, Bal E, Caliskan I. Kyphectomy for congenital kyphosis due to meningomyelocele: a case treated with a modified approach to skin healing. Int Wound J. 2012;9:311-5 pubmed publisher
    This study is a case report of a meningomyelocele patient with congenital kyphosis who was treated with kyphectomy and a special approach to soft tissue healing...
  8. Dennis M, Barnes M. The cognitive phenotype of spina bifida meningomyelocele. Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2010;16:31-9 pubmed publisher
    ..phenotype is a product of both assets and deficits that specifies what individuals with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) can and cannot do and why they can or cannot do it...
  9. Hannay H, Walker A, Dennis M, Kramer L, Blaser S, Fletcher J. Auditory interhemispheric transfer in relation to patterns of partial agenesis and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum in spina bifida meningomyelocele. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2008;14:771-81 pubmed publisher
    Spina bifida meningomyelocele with hydrocephalus (SBM) is commonly associated with anomalies of the corpus callosum (CC)...
  10. Tran P, Au K, Morrison A, Fletcher J, Ostermaier K, Tyerman G, et al. Association of retinoic acid receptor genes with meningomyelocele. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2011;91:39-43 pubmed publisher
    ..5-2 per 1000 live births in the United States. One of the most common and severe neural tube defects is meningomyelocele (MM) resulting from failed closure of the caudal end of the neural tube...
  11. Thorup J, Biering Sorensen F, Cortes D. Urological outcome after myelomeningocele: 20 years of follow-up. BJU Int. 2011;107:994-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the urological outcome in a long-term follow-up of individuals with myelomeningocele and relate the findings obtained to urodynamic variables in childhood...
  12. Hannay H, Dennis M, Kramer L, Blaser S, Fletcher J. Partial agenesis of the corpus callosum in spina bifida meningomyelocele and potential compensatory mechanisms. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2009;31:180-94 pubmed publisher
    ..of an examination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of the CC in 193 children with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM). There were 26 CC regional patterns...
  13. Dagenais L, Lahay E, Stueck K, White E, Williams L, Harris S. Effects of electrical stimulation, exercise training and motor skills training on strength of children with meningomyelocele: a systematic review. Phys Occup Ther Pediatr. 2009;29:445-63 pubmed publisher
    ..of electrical stimulation, exercise training, and motor skills training on muscle strength in children with meningomyelocele. Nine databases were searched using terms related to meningomyelocele and physical therapy interventions...
  14. O Byrne M, Au K, Morrison A, Lin J, Fletcher J, Ostermaier K, et al. Association of folate receptor (FOLR1, FOLR2, FOLR3) and reduced folate carrier (SLC19A1) genes with meningomyelocele. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2010;88:689-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Meningomyelocele (MM) results from lack of closure of the neural tube during embryologic development...
  15. Roach J, Short B, Saltzman H. Adult consequences of spina bifida: a cohort study. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2011;469:1246-52 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the degree of disability as these individuals age into adulthood has not been completely delineated...
  16. Williams V, Juranek J, Stuebing K, Cirino P, Dennis M, Fletcher J. Examination of frontal and parietal tectocortical attention pathways in spina bifida meningomyelocele using probabilistic diffusion tractography. Brain Connect. 2013;3:512-22 pubmed publisher
    Abnormalities of the midbrain tectum are common but variable malformations in spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) and have been linked to neuropsychological deficits in attention orienting...
  17. Shoshan L, Ben Zvi D, Katz Leurer M. Use of the anal plug in the treatment of fecal incontinence in patients with meningomyelocele. J Pediatr Nurs. 2008;23:395-9 pubmed publisher
    Children with meningomyelocele (MMC) commonly present with urinary and fecal incontinence. Despite bowel training and enemas, many still suffer from fecal soiling, which may cause skin irritation and malodor...
  18. Valtonen K, Karlsson A, Alaranta H, Viikari Juntura E. Work participation among persons with traumatic spinal cord injury and meningomyelocele1. J Rehabil Med. 2006;38:192-200 pubmed
    ..To study injury-related and individual factors as predictors of work participation in persons with traumatic and congenital spinal cord injury...
  19. Muller T, Arbeiter K, Aufricht C. Renal function in meningomyelocele: risk factors, chronic renal failure, renal replacement therapy and transplantation. Curr Opin Urol. 2002;12:479-84 pubmed
    ..Relevant work published earlier than 2000 is also considered because of a lack of recent literature...
  20. Glott T, Stanghelle J, Rand Hendriksen S, Johnsen V, Thyberg M, Melhus M, et al. [Voiding problems and urinary tract complications in adolescents and adults with myelomeningocele]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2001;121:1211-5 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to describe voiding dysfunction and urinary tract complications in a population above 16 years of age with myelomeningocele...
  21. Marte A, Vessella A, Cautiero P, Romano M, Borrelli M, Noviello C, et al. [Efficacy of toxin-A Botulinum for treating intractable bladder hyperactivity in children affected by neuropathic bladder secondary to myelomeningocele: an alternative to enterocystoplasty]. Minerva Pediatr. 2005;57:35-40 pubmed
  22. Kestle J, Walker M. A multicenter prospective cohort study of the Strata valve for the management of hydrocephalus in pediatric patients. J Neurosurg. 2005;102:141-5 pubmed
    ..To evaluate these claims, the authors conducted a prospective multicenter cohort study of children who underwent placement of Strata valves...
  23. van den Berg Emons H, Bussmann J, Meyerink H, Roebroeck M, Stam H. Body fat, fitness and level of everyday physical activity in adolescents and young adults with meningomyelocele. J Rehabil Med. 2003;35:271-5 pubmed
    Data on body fat and fitness in adolescents and young adults with meningomyelocele are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess body fat and fitness in this patient group...
  24. Bannykh S, Bannykh G, Mannino F, Jones K, Hansen L, Benirschke K, et al. Partial caudal duplication in a newborn associated with meningomyelocele and complex heart anomaly. Teratology. 2001;63:94-9 pubmed
    ..Caudal duplication is a spectrum of rare congenital anomalies with a possible heterogeneous pathogenesis including incomplete separation of monovular twins...
  25. King T, Au K, Kirkpatrick T, Davidson C, Fletcher J, Townsend I, et al. The impact of BRCA1 on spina bifida meningomyelocele lesions. Ann Hum Genet. 2007;71:719-28 pubmed
    We examined the BRCA1 gene in 268 patients, and their parents, with a specific diagnosis of spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBMM)...
  26. Lapid O, Rosenberg L, Cohen A. Meningomyelocele reconstruction with bilobed flaps. Br J Plast Surg. 2001;54:570-2 pubmed
    ..The first lobe crosses the midline above the defect, and the second lobe goes up the midline perpendicular to the first lobe. Once in place, the flap provides a tension-free repair; no suture lines overlie the cord closure...
  27. Phuong L, Schoeberl K, Raffel C. Natural history of tethered cord in patients with meningomyelocele. Neurosurgery. 2002;50:989-93; discussion 993-5 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to describe the natural history of tethered cord in patients who have undergone meningomyelocele repair.
  28. Schoenmakers M, Gulmans V, Gooskens R, Helders P. Spina bifida at the sacral level: more than minor gait disturbances. Clin Rehabil. 2004;18:178-85 pubmed
    ..Additionally both groups were compared with each other and when possible with reference values...
  29. Bremer R. [Management of spina bifida]. Orthopade. 2003;32:85-97; quiz 97-8 pubmed
  30. Waldau B, Grant G, Fuchs H. Development of an acquired Chiari malformation Type I in the setting of an untreated lipomyelomeningocele. Case report. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2008;1:164-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report to document a case in which an acquired CM-I evolved in a patient with an untreated tethered cord...
  31. Buffart L, Roebroeck M, Rol M, Stam H, van den Berg Emons R. Triad of physical activity, aerobic fitness and obesity in adolescents and young adults with myelomeningocele. J Rehabil Med. 2008;40:70-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Comprehensively and objectively assess physical activity, aerobic fitness and body fat in adolescents and young adults with myelomeningocele and to investigate their relationships...
  32. Persson E, Anderson S, Wiklund L, Uvebrant P. Hydrocephalus in children born in 1999-2002: epidemiology, outcome and ophthalmological findings. Childs Nerv Syst. 2007;23:1111-8 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to monitor incidence and outcome in children with hydrocephalus...
  33. Valtonen K, Goksör L, Jonsson O, Mellstrom D, Alaranta H, Viikari Juntura E. Osteoporosis in adults with meningomyelocele: an unrecognized problem at rehabilitation clinics. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2006;87:376-82 pubmed
    To assess the prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in adults with meningomyelocele and to explore whether neurologic level, ambulatory status, and other medical problems are associated with bone mineral density (BMD).
  34. Kaur N, Mishra S, Vijayaragvan P, Minocha V. Lateral sacral meningomyelocele as a gluteal swelling--an unusual presentation. J Indian Med Assoc. 2005;103:554, 556 pubmed
    ..On exploration, he was found to have a laterally placed sacral meningomyelocele. The presence of an unusually located meningocele should be suspected when a paravertebral mass is associated ..
  35. Huber Okrainec J, Blaser S, Dennis M. Idiom comprehension deficits in relation to corpus callosum agenesis and hypoplasia in children with spina bifida meningomyelocele. Brain Lang. 2005;93:349-68 pubmed
    ..We studied idiom comprehension in children with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM), a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with problems in discourse comprehension and agenesis and ..
  36. Madersbacher H. Neurogenic bladder dysfunction in patients with myelomeningocele. Curr Opin Urol. 2002;12:469-72 pubmed
    ..The general management strategies in children with myelodysplasia are widely accepted, however diagnostic and therapeutic details still need to be discussed and clarified...
  37. van den Berg Emons H, Bussmann J, Brobbel A, Roebroeck M, van Meeteren J, Stam H. Everyday physical activity in adolescents and young adults with meningomyelocele as measured with a novel activity monitor. J Pediatr. 2001;139:880-6 pubmed
    We measured the extent of hypoactivity in adolescents and young adults with meningomyelocele with an activity monitor...
  38. Carezani Gavin M, Clarren S, Steege T. Waardenburg syndrome associated with meningomyelocele. Am J Med Genet. 1992;42:135-6 pubmed
  39. Tulipan N, Hernanz Schulman M, Lowe L, Bruner J. Intrauterine myelomeningocele repair reverses preexisting hindbrain herniation. Pediatr Neurosurg. 1999;31:137-42 pubmed
    ..It is not yet known, however, whether hindbrain herniation is prevented, or whether preexisting herniation is reversed. The following study was designed to elucidate this issue...
  40. Bruinings A, van den Berg Emons H, Buffart L, van der Heijden Maessen H, Roebroeck M, Stam H. Energy cost and physical strain of daily activities in adolescents and young adults with myelomeningocele. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2007;49:672-7 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, energy cost per unit time of daily activities was not increased in participants with MMC. However, energy cost per metre during walking at preferred speed and physical strain were higher than in peers without disability...
  41. Kessler T, Lackner J, Kiss G, Rehder P, Madersbacher H. Early proactive management improves upper urinary tract function and reduces the need for surgery in patients with myelomeningocele. Neurourol Urodyn. 2006;25:758-62 pubmed
    ..To investigate whether upper urinary tract function and the need for surgery in patients with myelomeningocele depends on the timing of initiating neurourological management...
  42. Kumar R, Bansal K, Chhabra D. Occurrence of split cord malformation in meningomyelocele: complex spina bifida. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2002;36:119-27 pubmed
    ..e. split cord malformation (SCM) with meningomyelocele (MMC), and to propose an addition to Pang's classification of SCM to accommodate a combined form of anomaly.
  43. Au K, Northrup H, Kirkpatrick T, Volcik K, Fletcher J, Townsend I, et al. Promotor genotype of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha gene shows population stratification but not association with spina bifida meningomyelocele. Am J Med Genet A. 2005;139:194-8 pubmed
    ..Hispanic Americans have a 2.5 times higher risk than the Caucasian population. Spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBMM) is a major clinical presentation of NTDs resulting from lack of closure of the spinal cord caudal to ..
  44. Davis B, Daley C, Shurtleff D, Duguay S, Seidel K, Loeser J, et al. Long-term survival of individuals with myelomeningocele. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2005;41:186-91 pubmed
    ..03). Although childhood survival for individuals born after 1975 is not related to shunt status, adults with MM and shunted hydrocephalus may be at risk for decreased longevity...
  45. Sarifakioglu N, Bingul F, Terzioglu A, Ates L, Aslan G. Bilateral split latissimus dorsi V-Y flaps for closure of large thoracolumbar meningomyelocele defects. Br J Plast Surg. 2003;56:303-6 pubmed
    Closure of large meningomyelocele wounds and defects always requires durable and safe coverage of the dural repair...
  46. Buran C, Sawin K, Brei T, Fastenau P. Adolescents with myelomeningocele: activities, beliefs, expectations, and perceptions. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2004;46:244-52 pubmed
    ..This might explain why so many individuals with myelomeningocele are underemployed and are not living independently as young adults...
  47. Kochakarn W, Ratana Olarn K, Lertsithichai P, Roongreungsilp U. Follow-up of long-term treatment with clean intermittent catheterization for neurogenic bladder in children. Asian J Surg. 2004;27:134-6 pubmed
  48. Almodhen F, Capolicchio J, Jednak R, El Sherbiny M. Postpubertal urodynamic and upper urinary tract changes in children with conservatively treated myelomeningocele. J Urol. 2007;178:1479-82 pubmed
    ..We examined the urodynamic and upper urinary tract changes in children with myelomeningocele treated conservatively through puberty at our institution between 1980 and 2006...
  49. Schlager T, Clark M, Anderson S. Effect of a single-use sterile catheter for each void on the frequency of bacteriuria in children with neurogenic bladder on intermittent catheterization for bladder emptying. Pediatrics. 2001;108:E71 pubmed
    ..For this, the frequency of bacteriuria was examined in the same patient on single-use sterile catheters and on reused clean catheters...
  50. Hopps C, Kropp K. Preservation of renal function in children with myelomeningocele managed with basic newborn evaluation and close followup. J Urol. 2003;169:305-8 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize an approach that excludes routine application of urodynamic evaluation in neonates, reserving this study for use only when clinically indicated, is a safe and effective management option...
  51. Yamada S, Won D, Yamada S. Pathophysiology of tethered cord syndrome: correlation with symptomatology. Neurosurg Focus. 2004;16:E6 pubmed
    ..These putative pathophysiological changes in TCS occur mainly within the lumbosacral cord under excessive tension. The authors discuss the pathophysiology of TCS and examine related symptoms...
  52. Valtonen K, Karlsson A, Siösteen A, Dahlof L, Viikari Juntura E. Satisfaction with sexual life among persons with traumatic spinal cord injury and meningomyelocele. Disabil Rehabil. 2006;28:965-76 pubmed
    To study satisfaction with sexual life and self-assessed sufficiency of sexual counselling in persons with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) and meningomyelocele (MMC).
  53. Sanchez e Oliveira R, Valente P, Abou Jamra R, Araújo A, Saldiva P, Pedreira D. Biosynthetic cellulose induces the formation of a neoduramater following pre-natal correction of meningomyelocele in fetal sheep. Acta Cir Bras. 2007;22:174-81 pubmed
    ..of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two dura-mater substitutes, namely human acellular dermal matrix (HADM) and biosynthetic cellulose (BC), in repairing, in utero, surgically-induced meningomyelocele (MMC) in fetal sheep.
  54. Buffart L, Westendorp T, van den Berg Emons R, Stam H, Roebroeck M. Perceived barriers to and facilitators of physical activity in young adults with childhood-onset physical disabilities. J Rehabil Med. 2009;41:881-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To explore the main barriers to and facilitators of physical activity in young adults with childhood-onset physical disabilities...
  55. Zakaria Y, Hasan E. Reversed turnover latissimus dorsi muscle flap for closure of large myelomeningocele defects. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2010;63:1513-8 pubmed publisher
    ..All patients tolerated the procedure without major complications. This method provides a tension-free, stable and durable soft-tissue coverage with well-vascularised tissue over the dural repair...
  56. Bowman R, Mohan A, Ito J, Seibly J, McLone D. Tethered cord release: a long-term study in 114 patients. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2009;3:181-7 pubmed publisher
  57. Lee J, Phi J, Kim S, Cho B, Wang K. Urgent surgery is needed when cyst enlarges in terminal myelocystoceles. Childs Nerv Syst. 2011;27:2149-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We reviewed TMC patients who had experienced cyst enlargement during the preoperative period to determine the correlation with symptomatic progression. We sought to determine the optimal surgical strategy for such patients...
  58. Akcay E, Ersahin Y, Ozer F, Duransoy Y, Camlar M, Atci I, et al. Neurotoxic effect of povidone-iodine on the rat spine using a laminectomy-durotomy model. Childs Nerv Syst. 2012;28:2071-5 pubmed publisher
    ..However, its use in defective tissue in neural structures has not been confirmed yet. The aim of the present study was to histopathologically investigate its effect on neural tissues when applied on the upper side of defective dura...
  59. Cohen A, Couto J, Cummings J, Johnson A, Joseph G, Kaufman B, et al. Position statement on fetal myelomeningocele repair. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014;210:107-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The decision was made to develop the optimal practice criteria presented in this document for the purpose of medical and surgical leadership. These criteria are not intended to be used for legal or regulatory purposes. ..
  60. Sardar A, Khanna P, Singh A, Sharma A. Long-standing meningomyelocele can be a predictor of difficult airway and postoperative hypoventilation: challenge to the anaesthesiologist. BMJ Case Rep. 2016;2016: pubmed publisher
    ..She underwent Yang-Monti ileovesicostomy under general anaesthesia. She is a known case of long-standing meningomyelocele (MMC) and presented with its potential complications such as difficult airway and restrictive lung disease...
  61. Mummareddy N, Dewan M, Mercier M, Naftel R, Wellons J, Bonfield C. Scoliosis in myelomeningocele: epidemiology, management, and functional outcome. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2017;20:99-108 pubmed publisher
    ..Although important epidemiological and management trends are evident, larger, prospective studies are needed to discover ways to more accurately counsel and more optimally treat these patients...
  62. Akhil P, Ashutosh N, Fais F, Shashank M, Sanjay P, Singhal B, et al. True vestigeal tail with lumbosacral meningomyelocoel: a rare case report. Br J Neurosurg. 2010;24:597-9 pubmed publisher
    ..All the lumbosacro-coccygeal protrusions without the evidence of mesenchymal tissue are classified as pseudo-tail. The association of this rare vestigial entity along with meningomyelocele is rarer still.