palate

Summary

Summary: The structure that forms the roof of the mouth. It consists of the anterior hard palate (PALATE, HARD) and the posterior soft palate (PALATE, SOFT).

Top Publications

  1. Risley M, Garrod D, Henkemeyer M, McLean W. EphB2 and EphB3 forward signalling are required for palate development. Mech Dev. 2009;126:230-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous work had shown that the loss of ephrinB1 protein alone or compound loss of EphB2 and EphB3 leads to cleft palate. Because of the bidirectional signalling capability of these molecules, it was not clear whether forward or ..
  2. Martínez Sanz E, Del Río A, Barrio C, Murillo J, Maldonado E, Garcillán B, et al. Alteration of medial-edge epithelium cell adhesion in two Tgf-beta3 null mouse strains. Differentiation. 2008;76:417-30 pubmed
    Although palatal shelf adhesion is a crucial event during palate development, little work has been carried out to determine which molecules are responsible for this process...
  3. Gkantidis N, Blumer S, Katsaros C, Graf D, Chiquet M. Site-specific expression of gelatinolytic activity during morphogenesis of the secondary palate in the mouse embryo. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47762 pubmed publisher
    Morphogenesis of the secondary palate in mammalian embryos involves two major events: first, reorientation of the two vertically oriented palatal shelves into a horizontal position above the tongue, and second, fusion of the two shelves ..
  4. Bejdová S, Krajíček V, Peterka M, Trefný P, Velemínská J. Variability in palatal shape and size in patients with bilateral complete cleft lip and palate assessed using dense surface model construction and 3D geometric morphometrics. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2012;40:201-8 pubmed publisher
    Bilateral complete cleft lip and palate (BCLP) is the most severe of the common orofacial clefts and is associated with the greatest deformity during development...
  5. Oka K, Honda M, Tsuruga E, Hatakeyama Y, Isokawa K, Sawa Y. Roles of collagen and periostin expression by cranial neural crest cells during soft palate development. J Histochem Cytochem. 2012;60:57-68 pubmed publisher
    ..However, in comparison with the hard palate, there is still a lack of information about the mechanisms of soft palate development...
  6. Shin J, Nakagawa E, Kim E, Cho K, Lee J, Cho S, et al. miR-200b regulates cell migration via Zeb family during mouse palate development. Histochem Cell Biol. 2012;137:459-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Palate development requires coordinating proper cellular and molecular events in palatogenesis, including the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), apoptosis, cell proliferation, and cell migration...
  7. Economou A, Ohazama A, Porntaveetus T, Sharpe P, Kondo S, Basson M, et al. Periodic stripe formation by a Turing mechanism operating at growth zones in the mammalian palate. Nat Genet. 2012;44:348-51 pubmed publisher
    ..evidence of an activator-inhibitor system in the generation of the regularly spaced transverse ridges of the palate. We show that new ridges, called rugae, that are marked by stripes of expression of Shh (encoding Sonic hedgehog), ..
  8. Parada C, Chai Y. Roles of BMP signaling pathway in lip and palate development. Front Oral Biol. 2012;16:60-70 pubmed publisher
    Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CLP) and cleft palate only (CP) are severe disruptions affecting orofacial structures...
  9. Yu H, Ye X, Guo N, Nathans J. Frizzled 2 and frizzled 7 function redundantly in convergent extension and closure of the ventricular septum and palate: evidence for a network of interacting genes. Development. 2012;139:4383-94 pubmed publisher
    ..septal defects (VSDs) with ~15% penetrance; Fz2(+/-);Fz7(-/-) mice exhibit VSDs with ~50% penetrance and cleft palate with less than 10% penetrance; and Fz2(-/-);Fz7(-/-) mice exhibit convergent extension defects and mid-gestational ..
  10. Parada C, Li J, Iwata J, Suzuki A, Chai Y. CTGF mediates Smad-dependent transforming growth factor ? signaling to regulate mesenchymal cell proliferation during palate development. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:3482-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The pattern of Ctgf expression in wild-type embryos suggests that it may be involved in key processes during palate development...

Detail Information

Publications103 found, 100 shown here

  1. Risley M, Garrod D, Henkemeyer M, McLean W. EphB2 and EphB3 forward signalling are required for palate development. Mech Dev. 2009;126:230-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous work had shown that the loss of ephrinB1 protein alone or compound loss of EphB2 and EphB3 leads to cleft palate. Because of the bidirectional signalling capability of these molecules, it was not clear whether forward or ..
  2. Martínez Sanz E, Del Río A, Barrio C, Murillo J, Maldonado E, Garcillán B, et al. Alteration of medial-edge epithelium cell adhesion in two Tgf-beta3 null mouse strains. Differentiation. 2008;76:417-30 pubmed
    Although palatal shelf adhesion is a crucial event during palate development, little work has been carried out to determine which molecules are responsible for this process...
  3. Gkantidis N, Blumer S, Katsaros C, Graf D, Chiquet M. Site-specific expression of gelatinolytic activity during morphogenesis of the secondary palate in the mouse embryo. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47762 pubmed publisher
    Morphogenesis of the secondary palate in mammalian embryos involves two major events: first, reorientation of the two vertically oriented palatal shelves into a horizontal position above the tongue, and second, fusion of the two shelves ..
  4. Bejdová S, Krajíček V, Peterka M, Trefný P, Velemínská J. Variability in palatal shape and size in patients with bilateral complete cleft lip and palate assessed using dense surface model construction and 3D geometric morphometrics. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2012;40:201-8 pubmed publisher
    Bilateral complete cleft lip and palate (BCLP) is the most severe of the common orofacial clefts and is associated with the greatest deformity during development...
  5. Oka K, Honda M, Tsuruga E, Hatakeyama Y, Isokawa K, Sawa Y. Roles of collagen and periostin expression by cranial neural crest cells during soft palate development. J Histochem Cytochem. 2012;60:57-68 pubmed publisher
    ..However, in comparison with the hard palate, there is still a lack of information about the mechanisms of soft palate development...
  6. Shin J, Nakagawa E, Kim E, Cho K, Lee J, Cho S, et al. miR-200b regulates cell migration via Zeb family during mouse palate development. Histochem Cell Biol. 2012;137:459-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Palate development requires coordinating proper cellular and molecular events in palatogenesis, including the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), apoptosis, cell proliferation, and cell migration...
  7. Economou A, Ohazama A, Porntaveetus T, Sharpe P, Kondo S, Basson M, et al. Periodic stripe formation by a Turing mechanism operating at growth zones in the mammalian palate. Nat Genet. 2012;44:348-51 pubmed publisher
    ..evidence of an activator-inhibitor system in the generation of the regularly spaced transverse ridges of the palate. We show that new ridges, called rugae, that are marked by stripes of expression of Shh (encoding Sonic hedgehog), ..
  8. Parada C, Chai Y. Roles of BMP signaling pathway in lip and palate development. Front Oral Biol. 2012;16:60-70 pubmed publisher
    Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CLP) and cleft palate only (CP) are severe disruptions affecting orofacial structures...
  9. Yu H, Ye X, Guo N, Nathans J. Frizzled 2 and frizzled 7 function redundantly in convergent extension and closure of the ventricular septum and palate: evidence for a network of interacting genes. Development. 2012;139:4383-94 pubmed publisher
    ..septal defects (VSDs) with ~15% penetrance; Fz2(+/-);Fz7(-/-) mice exhibit VSDs with ~50% penetrance and cleft palate with less than 10% penetrance; and Fz2(-/-);Fz7(-/-) mice exhibit convergent extension defects and mid-gestational ..
  10. Parada C, Li J, Iwata J, Suzuki A, Chai Y. CTGF mediates Smad-dependent transforming growth factor ? signaling to regulate mesenchymal cell proliferation during palate development. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:3482-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The pattern of Ctgf expression in wild-type embryos suggests that it may be involved in key processes during palate development...
  11. Zhou J, Gao Y, Lan Y, Jia S, Jiang R. Pax9 regulates a molecular network involving Bmp4, Fgf10, Shh signaling and the Osr2 transcription factor to control palate morphogenesis. Development. 2013;140:4709-18 pubmed publisher
    Cleft palate is one of the most common birth defects in humans...
  12. Iwata J, Parada C, Chai Y. The mechanism of TGF-? signaling during palate development. Oral Dis. 2011;17:733-44 pubmed publisher
    Cleft palate, a malformation of the secondary palate development, is one of the most common human congenital birth defects...
  13. Lin C, Fisher A, Yin Y, Maruyama T, Veith G, Dhandha M, et al. The inductive role of Wnt-?-Catenin signaling in the formation of oral apparatus. Dev Biol. 2011;356:40-50 pubmed publisher
    Proper patterning and growth of oral structures including teeth, tongue, and palate rely on epithelial-mesenchymal interactions involving coordinated regulation of signal transduction...
  14. Yu K, Ornitz D. Histomorphological study of palatal shelf elevation during murine secondary palate formation. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:1737-44 pubmed publisher
    During mammalian secondary palate development, the palatal shelves undergo dramatic morphological changes to elevate from a vertical to a horizontal plane in the oral-nasal cavity. We found that E14...
  15. Nelson E, Levi B, Sorkin M, James A, Liu K, Quarto N, et al. Role of GSK-3? in the osteogenic differentiation of palatal mesenchyme. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25847 pubmed publisher
    ..The function of Glycogen Synthase Kinases 3? (GSK-3?) has previously been shown to be necessary for normal secondary palate development...
  16. Bush J, Jiang R. Palatogenesis: morphogenetic and molecular mechanisms of secondary palate development. Development. 2012;139:231-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The complexity of control of palatogenesis is reflected by the common occurrence of cleft palate in humans...
  17. Zhu Y, Ren C, Wan X, Zhu Y, Zhu J, Zhou H, et al. Gene expression of Hsp70, Hsp90 and Hsp110 families in normal palate and cleft palate during mouse embryogenesis. Toxicol Ind Health. 2013;29:915-30 pubmed publisher
    ..at GD18, all 19 Hsps of Hsp70, Hsp90 and Hsp110 families were expressed in the normal development of embryonic palate tissue in mice, but their expression patterns varied with different Hsps, presenting as a correlation with the ..
  18. Cobourne M, Green J. Hedgehog signalling in development of the secondary palate. Front Oral Biol. 2012;16:52-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In the developing palate, Shh is strongly expressed in the epithelium on the oral surface, in a series of stripes corresponding to the ..
  19. Randerath W, Verbraecken J, Andreas S, Bettega G, Boudewyns A, Hamans E, et al. Non-CPAP therapies in obstructive sleep apnoea. Eur Respir J. 2011;37:1000-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Multilevel surgery is only a salvage procedure for OSA patients...
  20. Stanier P, Pauws E. Development of the lip and palate: FGF signalling. Front Oral Biol. 2012;16:71-80 pubmed publisher
    ..is critically involved in several aspects of craniofacial development, including formation of the lip and the palate. FGF receptors are activated by extracellular FGF ligands in order to regulate cellular processes such as ..
  21. Jeong J, Cesario J, Zhao Y, Burns L, Westphal H, Rubenstein J. Cleft palate defect of Dlx1/2-/- mutant mice is caused by lack of vertical outgrowth in the posterior palate. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:1757-69 pubmed publisher
    Mice lacking the activities of Dlx1 and Dlx2 (Dlx1/2-/-) exhibit cleft palate, one of the most common human congenital defects, but the etiology behind this phenotype has been unknown...
  22. Dougherty M, Kamel G, Grimaldi M, Gfrerer L, Shubinets V, Ethier R, et al. Distinct requirements for wnt9a and irf6 in extension and integration mechanisms during zebrafish palate morphogenesis. Development. 2013;140:76-81 pubmed publisher
    Development of the palate in vertebrates involves cranial neural crest migration, convergence of facial prominences and extension of the cartilaginous framework...
  23. Martínez Abadías N, Holmes G, Pankratz T, Wang Y, Zhou X, Jabs E, et al. From shape to cells: mouse models reveal mechanisms altering palate development in Apert syndrome. Dis Model Mech. 2013;6:768-79 pubmed publisher
    ..bases underlying differential Apert syndrome phenotypes are still poorly understood and it is unclear why cleft palate is more frequent in patients carrying the S252W mutation...
  24. Kamel G, Hoyos T, Rochard L, Dougherty M, Kong Y, Tse W, et al. Requirement for frzb and fzd7a in cranial neural crest convergence and extension mechanisms during zebrafish palate and jaw morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2013;381:423-33 pubmed publisher
    ..This study underscores the important role of wnt-frizzled signaling in convergence and extension in palate and craniofacial morphogenesis, distinct regulation of upper vs...
  25. Shin J, Lee J, Cho K, Kwak S, Kwon H, Lee M, et al. MiR-200b is involved in Tgf-? signaling to regulate mammalian palate development. Histochem Cell Biol. 2012;137:67-78 pubmed publisher
    ..key mediators of the transforming growth factor beta (Tgf-?) pathway, play a crucial role in the regulation of palate development...
  26. Jalali A, Zhu X, Liu C, Nawshad A. Induction of palate epithelial mesenchymal transition by transforming growth factor ?3 signaling. Dev Growth Differ. 2012;54:633-48 pubmed publisher
    Transforming growth factor (TGF?)3 is essential for palate development, particularly during the late phase of palatogenesis when the disintegration of the palatal medial edge seam (MES) occurs resulting in mesenchymal confluence...
  27. Seelan R, Mukhopadhyay P, Warner D, Webb C, Pisano M, Greene R. Epigenetic regulation of Sox4 during palate development. Epigenomics. 2013;5:131-46 pubmed publisher
    Identification of genes that contribute to secondary palate development provide a better understanding of the etiology of palatal clefts...
  28. Dode C, Fouveaut C, Mortier G, Janssens S, Bertherat J, Mahoudeau J, et al. Novel FGFR1 sequence variants in Kallmann syndrome, and genetic evidence that the FGFR1c isoform is required in olfactory bulb and palate morphogenesis. Hum Mutat. 2007;28:97-8 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the presence of cleft palate in a patient carrying the p.E324X change shows that FGFR1c is important for palate morphogenesis too.
  29. Eberhart J, He X, Swartz M, Yan Y, Song H, Boling T, et al. MicroRNA Mirn140 modulates Pdgf signaling during palatogenesis. Nat Genet. 2008;40:290-8 pubmed publisher
    ..sonic hedgehog (Shh) or platelet-derived growth factor (Pdgf) causes craniofacial abnormalities, including cleft palate. The role that microRNAs play in modulating palatogenesis, however, is completely unknown...
  30. Liu W, Lan Y, Pauws E, Meester Smoor M, Stanier P, Zwarthoff E, et al. The Mn1 transcription factor acts upstream of Tbx22 and preferentially regulates posterior palate growth in mice. Development. 2008;135:3959-68 pubmed publisher
    The mammalian secondary palate exhibits morphological, pathological and molecular heterogeneity along the anteroposterior axis...
  31. MacLean J, Fitzsimons D, Hayward P, Waters K, Fitzgerald D. The identification of children with cleft palate and sleep disordered breathing using a referral system. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2008;43:245-50 pubmed publisher
    Cleft palate is associated with an increased risk of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) but the magnitude of this risk and specific risk factors are unclear...
  32. Warner D, Smith H, Webb C, Greene R, Pisano M. Expression of Wnts in the developing murine secondary palate. Int J Dev Biol. 2009;53:1105-12 pubmed publisher
    Morphogenesis of the mammalian secondary palate requires coordination of cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and synthesis of extracellular matrix molecules by numerous signal transduction pathways...
  33. Bosco A, Bosco J. An alternative technique to the harvesting of a connective tissue graft from a thin palate: enhanced wound healing. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 2007;27:133-9 pubmed
    ..A partial-thickness flap is raised, and a graft composed of epithelium and connective tissue is removed from the palate. The superficial layer (epithelium and a thin zone of connective tissue) is then dissected from the graft and ..
  34. Badcock M, Gordon I, McCullough M. A blinded randomized controlled trial comparing lignocaine and placebo administration to the palate for removal of maxillary third molars. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;36:1177-82 pubmed
    ..2 mL of lignocaine without vasoconstrictor was administered to one side of the palate and the same amount of normal saline administered to the other side...
  35. Pentenero M, Davico Bonino L, Tomasini C, Conrotto D, Gandolfo S. Localized oral amyloidosis of the palate. Amyloid. 2006;13:42-6 pubmed
    ..the case of a 68-year-old woman suffering from a primary localized amyloidosis presenting as a purple patch on the palate. The presence of systemic amyloidosis or underlying plasma cell dyscrasia have to be ruled out in patients ..
  36. Xu X, Han J, Ito Y, Bringas P, Urata M, Chai Y. Cell autonomous requirement for Tgfbr2 in the disappearance of medial edge epithelium during palatal fusion. Dev Biol. 2006;297:238-48 pubmed
    Palatal fusion is a complex, multi-step developmental process; the consequence of failure in this process is cleft palate, one of the most common birth defects in humans...
  37. Nawshad A, Medici D, Liu C, Hay E. TGFbeta3 inhibits E-cadherin gene expression in palate medial-edge epithelial cells through a Smad2-Smad4-LEF1 transcription complex. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:1646-53 pubmed
    Dissociation of medial-edge epithelium (MEE) during palate development is essential for mediating correct craniofacial morphogenesis...
  38. King K, Lam E, Faulkner M, Heo G, Major P. Vertical bone volume in the paramedian palate of adolescents: a computed tomography study. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2007;132:783-8 pubmed
    The paramedian palate (PP) has been used as a host site for orthodontic implant anchorage...
  39. Yu W, Kamara H, Svoboda K. The role of twist during palate development. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:2716-25 pubmed publisher
    ..However, decreasing Twist with siRNA did not completely block palate fusion, indicating that the function of Twist may be duplicated by other transcription factors.
  40. Jin J, Tan M, Warner D, Darling D, Higashi Y, Gridley T, et al. Mesenchymal cell remodeling during mouse secondary palate reorientation. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2110-7 pubmed publisher
    The formation of mammalian secondary palate requires a series of developmental events such as growth, elevation, and fusion...
  41. Baruah B, Goyal A, Shunyu N, Lynrah Z, Raphael V. Tuberculosis of nose and palate with vanishing uvula. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2011;29:63-5 pubmed publisher
    ..of tuberculosis in an adult male who presented with palatal perforation with vanishing uvula and arch deformity of the palate. The diagnosis was based on histopathology and patient's successful response to antituberculous drug treatment.
  42. Alves K, Peixoto V, Gomide M, de Carvalho Carrara C, Costa B. Prevalence of palatal and alveolar cysts in babies with cleft lip and palate. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2004;41:490-3 pubmed
    To evaluate the prevalence of palatal and alveolar cysts in babies with cleft lip and/or palate. Cross-sectional. Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies, University of São Paulo (HRAC-USP), Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil...
  43. Baumgaertel S. Quantitative investigation of palatal bone depth and cortical bone thickness for mini-implant placement in adults. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2009;136:104-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to investigate both variables in the palate quantitatively to aid clinicians in planning successful mini-implant placements...
  44. Knight A, Schutte B, Jiang R, Dixon M. Developmental expression analysis of the mouse and chick orthologues of IRF6: the gene mutated in Van der Woude syndrome. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:1441-7 pubmed
    Development of the lip and palate involves a complex series of events that are frequently disturbed resulting in the congenital anomalies cleft lip and cleft palate...
  45. Casey L, Lan Y, Cho E, Maltby K, Gridley T, Jiang R. Jag2-Notch1 signaling regulates oral epithelial differentiation and palate development. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:1830-44 pubmed
    ..developing tongue and subsequently elevate and fuse with each other above the tongue to form the intact secondary palate. Pathological palate-mandible or palate-tongue fusions have been reported in humans and other mammals, but the ..
  46. Murray S, Oram K, Gridley T. Multiple functions of Snail family genes during palate development in mice. Development. 2007;134:1789-97 pubmed
    b>Palate development requires precise regulation of gene expression changes, morphogenetic movements and alterations in cell physiology. Defects in any of these processes can result in cleft palate, a common human birth defect...
  47. Porntaveetus T, Oommen S, Sharpe P, Ohazama A. Expression of Fgf signalling pathway related genes during palatal rugae development in the mouse. Gene Expr Patterns. 2010;10:193-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Palatal rugae are ectodermal corrugated structures of the hard palate and in common with other ectodermal appendages, their development is initiated as epithelial thickenings that form ..
  48. Hirota N, Konaka K, Ono T, Tamine K, Kondo J, Hori K, et al. Reduced tongue pressure against the hard palate on the paralyzed side during swallowing predicts Dysphagia in patients with acute stroke. Stroke. 2010;41:2982-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Maximal tongue pressure on the hard palate when swallowing 5 mL of water was measured using a T-shaped sensor sheet with 5 measuring points in 33 dysphagic ..
  49. Ding H, Wu X, Bostrom H, Kim I, Wong N, Tsoi B, et al. A specific requirement for PDGF-C in palate formation and PDGFR-alpha signaling. Nat Genet. 2004;36:1111-6 pubmed
    ..perinatal period owing to feeding and respiratory difficulties associated with a complete cleft of the secondary palate. This phenotype was less severe than that of Pdgfra(-/-) embryos...
  50. Oberoi S, Chigurupati R, Vargervik K. Morphologic and management characteristics of individuals with unilateral cleft lip and palate who required maxillary advancement. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2008;45:42-9 pubmed publisher
    ..hypoplasia requiring maxillary advancement surgery in individuals with nonsyndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP)...
  51. Xu X, Han J, Ito Y, Bringas P, Deng C, Chai Y. Ectodermal Smad4 and p38 MAPK are functionally redundant in mediating TGF-beta/BMP signaling during tooth and palate development. Dev Cell. 2008;15:322-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated the role of TGF-beta signaling in tooth and palate development and noted that conditional inactivation of Smad4 in oral epithelium results in much milder phenotypes ..
  52. Vaziri Sani F, Kaartinen V, El Shahawy M, Linde A, Gritli Linde A. Developmental changes in cellular and extracellular structural macromolecules in the secondary palate and in the nasal cavity of the mouse. Eur J Oral Sci. 2010;118:221-36 pubmed publisher
    ..the hitherto largely unknown expression patterns of some specific cellular and extracellular molecules during palate and nasal cavity development...
  53. San Miguel S, Serrano M, Sachar A, Henkemeyer M, Svoboda K, Benson M. Ephrin reverse signaling controls palate fusion via a PI3 kinase-dependent mechanism. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:357-64 pubmed publisher
    Secondary palate fusion requires adhesion and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of the epithelial layers on opposing palatal shelves...
  54. Cui X, Shiomi N, Chen J, Saito T, Yamamoto T, Ito Y, et al. Overexpression of Smad2 in Tgf-beta3-null mutant mice rescues cleft palate. Dev Biol. 2005;278:193-202 pubmed
    ..In the present study, the cleft palate phenotype in Tgf-beta3-/- mice was rescued by overexpression of a Smad2 transgene in Keratin 14-synthesizing MEE ..
  55. Rice R, Connor E, Rice D. Expression patterns of Hedgehog signalling pathway members during mouse palate development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2006;6:206-12 pubmed
    ..No differences were found in the expression patterns of Hh pathway members along the anterior-posterior axis of the developing palate.
  56. Yamamoto H, Ito K, Kawai M, Murakami Y, Bessho K, Ito Y. Runx3 expression during mouse tongue and palate development. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2006;288:695-9 pubmed
    ..reaction, immnunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization and found that Runx3 is expressed in the tongue and palate epithelium of mouse embryos from embryonic day 12.5 to 16.5...
  57. Pantalacci S, Semon M, Martin A, Chevret P, Laudet V. Heterochronic shifts explain variations in a sequentially developing repeated pattern: palatal ridges of muroid rodents. Evol Dev. 2009;11:422-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Palatal rugae are sensory ridges regularly arranged on the hard palate of mammals...
  58. Iordanskaia T, Nawshad A. Mechanisms of transforming growth factor ? induced cell cycle arrest in palate development. J Cell Physiol. 2011;226:1415-24 pubmed publisher
    Immaculate and complete palatal seam disintegration, which takes place at the last phase of palate development, is essential for normal palate development...
  59. Alkuraya F, Saadi I, Lund J, Turbe Doan A, Morton C, Maas R. SUMO1 haploinsufficiency leads to cleft lip and palate. Science. 2006;313:1751 pubmed
    ..We studied a patient with isolated cleft lip and palate and a balanced chromosomal translocation that disrupts the SUMO1 (small ubiquitin-related modifier) gene, ..
  60. Lee J, Kim J, Cho K, Lee M, Cho S, Kwak S, et al. Wnt11/Fgfr1b cross-talk modulates the fate of cells in palate development. Dev Biol. 2008;314:341-50 pubmed publisher
    Various cellular and molecular events underlie the elevation and fusion of the developing palate that occurs during embryonic development...
  61. Smith T, Wang X, Zhang W, Kulyk W, Nazarali A. Hoxa2 plays a direct role in murine palate development. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:2364-73 pubmed publisher
    The cleft palate exhibited by Hoxa2 null murine embryos has been described as being secondary to abnormalities of tongue musculature, and Hoxa2 was presumed to not play a direct role in palate development...
  62. Hilliard S, Yu L, Gu S, Zhang Z, Chen Y. Regional regulation of palatal growth and patterning along the anterior-posterior axis in mice. J Anat. 2005;207:655-67 pubmed
    Cleft palate is a congenital disorder arising from a failure in the multistep process of palate development. In its mildest form the cleft affects only the posterior soft palate...
  63. Acikalin M, Pasaoglu O, Cakli H, Gurbuz K, Canaz F. Malignant myoepithelioma of the palate: a case report with review of the clinicopathological characteristics. Yonsei Med J. 2009;50:848-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The parotid gland is the most common primary site and the palate the most common intra-oral site of occurrence...
  64. Catros S, de Gabory L, Stoll D, Deminiere C, Fricain J. Use of gutta percha cores in CT scan imaging for patent nasopalatine duct. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;37:1065-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Gutta percha cores were inserted in nasopalatine ducts to improve their visualization on CT scans. This simple method enhances the diagnostic quality of these images so that surgery can be performed more precisely. ..
  65. Alappat S, Zhang Z, Suzuki K, Zhang X, Liu H, Jiang R, et al. The cellular and molecular etiology of the cleft secondary palate in Fgf10 mutant mice. Dev Biol. 2005;277:102-13 pubmed
    ..In this study, we report the presence of a wide-open cleft secondary palate in Fgf10 homozygous null mutant mice. Fgf10 transcripts were detected in the palatal mesenchyme from E11.5 to E13...
  66. Liu W, Sun X, Braut A, Mishina Y, Behringer R, Mina M, et al. Distinct functions for Bmp signaling in lip and palate fusion in mice. Development. 2005;132:1453-61 pubmed
    Previous work suggested that cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is genetically distinct from isolated cleft secondary palate (CP)...
  67. Rice R, Thesleff I, Rice D. Regulation of Twist, Snail, and Id1 is conserved between the developing murine palate and tooth. Dev Dyn. 2005;234:28-35 pubmed
    The development of both the tooth and palate requires coordinated bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling between epithelial and mesenchymal tissues...
  68. Okano J, Suzuki S, Shiota K. Regional heterogeneity in the developing palate: morphological and molecular evidence for normal and abnormal palatogenesis. Congenit Anom (Kyoto). 2006;46:49-54 pubmed
    Development of the mammalian secondary palate involves the growth, elevation, medial elongation and midline fusion of palatal shelves...
  69. Escoda Francoli J, Almendros Marqués N, Berini Aytés L, Gay Escoda C. Nasopalatine duct cyst: report of 22 cases and review of the literature. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2008;13:E438-43 pubmed
    ..The present study describes the clinicopathological characteristics of 22 NPDCs and discusses their etiology, incidence, treatment and prognosis, with a review of the literature on the subject...
  70. Zirzow S, Lüdtke T, Brons J, Petry M, Christoffels V, Kispert A. Expression and requirement of T-box transcription factors Tbx2 and Tbx3 during secondary palate development in the mouse. Dev Biol. 2009;336:145-55 pubmed publisher
    Formation of the mammalian secondary palate is a highly regulated and complex process. Impairment of the underlying cellular and molecular programs often results in cleft palate, a common birth defect in mammals...
  71. Kinzinger G, Gülden N, Yildizhan F, Diedrich P. Efficiency of a skeletonized distal jet appliance supported by miniscrew anchorage for noncompliance maxillary molar distalization. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2009;136:578-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The partial coverage of the palate, in particular, often results in compromised oral hygiene...
  72. He F, Popkie A, Xiong W, Li L, Wang Y, Phiel C, et al. Gsk3? is required in the epithelium for palatal elevation in mice. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:3235-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Inactivation of Gsk3? in mice causes a cleft palate formation, suggesting an involvement of Wnt/?-catenin signaling during palatogenesis...
  73. Chen M, Huang H, Wang M, Wang A. Retinoic acid inhibits osteogenic differentiation of mouse embryonic palate mesenchymal cells. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2010;88:965-70 pubmed publisher
    All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), a known teratogenic factor affecting the development of cleft palate, has been shown to adversely affect craniofacial development...
  74. Phillips J, Klaiman P, Delorey R, Macdonald D. Predictors of velopharyngeal insufficiency in cleft palate orthognathic surgery. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005;115:681-6 pubmed
    ..16 unilateral complete and nine bilateral complete cleft lips and palates, and one isolated complete cleft palate) who had Le Fort I maxillary advancements between March 1, 1993, and February 7, 1996...
  75. Levi G, Mantero S, Barbieri O, Cantatore D, Paleari L, Beverdam A, et al. Msx1 and Dlx5 act independently in development of craniofacial skeleton, but converge on the regulation of Bmp signaling in palate formation. Mech Dev. 2006;123:3-16 pubmed
    ..and middle ear), synergistically (deposition of bone tissue) or converging on the same morphogenetic process (palate growth and closure)...
  76. Yu Z, Xing Y. All-trans retinoic acid inhibited chondrogenesis of mouse embryonic palate mesenchymal cells by down-regulation of TGF-beta/Smad signaling. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;340:929-34 pubmed
    ..All-trans retinoic acid (atRA), a vitamin A derivative, is a known teratogenic effector of cleft palate. Here, we evaluated the effects of atRA on the osteo-/chondrogenic differentiation of mouse embryonic palate ..
  77. Kuriyama M, Udagawa A, Yoshimoto S, Ichinose M, Sato K, Yamazaki K, et al. DNA methylation changes during cleft palate formation induced by retinoic acid in mice. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2008;45:545-51 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to analyze epigenetic (specifically, DNA methylation) participation in the mechanisms of cleft palate only induced by maternal exposure to all-trans retinoic acid in mice.
  78. Meng L, Bian Z, Torensma R, Von den Hoff J. Biological mechanisms in palatogenesis and cleft palate. J Dent Res. 2009;88:22-33 pubmed publisher
    Clefts of the palate are common birth defects requiring extensive treatment. They appear to be caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors during palatogenesis...
  79. Gritli Linde A. The etiopathogenesis of cleft lip and cleft palate: usefulness and caveats of mouse models. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2008;84:37-138 pubmed publisher
    Cleft lip and cleft palate are frequent human congenital malformations with a complex multifactorial etiology...
  80. Enomoto H, Nelson C, Somerville R, Mielke K, Dixon L, Powell K, et al. Cooperation of two ADAMTS metalloproteases in closure of the mouse palate identifies a requirement for versican proteolysis in regulating palatal mesenchyme proliferation. Development. 2010;137:4029-38 pubmed publisher
    ..overlap of Adamts9 with Adamts20 was identified using Adamts9(+/-);bt/bt mice, which have a fully penetrant cleft palate. Palate closure was delayed, although eventually completed, in both Adamts9(+/-);bt/+ and bt/bt mice, ..
  81. Curtin E, Hickey G, Kamel G, Davidson A, Liao E. Zebrafish wnt9a is expressed in pharyngeal ectoderm and is required for palate and lower jaw development. Mech Dev. 2011;128:104-15 pubmed publisher
    ..of Wnt/?-catenin signaling results in significant alterations in the facial form, and has been implicated in cleft palate phenotypes in mouse and man...
  82. Zayas J, O Brien D, Tai S, Ding J, Lim L, King M. Adaptation of an amphibian mucociliary clearance model to evaluate early effects of tobacco smoke exposure. Respir Res. 2004;5:9 pubmed
    ..The respiratory system has to undergo an iterative process of injury, healing and remodeling with every exposure...
  83. Jones M, Cadier M. Implementation of standardized medical photography for cleft lip and palate audit. J Audiov Media Med. 2004;27:154-60 pubmed
    Much has been published relating to the treatment and surgical outcome of cleft lip and palate disorders...
  84. Welsh I, Hagge Greenberg A, O Brien T. A dosage-dependent role for Spry2 in growth and patterning during palate development. Mech Dev. 2007;124:746-61 pubmed
    The formation of the palate involves the coordinated outgrowth, elevation and midline fusion of bilateral shelves leading to the separation of the oral and nasal cavities...
  85. Engleka K, Wu M, Zhang M, Antonucci N, Epstein J. Menin is required in cranial neural crest for palatogenesis and perinatal viability. Dev Biol. 2007;311:524-37 pubmed
    ..inactivation of menin in Pax3- or Wnt1-expressing neural crest cells leads to perinatal death, cleft palate and other cranial bone defects, which are associated with a decrease in p27(kip1) expression...
  86. Wang M, Huang H, Chen Y. Smad2/3 is involved in growth inhibition of mouse embryonic palate mesenchymal cells induced by all-trans retinoic acid. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2009;85:780-90 pubmed publisher
    Cleft palate is one of the major malformations induced by retinoic acid in both rodents and humans. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the mechanism by which all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) induces the cleft palate.
  87. Scapoli L, Martinelli M, Pezzetti F, Palmieri A, Girardi A, Savoia A, et al. Expression and association data strongly support JARID2 involvement in nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Hum Mutat. 2010;31:794-800 pubmed publisher
    Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) affects approximately 1 in 1,000 births...
  88. Wyatt A, Osborne R, Stewart H, Ragge N. Bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) mutations are associated with variable ocular, brain, ear, palate, and skeletal anomalies. Hum Mutat. 2010;31:781-7 pubmed publisher
    ..eye anomalies and a range of systemic abnormalities, including developmental delay, deafness, scoliosis, and cleft palate. We determined that BMP7 is expressed in the developing eye, brain, and ear in human embryos in a manner ..
  89. Jonnavithula N, Durga P, Madduri V, Ramachandran G, Nuvvula R, Srikanth R, et al. Efficacy of palatal block for analgesia following palatoplasty in children with cleft palate. Paediatr Anaesth. 2010;20:727-33 pubmed publisher
    ..e. blocking of naso palatine, greater and also lesser palatine nerves in children with cleft palate undergoing palatoplasty by evaluating its effects on intraoperative anesthetic requirement, postoperative ..
  90. He W, Meng T, Wu M, Shi B, Lu S, Li C. Perturbation of Fgf10 signal pathway in mouse embryonic palate by dexamethasone and vitamin B12 in vivo. J Pediatr Surg. 2010;45:2030-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to assess whether dexamethasone and vitamin B(12) affected the Fgf10 signal pathway of mouse embryonic palate.
  91. Yu H, Smallwood P, Wang Y, Vidaltamayo R, Reed R, Nathans J. Frizzled 1 and frizzled 2 genes function in palate, ventricular septum and neural tube closure: general implications for tissue fusion processes. Development. 2010;137:3707-17 pubmed publisher
    ..is a recurrent theme in mammalian embryology, and this process plays an integral role in the development of the palate, ventricular septum, neural tube, urethra, diaphragm and eye...
  92. Dhulipala V, Welshons W, Reddy C. Inhibition of human embryonic palatal mesenchymal cell cycle by secalonic acid D: a probable mechanism of its cleft palate induction. Orthod Craniofac Res. 2004;7:227-36 pubmed
    To assess the mechanism(s) of cleft palate induction by secalonic acid D (SAD) in human embryonic palatal mesenchymal (HEPM) cells and compare them with those evaluated in the murine embryonic palate.
  93. Cowan C, Cheng S, Ting K, Soo C, Walder B, Wu B, et al. Nell-1 induced bone formation within the distracted intermaxillary suture. Bone. 2006;38:48-58 pubmed
    Maxillary bone deficiencies, such as cleft palate and underdeveloped maxilla that require bone graft or regeneration after orthopedic or surgical expansion, pose a significant biomedical burden...
  94. Hohoff A, Rabe H, Ehmer U, Harms E. Palatal development of preterm and low birthweight infants compared to term infants - What do we know? Part 1: The palate of the term newborn. Head Face Med. 2005;1:8 pubmed
    ..One focus of this review is the analysis of studies on the palate of the term newborn, since knowing what is 'normal' is a precondition of being able to assess abnormalities.
  95. He F, Xiong W, Yu X, Espinoza Lewis R, Liu C, Gu S, et al. Wnt5a regulates directional cell migration and cell proliferation via Ror2-mediated noncanonical pathway in mammalian palate development. Development. 2008;135:3871-9 pubmed publisher
    Tissue and molecular heterogeneities are present in the developing secondary palate along the anteroposterior (AP) axis in mice...
  96. Stockmann P, Schlegel K, Srour S, Neukam F, Fenner M, Felszeghy E. Which region of the median palate is a suitable location of temporary orthodontic anchorage devices? A histomorphometric study on human cadavers aged 15-20 years. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2009;20:306-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Knowledge about the osseous conditions at this site is necessary to predict the expected degree of implant osseointegration...
  97. Pauws E, Hoshino A, Bentley L, Prajapati S, Keller C, Hammond P, et al. Tbx22null mice have a submucous cleft palate due to reduced palatal bone formation and also display ankyloglossia and choanal atresia phenotypes. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:4171-9 pubmed publisher
    Craniofacial defects involving the lip and/or palate are among the most common human birth defects. X-linked cleft palate and ankyloglossia results from loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the T-box transcription factor TBX22...
  98. Han J, Mayo J, Xu X, Li J, Bringas P, Maas R, et al. Indirect modulation of Shh signaling by Dlx5 affects the oral-nasal patterning of palate and rescues cleft palate in Msx1-null mice. Development. 2009;136:4225-33 pubmed publisher
    Cleft palate represents one of the most common congenital birth defects in human...
  99. Snyder Warwick A, Perlyn C, Pan J, Yu K, Zhang L, Ornitz D. Analysis of a gain-of-function FGFR2 Crouzon mutation provides evidence of loss of function activity in the etiology of cleft palate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:2515-20 pubmed publisher
    Cleft palate is a common birth defect in humans and is a common phenotype associated with syndromic mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (Fgfr2)...