skull fractures

Summary

Summary: Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).

Top Publications

  1. Riera A, Chen L. Ultrasound evaluation of skull fractures in children: a feasibility study. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2012;28:420-5 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to investigate feasibility and evaluate test characteristics of bedside ultrasound for the detection of skull fractures in children with closed head injury (CHI).
  2. Fatterpekar G, Doshi A, Dugar M, Delman B, Naidich T, Som P. Role of 3D CT in the evaluation of the temporal bone. Radiographics. 2006;26 Suppl 1:S117-32 pubmed
    ..The additional information provided by 3D reformatted images allows a better understanding of temporal bone anatomy and improves the ability to evaluate related disease, thereby helping to optimize surgical planning...
  3. Sato S, Iida H, Hirayama H, Endo M, Ohwada T, Fujii K. Traumatic basilar artery occlusion caused by a fracture of the clivus--case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2001;41:541-4 pubmed
    ..Cerebral angiography is recommended in a patient in a deep coma without massive brain contusion at the early stage of head injury to identify the possibility of vertebrobasilar artery occlusion in a clivus fracture...
  4. de P Djientcheu V, Njamnshi A, Ongolo Zogo P, Kobela M, Rilliet B, Essomba A, et al. Growing skull fractures. Childs Nerv Syst. 2006;22:721-5 pubmed
    Growing skull fractures are a rare complication of head injuries (Ersahin et al. in Neurosurg Rev 23:139-144, 2000; Hayashi et al...
  5. Bala A, Knuckey N, Wong G, Lee G. Longitudinal clivus fracture associated with trapped basilar artery: unusual survival with good neurological recovery. J Clin Neurosci. 2004;11:660-3 pubmed
    ..Such recovery with minimal residual deficit in the context of this injury has not previously been reported. Reported cases to date are reviewed and causative mechanisms discussed...
  6. Yavuz M, Asirdizer M, Cetin G, Günay Balci Y, Altinkok M. The correlation between skull fractures and intracranial lesions due to traffic accidents. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2003;24:339-45 pubmed
    In this study, it was aimed to investigate the relationship between skull fractures and intracranial lesions following head injury...
  7. Wood J, Christian C, Adams C, Rubin D. Skeletal surveys in infants with isolated skull fractures. Pediatrics. 2009;123:e247-52 pubmed publisher
    The goal was to describe the utility of skeletal surveys and factors associated with both skeletal survey use and referral to child protective services for infants with skull fractures in the absence of significant intracranial injury.
  8. Menku A, Koç R, Tucer B, Durak A, Akdemir H. Clivus fractures: clinical presentations and courses. Neurosurg Rev. 2004;27:194-8 pubmed
    ..The diagnosis of CF is made by high-resolution, fine-cut CT using standard and bone window settings. Its presence should alert clinicians to the potential complications...
  9. Singhal A, Steinbok P. Operative management of growing skull fractures: a technical note. Childs Nerv Syst. 2008;24:605-7 pubmed
    Growing skull fractures can be a challenging surgical problem facing the pediatric neurosurgeon. The goal of this manuscript is to clarify effective surgical methods and to provide the rationale for these techniques.
  10. Connor S, Flis C. The contribution of high-resolution multiplanar reformats of the skull base to the detection of skull-base fractures. Clin Radiol. 2005;60:878-85 pubmed
    ..To investigate the contribution of routine review of submillimetric multiplanar reformats to the diagnosis of skull-base fractures...

Detail Information

Publications95

  1. Riera A, Chen L. Ultrasound evaluation of skull fractures in children: a feasibility study. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2012;28:420-5 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to investigate feasibility and evaluate test characteristics of bedside ultrasound for the detection of skull fractures in children with closed head injury (CHI).
  2. Fatterpekar G, Doshi A, Dugar M, Delman B, Naidich T, Som P. Role of 3D CT in the evaluation of the temporal bone. Radiographics. 2006;26 Suppl 1:S117-32 pubmed
    ..The additional information provided by 3D reformatted images allows a better understanding of temporal bone anatomy and improves the ability to evaluate related disease, thereby helping to optimize surgical planning...
  3. Sato S, Iida H, Hirayama H, Endo M, Ohwada T, Fujii K. Traumatic basilar artery occlusion caused by a fracture of the clivus--case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2001;41:541-4 pubmed
    ..Cerebral angiography is recommended in a patient in a deep coma without massive brain contusion at the early stage of head injury to identify the possibility of vertebrobasilar artery occlusion in a clivus fracture...
  4. de P Djientcheu V, Njamnshi A, Ongolo Zogo P, Kobela M, Rilliet B, Essomba A, et al. Growing skull fractures. Childs Nerv Syst. 2006;22:721-5 pubmed
    Growing skull fractures are a rare complication of head injuries (Ersahin et al. in Neurosurg Rev 23:139-144, 2000; Hayashi et al...
  5. Bala A, Knuckey N, Wong G, Lee G. Longitudinal clivus fracture associated with trapped basilar artery: unusual survival with good neurological recovery. J Clin Neurosci. 2004;11:660-3 pubmed
    ..Such recovery with minimal residual deficit in the context of this injury has not previously been reported. Reported cases to date are reviewed and causative mechanisms discussed...
  6. Yavuz M, Asirdizer M, Cetin G, Günay Balci Y, Altinkok M. The correlation between skull fractures and intracranial lesions due to traffic accidents. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2003;24:339-45 pubmed
    In this study, it was aimed to investigate the relationship between skull fractures and intracranial lesions following head injury...
  7. Wood J, Christian C, Adams C, Rubin D. Skeletal surveys in infants with isolated skull fractures. Pediatrics. 2009;123:e247-52 pubmed publisher
    The goal was to describe the utility of skeletal surveys and factors associated with both skeletal survey use and referral to child protective services for infants with skull fractures in the absence of significant intracranial injury.
  8. Menku A, Koç R, Tucer B, Durak A, Akdemir H. Clivus fractures: clinical presentations and courses. Neurosurg Rev. 2004;27:194-8 pubmed
    ..The diagnosis of CF is made by high-resolution, fine-cut CT using standard and bone window settings. Its presence should alert clinicians to the potential complications...
  9. Singhal A, Steinbok P. Operative management of growing skull fractures: a technical note. Childs Nerv Syst. 2008;24:605-7 pubmed
    Growing skull fractures can be a challenging surgical problem facing the pediatric neurosurgeon. The goal of this manuscript is to clarify effective surgical methods and to provide the rationale for these techniques.
  10. Connor S, Flis C. The contribution of high-resolution multiplanar reformats of the skull base to the detection of skull-base fractures. Clin Radiol. 2005;60:878-85 pubmed
    ..To investigate the contribution of routine review of submillimetric multiplanar reformats to the diagnosis of skull-base fractures...
  11. Drapkin A. Growing skull fracture: a posttraumatic neosuture. Childs Nerv Syst. 2006;22:394-7 pubmed
    ..A case of a growing skull fracture presenting in adulthood is reported. Pertinent literature was reviewed with an emphasis on pathogenesis...
  12. Schuknecht B, Graetz K. Radiologic assessment of maxillofacial, mandibular, and skull base trauma. Eur Radiol. 2005;15:560-8 pubmed
  13. Clauser L, Dallera V, Sarti E, Tieghi R. Frontobasilar fractures in children. Childs Nerv Syst. 2004;20:168-75 pubmed
    ..Fractures of the orbital roof, despite the common blow-out floor fractures, are considered uncommon events. In children younger than 7 years this pattern of fracture may be a consequence of nonpneumatized frontal sinuses...
  14. Kveton J, Coelho D. Hydroxyapatite cement in temporal bone surgery: a 10 year experience. Laryngoscope. 2004;114:33-7 pubmed
    ..To describe the indications for successful use of hydroxyapatite cement (HAC) in temporal bone surgery...
  15. Zegers B, Jira P, Willemsen M, Grotenhuis J. The growing skull fracture, a rare complication of paediatric head injury. Eur J Pediatr. 2003;162:556-557 pubmed publisher
  16. Aciduman A, Arda B, Kahya E, Belen D. The Royal Book by Haly Abbas from the 10th century: one of the earliest illustrations of the surgical approach to skull fractures. Neurosurgery. 2010;67:1466-74; discussion 1474-5 pubmed publisher
  17. Carty H, Pierce A. Non-accidental injury: a retrospective analysis of a large cohort. Eur Radiol. 2002;12:2919-25 pubmed
    ..It necessarily reflects personal experience and is not a population study. The distribution of the injuries in a cohort of 467 patients is reviewed...
  18. Buitrago Téllez C, Schilli W, Bohnert M, Alt K, Kimmig M. A comprehensive classification of craniofacial fractures: postmortem and clinical studies with two- and three-dimensional computed tomography. Injury. 2002;33:651-68 pubmed
    ..facial asymmetry (r=0.37), was observed. The proposed classification system allows standardised documentation of midfacial and craniofacial fractures, including those not precisely defined by the Le Fort classification scheme...
  19. Ersahin Y, Gülmen V, Palali I, Mutluer S. Growing skull fractures (craniocerebral erosion). Neurosurg Rev. 2000;23:139-44 pubmed
    The incidence of growing skull fractures ranges from less than 0.05% to 1.6%. We reviewed 22 growing skull fracture patients retrospectively. There were 15 boys and seven girls ranging in age from newborn to 6 years (mean: 12...
  20. Ringl H, Schernthaner R, Schueller G, Balassy C, Kienzl D, Botosaneanu A, et al. The skull unfolded: a cranial CT visualization algorithm for fast and easy detection of skull fractures. Radiology. 2010;255:553-62 pubmed publisher
    To retrospectively assess the rate of detection of skull fractures at cranial computed tomography (CT) achieved with the use of curved maximum intensity projections (MIPs) compared with that achieved by reading transverse sections only.
  21. Gupta V, Sinha S, Singh A, Kumar S, Singh D. Growing skull fracture of ethmoid: a report of two cases. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2000;28:224-8 pubmed
    ..The natural history of its development, diagnosis, and the results of surgery are discussed. The literature is reviewed with regard to aetiology, incidence, imaging characteristics and management of this rare post-traumatic complication...
  22. Ciurea A, Kapsalaki E, Coman T, Roberts J, Robinson J, Tascu A, et al. Supratentorial epidural hematoma of traumatic etiology in infants. Childs Nerv Syst. 2007;23:335-41 pubmed
    ..In our current communication, we present our data regarding the presentation of infants with EDH, their management, and their long-term outcome...
  23. Bauer M, Polzin S, Patzelt D. The use of clinical CCT images in the forensic examination of closed head injuries. J Clin Forensic Med. 2004;11:65-70 pubmed
    ..from blows (n = 5) due to the presence and/or absence of coup and contrecoup lesions and linear or depressed skull fractures. In two cases the striking object could be identified by digital superimposition...
  24. Berker M, Cataltepe O, Ozcan O. Traumatic epidural haematoma of the posterior fossa in childhood: 16 new cases and a review of the literature. Br J Neurosurg. 2003;17:226-9 pubmed
  25. Oehmichen M, Gehl H, Meissner C, Petersen D, Höche W, Gerling I, et al. Forensic pathological aspects of postmortem imaging of gunshot injury to the head: documentation and biometric data. Acta Neuropathol. 2003;105:570-80 pubmed
  26. Herbella F, Mudo M, Delmonti C, Braga F, Del Grande J. 'Raccoon eyes' (periorbital haematoma) as a sign of skull base fracture. Injury. 2001;32:745-7 pubmed
    ..0%) cases. The association was significantly higher in cases with a frontal basal fracture and epidural haematoma. The raccoon eyes sign is easily recognised and can be associated with basal fractures...
  27. Provenzale J. CT and MR imaging of acute cranial trauma. Emerg Radiol. 2007;14:1-12 pubmed
  28. Milani T, Rodrigues L, Chiattone C, Luz J. Changes in complete blood count in patients with surgically treated facial fractures. J Craniofac Surg. 2012;23:e587-91 pubmed publisher
  29. He X, Dziak R, Mao K, Genco R, Swihart M, Swithart M, et al. Integration of a novel injectable nano calcium sulfate/alginate scaffold and BMP2 gene-modified mesenchymal stem cells for bone regeneration. Tissue Eng Part A. 2013;19:508-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the results demonstrated that the combination of injectable nCS/A paste and BMP2-gene-modified MSCs is a new and effective strategy for the repair of bone defects...
  30. Schubl S, Klein T, Robitsek R, Trepeta S, Fretwell K, Seidman D, et al. Temporal bone fracture: Evaluation in the era of modern computed tomography. Injury. 2016;47:1893-7 pubmed publisher
    ..One hundred thirteen patients were identified, representing 4.7% of skull fractures and 35.9% of skull base fractures. Most were subsequent to falls (41...
  31. Meslemani D, Kellman R. Recent advances in fixation of the craniomaxillofacial skeleton. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2012;20:304-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This review looks at the recent advances that aid in reduction and fixation of the craniomaxillofacial skeleton...
  32. Raswan U, Chhiber S, Ramzan A. Traumatic elevated vertex fracture with delayed increase in intracranial pressure: a rare case. Childs Nerv Syst. 2017;33:681-684 pubmed publisher
    b>Skull fractures are traditionally classified into linear, comminuted or depressed which can either be simple or compound...
  33. Rosenberg J, Galen B. Recurrent Meningitis. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2017;21:33 pubmed publisher
    ..The data on prophylactic antibiotics after basilar skull fractures do not support their use...
  34. Rahimi R, Omar E, Md Noor S. A fire death with a rare finding: anthracosis or soot embolism?. Malays J Pathol. 2015;37:57-61 pubmed
    ..Histopathology examination showed black particles within the vessels in the affected organs. We report this rare finding in a charred body and present a discussion based on published literature on this issue. ..
  35. Lo Casto A, Priolo G, Garufi A, Purpura P, Salerno S, La Tona G, et al. Imaging evaluation of facial complex strut fractures. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 2012;33:396-409 pubmed publisher
    ..Radiologists should know how to diagnose and report the main types of facial fracture...
  36. Mohajerani S, Asghari S. Pattern of mid-facial fractures in Tehran, Iran. Dent Traumatol. 2011;27:131-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Facial structures are usually injured in such accidents. This study is conducted to find the patterns and etiologies of mid-facial fractures in Iran...
  37. Lu Y, Lu X, Fan X. [A retrospective analysis of 621 cases with craniomaxillofacial fractures]. Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue. 2017;26:106-110 pubmed
    ..Establishing a sound system of traffic accident management and related laws is an urgent problem to be solved. ..
  38. Levine J, Patel A, Saadeh P, Hirsch D. Computer-aided design and manufacturing in craniomaxillofacial surgery: the new state of the art. J Craniofac Surg. 2012;23:288-93 pubmed publisher
    ..This technology continues to evolve, and our indications for its application continue to grow. This article represents only a small portion of the types of cases in which these techniques have already been applied. ..
  39. Gebhard F, Riepl C, Richter P, Liebold A, Gorki H, Wirtz R, et al. [The hybrid operating room. Home of high-end intraoperative imaging]. Unfallchirurg. 2012;115:107-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The immediate possibility of postoperative control images in CT-like quality enables the surgeon to react to problems during the same procedure without the need for later revision...
  40. Marthedal E, Geib A, McCoy J. An unusual case of sudden hearing loss in a young man. JAAPA. 2013;26:38-41 pubmed
    ..Acute-onset hearing loss of unknown cause may be the result of a tranverse temporal bone fracture. CT imaging is indicated for patients with acute focal neurologic deficits of uncertain cause...
  41. Cvorovic L, Ljiljana C, Jovanovic M, Marković M, Milutinovic Z, Strbac M. Management of complication from temporal bone fractures. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2012;269:399-403 pubmed publisher
    ..Further large studies will be done to give a more complete classification of temporal bone fractures which will include all fracture patterns and predict clinical outcome...
  42. Gunasekera R, Brown A, Costas E. Tales from the grave: Opposing autopsy reports from a body exhumed. J Forensic Leg Med. 2012;19:297-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this report demonstrates that such criminal circumstances require comparative forensic review and, in such cases, scientific conclusions can be difficult...
  43. Morrison A, Gregoire C. Management of fractures of the nasofrontal complex. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2013;25:637-48 pubmed publisher
    ..These include fractures of the frontal sinus, naso-orbital-ethmoidal region, root of the nose, and associated adjacent structures. ..
  44. Tan S, Staiano J, Itinteang T, McIntyre B, MacKinnon C, Glasson D. Gold weight implantation and lateral tarsorrhaphy for upper eyelid paralysis. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2013;41:e49-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Upper eyelid paralysis leads to lagophthalmos with the risk of exposure keratitis, corneal ulceration and blindness...
  45. Wright R, Murakami C, Ambro B. Pediatric nasal injuries and management. Facial Plast Surg. 2011;27:483-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This article reviews the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges presented by these injuries for children and provides recommendations to successfully manage nasal injuries in this population...
  46. Piteau S, Ward M, Barrowman N, Plint A. Clinical and radiographic characteristics associated with abusive and nonabusive head trauma: a systematic review. Pediatrics. 2012;130:315-23 pubmed publisher
    ..To systematically review the literature to determine which clinical and radiographic characteristics are associated with abusive head trauma (AHT) and nonabusive head trauma (nAHT) in children...
  47. Lu C, He D, Yang C. Which craniofacial fractures are associated with external auditory canal bleeding?. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2014;72:121-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency and causes of EACB in different craniofacial fracture types...
  48. Choi J, Cirivello M, Neal C, Armonda R. Paradoxical herniation in wartime penetrating brain injury with concomitant skull-base trauma. J Craniofac Surg. 2011;22:2163-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A literature review of paradoxical herniation and delayed neurologic decline in postcraniectomy patients is conducted, and the surgical and neurocritical care management is discussed...
  49. Sahoo D, Deck C, Yoganandan N, Willinger R. Anisotropic composite human skull model and skull fracture validation against temporo-parietal skull fracture. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2013;28:340-53 pubmed publisher
    ..0mj. ..
  50. Yagmur F, Celik S, Yener Z, Koral F, Yaman T, Sezer Y, et al. Head Trauma-Related Deaths Among Preschool Children in Istanbul, Turkey. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2016;37:35-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Head trauma takes place among the leading causes of mortality in children. This study aimed to determine the risk factors of head trauma-related deaths among children younger than 5 years in Istanbul, Turkey...
  51. Torres Rouff C. Hiding inequality beneath prosperity: patterns of cranial injury in middle period San Pedro de Atacama, Northern Chile. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2011;146:28-37 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that people did not share equally in the benefits of this period's affluence and that there were tensions in Atacameño society despite seemingly widespread prosperity...
  52. Chen R, Zhang S, Zhao H, Yin Z, Chen J, Zhang W. Noncontrast and perfusion CT provides accurate assessment of head deceleration injury. Turk Neurosurg. 2011;21:127-34 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the feasibility of noncontrast computed tomography (NcCT) and perfusion CT (PCT) in the assessment of head deceleration injury (HDI)...
  53. Thierauf A, Lutz Bonengel S, Sänger T, Vogt S, Rupp W, Perdekamp M. Suicide by multiple blunt head traumatisation using a stone. Forensic Sci Int. 2012;214:e47-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Uncommon manners of self-harm are challenging for those involved in the investigation, and a differentiation between suicide, accident and homicide can only be made in synopsis of all findings...
  54. Herford A, Tandon R, Pivetti L, Cicciu M. Treatment of severe frontobasilar fractures in growing patients: a case series evaluation. Chin J Traumatol. 2013;16:199-203 pubmed
    ..The aim of this manuscript was to examine a group of growing patients treated for frontobasilar fractures and provide clinicians a possible therapeutic option for the treatment of these challenging fractures...
  55. Crandon I, Harding H, Cawich S, Webster D. Complicated head trauma from machete wounds: the experience from a tertiary referral hospital in Jamaica. Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot. 2011;18:293-7 pubmed publisher
    ..or radiological features: a recorded Glasgow Coma Score < 8 at any point during admission; compound skull fractures; protruding brain matter; cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks; intra-cranial bleeding; parenchymal contusions; ..
  56. Allen B, Hoffman C, Traube C, Weinstein S, Greenfield J. Continuous brain tissue oxygenation monitoring in the management of pediatric stroke. Neurocrit Care. 2011;15:529-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The safety and utility of these devices in the pediatric population have been examined in a few small studies. No studies, however, have examined the use of PbtO(2) monitoring in stroke patients...
  57. Chan R, SILLER JACKSON A, Verrett A, Wu J, Hale R. Ten years of war: a characterization of craniomaxillofacial injuries incurred during operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012;73:S453-8 pubmed publisher
  58. Roisentul A, Gilbey P, Pikkel J. Remote penetrating orbital trauma due to a snooker cue through the mouth. Dent Traumatol. 2011;27:247-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient was treated conservatively with antibiotics and corticosteroids and a 6-week follow up...
  59. de Melo W, Brêda M, Pereira Santos D, Pereira C, Sonoda C, Araujo M. Submental endotracheal intubation: a valuable resource for the management of panfacial fractures. J Craniofac Surg. 2012;23:1851-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The subject was well treated using the submental endotracheal intubation to get good reconstruction of the fractures because the authors obtained free access of all facial fractures...
  60. Kehayov I, Batakliev I, Kitov B, Dichev A. Delayed posttraumatic unilateral occipital epidural hygroma in early childhood. Folia Med (Plovdiv). 2011;53:65-8 pubmed
    ..The recommended surgical approach should include craniotomy centered at the site of the epidural hygroma and obligatory dural elevation by means of traction sutures to eliminate the posttraumatic epidural cavity...
  61. Maqusi S, Morris D, Patel P, Dolezal R, Cohen M. Complications of pediatric facial fractures. J Craniofac Surg. 2012;23:1023-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, we will focus on different approaches to complications that arise after pediatric fracture management...
  62. Yang R, Zhang C, Liu Y, Li Z, Li Z. Why should we start from mandibular fractures in the treatment of panfacial fractures?. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2012;70:1386-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Our objective was to describe the distribution of mandibular fractures in PFFs and investigate the basis for initially addressing the mandible when treating PFFs...
  63. Dumas J, Brownbaer P, Prieto E, Guda T, Hale R, Wenke J, et al. Injectable reactive biocomposites for bone healing in critical-size rabbit calvarial defects. Biomed Mater. 2012;7:024112 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that injectable reactive PUR/allograft biocomposites are a promising approach for healing calvarial defects by providing both mechanical stability as well as local delivery of rhBMP-2...
  64. Handa T, Anada T, Honda Y, Yamazaki H, Kobayashi K, Kanda N, et al. The effect of an octacalcium phosphate co-precipitated gelatin composite on the repair of critical-sized rat calvarial defects. Acta Biomater. 2012;8:1190-200 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, it is hypothesized that host osteoblastic cells can easily migrate into an OCP/Gel composite...
  65. Sitzman T, Hanson S, Alsheik N, Gentry L, Doyle J, Gutowski K. Clinical criteria for obtaining maxillofacial computed tomographic scans in trauma patients. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011;127:1270-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A decision instrument is needed to ensure computed tomographic evaluation of patients at high risk for facial fracture and limit computed tomography use in low-risk patients...
  66. Stephens J, Holmes S, Evans B. Applied anatomy of the anterior cranial fossa: what can fracture patterns tell us?. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2016;45:275-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, no collapsible interface exists in the lateral aspect of the ACF, thus the lateral ACF behaves like a 'buttress', resulting in increased energy transfer. ..
  67. Ridwan Pramana A, Wolff J, Raziei A, Ashton James C, Forouzanfar T. Porous polyethylene implants in facial reconstruction: Outcome and complications. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2015;43:1330-4 pubmed publisher
    ..A consensus about antibiotic prophylaxis is needed. The objective measurements in patient satisfaction and proper implant design would be of great use. ..
  68. Mundinger G, Dorafshar A, Gilson M, Mithani S, Manson P, Rodriguez E. Blunt-mechanism facial fracture patterns associated with internal carotid artery injuries: recommendations for additional screening criteria based on analysis of 4,398 patients. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013;71:2092-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Blunt internal carotid artery injuries (BCAIs) can result from craniofacial trauma, yet the association between craniofacial fractures and BCAIs is poorly understood...
  69. Kang H, Kim M, Hong S, Lee H, Kim T, Yeo S. Comparison of temporal bone fractures in children and adults. Acta Otolaryngol. 2013;133:469-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Contrary to our expectation, that the clinical characteristics of temporal bone fracture would differ in children and adults, we found that the two groups were similar...
  70. Emami P, Kaiser T, Regelsberger J, Goebell E, Fiehler J, Westphal M, et al. Case report: surviving a tiger attack. Neurosurg Rev. 2012;35:621-4; discussion 624 pubmed publisher
    ..This seems to be related to the specific dynamics of the cranial assault and the reduced forces applied to the patient's head demonstrated in a 3D bite simulation...
  71. Bula Sternberg J, Laniado M, Kittner T, Bonnaire F, Lein T, Bula P. [CT-findings in penetrating captive bolt injuries to the head and brain: analysis of the trauma-related CT-findings and review of the literature]. Rofo. 2011;183:1070-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on some clinical examples the trauma-related CT-findings are introduced and a short overview of the relevant literature is also given...
  72. Wilson P, Chua M, Care M, Greiner M, Keeshin B, Bennett B. Utility of head computed tomography in children with a single extremity fracture. J Pediatr. 2014;164:1274-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the clinical and forensic utility of head computed tomography (CT) in children younger than 2 years of age with an acute isolated extremity fracture and an otherwise-negative skeletal survey...
  73. Sandler A, Sturrock D, Branfield J, Abbott R, Goodrich J, Biswas A, et al. Marvelous medicine: the untold story of the Wade-Dahl-Till valve. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2012;9:482-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The development of the WDT valve marked a significant turning point in the surgical management of pediatric hydrocephalus in general and in shunt valve technology in particular...