orbital neoplasms

Summary

Summary: Neoplasms of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.

Top Publications

  1. Tailor T, Gupta D, Dalley R, Keene C, Anzai Y. Orbital neoplasms in adults: clinical, radiologic, and pathologic review. Radiographics. 2013;33:1739-58 pubmed publisher
    b>Orbital neoplasms in adults may be categorized on the basis of location and histologic type. Imaging features of these lesions often reflect their tissue composition...
  2. Mynatt C, Feldman K, Thompson L. Orbital infantile myofibroma: a case report and clinicopathologic review of 24 cases from the literature. Head Neck Pathol. 2011;5:205-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Orbital disease is usually isolated rather than part of systemic disease, and shows an excellent long-term prognosis, making appropriate separation from other conditions important...
  3. Savino G, Battendieri R, Balia L, Colucci D, Larocca L, Laurenti L, et al. Evaluation of intraorbital injection of rituximab for treatment of primary ocular adnexal lymphoma: a pilot study. Cancer Sci. 2011;102:1565-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These preliminary findings suggest that intralesional rituximab is a well-tolerated strategy in anterior intraorbital lesion localization of lymphoma...
  4. Goda J, Le L, Lapperriere N, Millar B, Payne D, Gospodarowicz M, et al. Localized orbital mucosa-associated lymphoma tissue lymphoma managed with primary radiation therapy: efficacy and toxicity. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;81:e659-66 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the clinical outcomes and late effects of radiation therapy (RT) in localized primary orbital mucosa-associated lymphoma tissue (MALT) lymphoma (POML)...
  5. Ulivieri S, Toninelli S, Giorgio A, Fruschelli M, Miracco C, Oliveri G. Orbital glomangioma. Orbit. 2012;31:216-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our case adds to the very few cases of orbital glomangioma reported in the literature and demonstrates that this tumor can be safely removed...
  6. Calsina M, Philipone E, Patwardhan M, Eisig S, Prat J, Kazim M. Solitary orbital myofibroma: clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic findings. A report of two cases. Orbit. 2011;30:180-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Complete excision with close follow-up is the preferred treatment. Solitary myofibroma should be considered in the differential diagnoses of fibrous tumors with bone destruction in the orbit...
  7. Nagashima H, Yamamoto K, Kawamura A, Nagashima T, Nomura K, Yoshida M. Pediatric orbital schwannoma originating from the oculomotor nerve. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2012;9:165-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite the rarity of these intraorbital extraocular tumors in children, schwannomas should be differentiated from other intraorbital tumors...
  8. Naraghi M, Kashfi A. Endonasal endoscopic resection of ethmoido-orbital osteoma compressing the optic nerve. Am J Otolaryngol. 2003;24:408-12 pubmed
    ..This approach could be judiciously used in large ethmoido-orbital osteomas in selected cases...
  9. Oworu O, Kyle P, Morton R. Metastatic oesophageal carcinoma presenting as a lacrimal gland tumour. Br J Ophthalmol. 2004;88:972-3 pubmed
  10. Uno T, Isobe K, Shikama N, Nishikawa A, Oguchi M, Ueno N, et al. Radiotherapy for extranodal, marginal zone, B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue originating in the ocular adnexa: a multiinstitutional, retrospective review of 50 patients. Cancer. 2003;98:865-71 pubmed

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Tailor T, Gupta D, Dalley R, Keene C, Anzai Y. Orbital neoplasms in adults: clinical, radiologic, and pathologic review. Radiographics. 2013;33:1739-58 pubmed publisher
    b>Orbital neoplasms in adults may be categorized on the basis of location and histologic type. Imaging features of these lesions often reflect their tissue composition...
  2. Mynatt C, Feldman K, Thompson L. Orbital infantile myofibroma: a case report and clinicopathologic review of 24 cases from the literature. Head Neck Pathol. 2011;5:205-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Orbital disease is usually isolated rather than part of systemic disease, and shows an excellent long-term prognosis, making appropriate separation from other conditions important...
  3. Savino G, Battendieri R, Balia L, Colucci D, Larocca L, Laurenti L, et al. Evaluation of intraorbital injection of rituximab for treatment of primary ocular adnexal lymphoma: a pilot study. Cancer Sci. 2011;102:1565-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These preliminary findings suggest that intralesional rituximab is a well-tolerated strategy in anterior intraorbital lesion localization of lymphoma...
  4. Goda J, Le L, Lapperriere N, Millar B, Payne D, Gospodarowicz M, et al. Localized orbital mucosa-associated lymphoma tissue lymphoma managed with primary radiation therapy: efficacy and toxicity. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;81:e659-66 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the clinical outcomes and late effects of radiation therapy (RT) in localized primary orbital mucosa-associated lymphoma tissue (MALT) lymphoma (POML)...
  5. Ulivieri S, Toninelli S, Giorgio A, Fruschelli M, Miracco C, Oliveri G. Orbital glomangioma. Orbit. 2012;31:216-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our case adds to the very few cases of orbital glomangioma reported in the literature and demonstrates that this tumor can be safely removed...
  6. Calsina M, Philipone E, Patwardhan M, Eisig S, Prat J, Kazim M. Solitary orbital myofibroma: clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic findings. A report of two cases. Orbit. 2011;30:180-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Complete excision with close follow-up is the preferred treatment. Solitary myofibroma should be considered in the differential diagnoses of fibrous tumors with bone destruction in the orbit...
  7. Nagashima H, Yamamoto K, Kawamura A, Nagashima T, Nomura K, Yoshida M. Pediatric orbital schwannoma originating from the oculomotor nerve. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2012;9:165-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite the rarity of these intraorbital extraocular tumors in children, schwannomas should be differentiated from other intraorbital tumors...
  8. Naraghi M, Kashfi A. Endonasal endoscopic resection of ethmoido-orbital osteoma compressing the optic nerve. Am J Otolaryngol. 2003;24:408-12 pubmed
    ..This approach could be judiciously used in large ethmoido-orbital osteomas in selected cases...
  9. Oworu O, Kyle P, Morton R. Metastatic oesophageal carcinoma presenting as a lacrimal gland tumour. Br J Ophthalmol. 2004;88:972-3 pubmed
  10. Uno T, Isobe K, Shikama N, Nishikawa A, Oguchi M, Ueno N, et al. Radiotherapy for extranodal, marginal zone, B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue originating in the ocular adnexa: a multiinstitutional, retrospective review of 50 patients. Cancer. 2003;98:865-71 pubmed
  11. Gunduz K, Shields C, Günalp I, Erden E, Shields J. Orbital schwannoma: correlation of magnetic resonance imaging and pathologic findings. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2003;241:593-597 pubmed publisher
    ..To report the correlation between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and histopathology of orbital schwannomas...
  12. Coupland S, Hummel M, Stein H. Ocular adnexal lymphomas: five case presentations and a review of the literature. Surv Ophthalmol. 2002;47:470-90 pubmed
  13. Mee J, McKelvie P, McNab A. Orbital teratoma: late presentation with normal vision. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2002;30:41-3 pubmed
    ..Histology revealed tissues derived from all three germ cell layers. The tumour was removed with preservation of vision and resolution of the strabismus. Late presentation of an orbital teratoma with a good visual outcome is exceptional...
  14. Le Q, Eulau S, George T, Hildebrand R, Warnke R, Donaldson S, et al. Primary radiotherapy for localized orbital MALT lymphoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2002;52:657-63 pubmed
    ..To define the natural history, prognosis, and radiocurability of localized orbital extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)...
  15. Demirci H, Shields C, Shields J, Honavar S, Mercado G, Tovilla J. Orbital tumors in the older adult population. Ophthalmology. 2002;109:243-8 pubmed
    ..To determine the types and frequency of orbital tumors in the older adult population...
  16. Sen S, Kashyap S, Thanikachalam S, Betharia S. Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the orbit. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2002;39:242-4 pubmed
  17. Suh C, Shim S, Lee S, Yang W, Lee S, Hahn J. Orbital marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT: radiotherapy results and clinical behavior. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006;65:228-33 pubmed
    ..To elucidate the clinical behavior and treatment outcome of low-grade primary orbital lymphoma arising from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)...
  18. Bernardini F, de Conciliis C, Schneider S, Kersten R, Kulwin D. Solitary fibrous tumor of the orbit: is it rare? Report of a case series and review of the literature. Ophthalmology. 2003;110:1442-8 pubmed
    ..We believe that the orbital SFT is a relatively common tumor and that it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any orbital tumor...
  19. Tezer M, Ozcan M, Han O, Unal A, Ozlugedik S. Schwannoma originating from the infraorbital nerve: a case report. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2006;33:343-5 pubmed
    ..The histopathological report was "schwannoma". Seven cases of schwannomas arising from the infraorbital nerve reported in English literature. In this paper we report a case of infraorbital schwannoma and review the literature...
  20. Yan J, Li Y, Wu Z. Orbital cavernous hemangioma with bone erosion. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2006;244:1534-5 pubmed
    ..To report a rare computed tomography (CT) feature in one case of orbital cavernous hemangioma (OCH)...
  21. Ben Simon G, Cheung N, McKelvie P, Fox R, McNab A. Oral chlorambucil for extranodal, marginal zone, B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue of the orbit. Ophthalmology. 2006;113:1209-13 pubmed
    ..To report the outcome of oral chlorambucil as a single treatment in patients with orbital mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma...
  22. Huang H, Liu C, Lin K, Chen H. Giant ethmoid osteoma with orbital extension, a nasoendoscopic approach using an intranasal drill. Laryngoscope. 2001;111:430-2 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, orbital extension is uncommon. Treatment remains controversial, with open procedures typically being used. In this article, we present a less invasive yet safe and effective approach to treatment...
  23. Nam H, Ahn Y, Kim Y, Ko Y, Kim W. Prognostic significance of anatomic subsites: results of radiation therapy for 66 patients with localized orbital marginal zone B cell lymphoma. Radiother Oncol. 2009;90:236-41 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the prognostic significance of anatomic subsites for marginal zone B cell lymphoma confined to the orbit...
  24. Bhatia S, Paulino A, Buatti J, Mayr N, Wen B. Curative radiotherapy for primary orbital lymphoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2002;54:818-23 pubmed
    ..In addition, we also analyzed the risk factors for complications in the radiotherapeutic management of this tumor...
  25. Demirci H, Shields C, Karatza E, Shields J. Orbital lymphoproliferative tumors: analysis of clinical features and systemic involvement in 160 cases. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:1626-31, 1631.e1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the risk for systemic lymphoma (SL) in the patients with orbital lymphoproliferative tumor (OLT)...
  26. Scarone P, Leclerq D, Heran F, Robert G. Long-term results with exophthalmos in a surgical series of 30 sphenoorbital meningiomas. Clinical article. J Neurosurg. 2009;111:1069-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors analyzed the long-term results and radiological aspects of sphenoorbital meningioma (with emphasis on exophthalmos) in a series of 30 patients who underwent resection...
  27. De Cicco L, Cella L, Liuzzi R, Solla R, Farella A, Punzo G, et al. Radiation therapy in primary orbital lymphoma: a single institution retrospective analysis. Radiat Oncol. 2009;4:60 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study is to retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness and the toxicity of radiation treatment in patients with primary orbital lymphoma...
  28. Crist W, Anderson J, Meza J, Fryer C, Raney R, Ruymann F, et al. Intergroup rhabdomyosarcoma study-IV: results for patients with nonmetastatic disease. J Clin Oncol. 2001;19:3091-102 pubmed
    ..The study goal was to improve outcome in children with rhabdomyosarcoma by comparing risk-based regimens of surgery, radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy...
  29. Scheuerle A, Steiner H, Kolling G, Kunze S, Aschoff A. Treatment and long-term outcome of patients with orbital cavernomas. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004;138:237-44 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the long-term prognosis of visual function in patients with orbital cavernomas after conservative and surgical treatment...
  30. Kramer T, Grossniklaus H, McLean I, Orcutt J, Green W, Iliff N, et al. Histiocytoid variant of eccrine sweat gland carcinoma of the eyelid and orbit: report of five cases. Ophthalmology. 2002;109:553-9 pubmed
    ..To study the clinicopathologic features of the histiocytoid variant of adenocarcinoma of the eccrine sweat gland of the eye and orbit...
  31. Hasegawa M, Kojima M, Shioya M, Tamaki Y, Saitoh J, Sakurai H, et al. Treatment results of radiotherapy for malignant lymphoma of the orbit and histopathologic review according to the WHO classification. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2003;57:172-6 pubmed
    ..To analyze the results of radiotherapy (RT) for malignant lymphoma of the orbit and to evaluate them compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) classification published in 2001...
  32. Reeves D, Levine M, Lash R. Nonpalpable breast carcinoma presenting as orbital infiltration: case presentation and literature review. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2002;18:84-8 pubmed
    ..To report orbital metastasis as the presenting sign of a nonpalpable breast carcinoma in a 61-year-old woman...
  33. Son S, Choi B, Kim G, Yang S, Hong Y, Choi I, et al. Primary radiation therapy in patients with localized orbital marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT Lymphoma). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;77:86-91 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the outcomes of patients with localized orbital marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) who were treated with radiotherapy (RT)...
  34. Furusato E, Valenzuela I, Fanburg Smith J, Auerbach A, Furusato B, Cameron J, et al. Orbital solitary fibrous tumor: encompassing terminology for hemangiopericytoma, giant cell angiofibroma, and fibrous histiocytoma of the orbit: reappraisal of 41 cases. Hum Pathol. 2011;42:120-8 pubmed publisher
  35. Ng E, Ilsen P. Orbital metastases. Optometry. 2010;81:647-57 pubmed publisher
    ..If suspecting an orbital metastasis, neuroimaging is important, as well as a referral to the patient's primary care provider, oncologist, and ophthalmologist...
  36. Ahmad S, Esmaeli B. Metastatic tumors of the orbit and ocular adnexa. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2007;18:405-13 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this article is to review the incidence, presentation, and clinical features of metastatic tumors of the orbit and ocular adnexa and discuss their multidisciplinary care...
  37. Merani R, Khannah G, Mann S, Ghabrial R. Orbital leiomyoma: a case report with clinical, radiological and pathological correlation. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2005;33:408-11 pubmed
    ..Surgical excision in this case excluded malignancy, provided a definitive diagnosis of a rare entity and resulted in marked clinical improvement...
  38. Lemke A, Kazi I, Felix R. Magnetic resonance imaging of orbital tumors. Eur Radiol. 2006;16:2207-19 pubmed
    ..In most clinical questions concerning eye and orbit pathologies magnetic resonance imaging is superior to computed tomography and should be early performed...
  39. Stafford S, Kozelsky T, Garrity J, Kurtin P, Leavitt J, Martenson J, et al. Orbital lymphoma: radiotherapy outcome and complications. Radiother Oncol. 2001;59:139-44 pubmed
    ..Forty-eight patients presenting with orbital NHL were treated with radiation and were evaluated for local control, overall survival, cause-specific survival, and complications...
  40. Salam A, Saldana M, Zaman N. Orbital cellulitis or lymphoma? A diagnostic challenge. J Laryngol Otol. 2005;119:740-2 pubmed
    ..This emphasizes the significance of clinical alertness and adequate tissue sampling; this can have a great impact on early diagnosis and treatment...
  41. Romer M, Bode B, Schuknecht B, Schmid S, Holzmann D. Solitary fibrous tumor of the orbit--two cases and a review of the literature. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2005;262:81-8 pubmed
    ..Radical resection is the treatment of choice, since no other treatment option has been proven to be efficient...
  42. Ben Simon G, Annunziata C, Fink J, Villablanca P, McCann J, Goldberg R. Rethinking orbital imaging establishing guidelines for interpreting orbital imaging studies and evaluating their predictive value in patients with orbital tumors. Ophthalmology. 2005;112:2196-207 pubmed
  43. Shrivastava R, Sen C, Costantino P, Della Rocca R. Sphenoorbital meningiomas: surgical limitations and lessons learned in their long-term management. J Neurosurg. 2005;103:491-7 pubmed
    ..High-dose radiation therapy has often been described as the only treatment capable of achieving tumor control, although often at the expense of the patient's progressive visual deterioration...
  44. Chung E, Smirniotopoulos J, Specht C, Schroeder J, Cube R. From the archives of the AFIP: Pediatric orbit tumors and tumorlike lesions: nonosseous lesions of the extraocular orbit. Radiographics. 2007;27:1777-99 pubmed
    ..These lesions usually stop growing or spontaneously regress. All of these extraocular masses typically manifest with proptosis, and imaging differentiation is desirable because the treatments and prognoses vary greatly...
  45. Sandalcioglu I, Gasser T, Mohr C, Stolke D, Wiedemayer H. Spheno-orbital meningiomas: interdisciplinary surgical approach, resectability and long-term results. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2005;33:260-6 pubmed
    ..To describe the interdisciplinary surgical approach in spheno-orbital meningiomas and to evaluate the operative results regarding resectability and functional outcome...
  46. Gabdrakhmanova A, Altynbaeva L. [The first experience in using radionuclude by single-photon emission computed tomography in the diagnosis of orbital neoplasms]. Vestn Oftalmol. 2008;124:39-41 pubmed
    ..Thus, the characteristic differentially diagnostic signs of benign and malignant orbital neoplasms were revealed.
  47. Zhou P, Ng A, Silver B, Li S, Hua L, Mauch P. Radiation therapy for orbital lymphoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2005;63:866-71 pubmed
    ..To describe radiation techniques and evaluate outcomes for orbital lymphoma...
  48. Rootman J. Vascular malformations of the orbit: hemodynamic concepts. Orbit. 2003;22:103-20 pubmed
    ..Cavernous hemangiomas are also malformations that demonstrate direct low flow through the lesion...
  49. Ahmed S, Shahid R, Sison C, Fuchs A, Mehrotra B. Orbital lymphomas: a clinicopathologic study of a rare disease. Am J Med Sci. 2006;331:79-83 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the clinicopathologic features and prognosis of patients with orbital lymphomas...
  50. Aviv R, Miszkiel K. Orbital imaging: Part 2. Intraorbital pathology. Clin Radiol. 2005;60:288-307 pubmed
    ..Knowledge of the contents of each compartment facilitates the differential diagnosis. Globe pathology is not dealt with in this review...
  51. Liao S, Kao S, Hou P, Chen M. Results of radiotherapy for orbital and adnexal lymphoma. Orbit. 2002;21:117-23 pubmed
    ..One patient developed a recalcitrant trophic corneal ulcer and ultimately required corneal transplantation. In conclusion, radiotherapy is a safe and effective local treatment in the management of primary orbital or adnexal lymphoma...
  52. Martinet S, Ozsahin M, Belkacemi Y, Landmann C, Poortmans P, Oehlere C, et al. Outcome and prognostic factors in orbital lymphoma: a Rare Cancer Network study on 90 consecutive patients treated with radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2003;55:892-8 pubmed
    ..To assess the outcome and prognostic factors in patients with orbital lymphoma treated by radiotherapy (RT)...
  53. Lee J, Kim M, Lee K, Hyun M, Chung H, Kim D, et al. Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-type of the orbit and ocular adnexa. Ann Hematol. 2005;84:13-8 pubmed
    ..Radiotherapy alone can produce excellent local control and survival in patients with localized MALT lymphoma of OOA. Systemic chemotherapy should be considered in patients with advanced stages or systemic manifestation...
  54. Yan J, Wu Z. Cavernous hemangioma of the orbit: analysis of 214 cases. Orbit. 2004;23:33-40 pubmed
    ..Anterior orbitotomy has become an important surgical procedure in the treatment of orbital cavernous hemangioma with excellent effect...
  55. Yadav B, Sharma S. Orbital lymphoma: role of radiation. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2009;57:91-7 pubmed
    ..Available data support the acceptance of radiotherapy as a standard therapeutic option in patients with low to intermediate grade orbital lymphoma. Toxicity of radiotherapy is mild if delivered precisely...
  56. Sullivan T, Valenzuela A. Imaging features of ocular adnexal lymphoproliferative disease. Eye (Lond). 2006;20:1189-95 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the imaging characteristics of a cohort of patients with ocular adnexal lymphoproliferative disease (OALD)...
  57. Avilés A, Neri N, Calva A, Huerta Guzman J, Cleto S, Nambo M. Addition of a short course of chemotherapy did not improve outcome in patients with localized marginal B-cell lymphoma of the orbit. Oncology. 2006;70:173-6 pubmed
    ..The present study was designed to define if the use of radiotherapy is sufficient in these patients or if the use of adjuvant chemotherapy would improve the outcome...
  58. Pfeffer M, Rabin T, Tsvang L, Goffman J, Rosen N, Symon Z. Orbital lymphoma: is it necessary to treat the entire orbit?. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2004;60:527-30 pubmed
    ..We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 23 consecutive patients to test the hypothesis that partial orbit RT is effective and less toxic than whole orbit RT...
  59. Tanaka A, Mihara F, Yoshiura T, Togao O, Kuwabara Y, Natori Y, et al. Differentiation of cavernous hemangioma from schwannoma of the orbit: a dynamic MRI study. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2004;183:1799-804 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the capability of dynamic contrast MRI to differentiate hemangioma from schwannoma of the orbit...
  60. Fung C, Tarbell N, Lucarelli M, Goldberg S, Linggood R, Harris N, et al. Ocular adnexal lymphoma: clinical behavior of distinct World Health Organization classification subtypes. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2003;57:1382-91 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the clinical behavior and treatment outcome of ocular adnexal lymphomas classified by the World Health Organization system, with emphasis on marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)...
  61. Kottler U, Cursiefen C, Holbach L. Orbital involvement in multiple myeloma: first sign of insufficient chemotherapy. Ophthalmologica. 2003;217:76-8 pubmed
    ..Orbital involvement in multiple myeloma was the only sign of insufficient chemotherapy...
  62. Ejima Y, Sasaki R, Okamoto Y, Maruta T, Azumi A, Hayashi Y, et al. Ocular adnexal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma treated with radiotherapy. Radiother Oncol. 2006;78:6-9 pubmed
    ..Five-year local control and progression-free survival rates were 100 and 77%, respectively. The most common relapsed site was the contralateral orbit. Thirty Gy of local irradiation seemed to be quite effective and safe...