priapism

Summary

Summary: A prolonged painful erection that may lasts hours and is not associated with sexual activity. It is seen in patients with SICKLE CELL ANEMIA, advanced malignancy, spinal trauma; and certain drug treatments.

Top Publications

  1. Kanika N, Melman A, Davies K. Experimental priapism is associated with increased oxidative stress and activation of protein degradation pathways in corporal tissue. Int J Impot Res. 2010;22:363-73 pubmed publisher
    b>Priapism is a debilitating disease for which there is at present no clinically accepted pharmacological intervention. It has been estimated that priapism lasting more than 24?h in patients is associated with a 44-90% rate of ED...
  2. Tong Y, Tar M, Melman A, Davies K. The opiorphin gene (ProL1) and its homologues function in erectile physiology. BJU Int. 2008;102:736-40 pubmed publisher
  3. Muneer A, Cellek S, Dogan A, Kell P, Ralph D, Minhas S. Investigation of cavernosal smooth muscle dysfunction in low flow priapism using an in vitro model. Int J Impot Res. 2005;17:10-8 pubmed
    ..acidosis and glucopenia, failure of conventional alpha-adrenergic agonists to produce tumescence in low flow priapism is associated with irreversible smooth muscle cell dysfunction, which is linked to ATP reduction and smooth ..
  4. Sadeghi Nejad H, Dogra V, Seftel A, Mohamed M. Priapism. Radiol Clin North Am. 2004;42:427-43 pubmed
    b>Priapism is a relatively uncommon condition that may present as a medical emergency associated with significant pain and anxiety in the veno-occlusive or low-flow variant...
  5. Champion H, Bivalacqua T, Takimoto E, Kass D, Burnett A. Phosphodiesterase-5A dysregulation in penile erectile tissue is a mechanism of priapism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:1661-6 pubmed
    The molecular mechanism for priapism is not well characterized...
  6. Burnett A, Bivalacqua T. Priapism: current principles and practice. Urol Clin North Am. 2007;34:631-42, viii pubmed
    b>Priapism, a pathologic condition of persistent penile erection in the absence of sexual excitation, is a true erectile disorder. Although it may seem to affect only a small population of male individuals, it carries major significance...
  7. Morrison B, Reid M, Madden W, Burnett A. Testosterone replacement therapy does not promote priapism in hypogonadal men with sickle cell disease: 12-month safety report. Andrology. 2013;1:576-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The safety of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in SCD in relation to priapism episodes is relatively unknown...
  8. Uluocak N, Atilgan D, Erdemir F, Parlaktas B, Yasar A, Erkorkmaz U, et al. An animal model of ischemic priapism and the effects of melatonin on antioxidant enzymes and oxidative injury parameters in rat penis. Int Urol Nephrol. 2010;42:889-95 pubmed publisher
    ..study was designed to produce ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rat corpus cavernosum by inducing 1 h of priapism and investigating the effects of melatonin on the levels of oxidative injury parameters...
  9. Claudino M, Franco Penteado C, Corat M, Gimenes A, Passos L, Antunes E, et al. Increased cavernosal relaxations in sickle cell mice priapism are associated with alterations in the NO-cGMP signaling pathway. J Sex Med. 2009;6:2187-96 pubmed publisher
    b>Priapism is defined as prolonged and persistent penile erection, unassociated with sexual interest or stimulation, and is one of the many serious complications associated with sickle cell disease (SCD).
  10. Fuentes E, Garcia S, Garrido M, Lorenzo C, Iglesias J, Sola J. Successful treatment of propofol-induced priapism with distal glans to corporal cavernosal shunt. Urology. 2009;74:113-5 pubmed publisher
    We report a case of postoperative pediatric priapism in a boy without a hematologic disorder after a propofol-based general anesthetic...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Kanika N, Melman A, Davies K. Experimental priapism is associated with increased oxidative stress and activation of protein degradation pathways in corporal tissue. Int J Impot Res. 2010;22:363-73 pubmed publisher
    b>Priapism is a debilitating disease for which there is at present no clinically accepted pharmacological intervention. It has been estimated that priapism lasting more than 24?h in patients is associated with a 44-90% rate of ED...
  2. Tong Y, Tar M, Melman A, Davies K. The opiorphin gene (ProL1) and its homologues function in erectile physiology. BJU Int. 2008;102:736-40 pubmed publisher
  3. Muneer A, Cellek S, Dogan A, Kell P, Ralph D, Minhas S. Investigation of cavernosal smooth muscle dysfunction in low flow priapism using an in vitro model. Int J Impot Res. 2005;17:10-8 pubmed
    ..acidosis and glucopenia, failure of conventional alpha-adrenergic agonists to produce tumescence in low flow priapism is associated with irreversible smooth muscle cell dysfunction, which is linked to ATP reduction and smooth ..
  4. Sadeghi Nejad H, Dogra V, Seftel A, Mohamed M. Priapism. Radiol Clin North Am. 2004;42:427-43 pubmed
    b>Priapism is a relatively uncommon condition that may present as a medical emergency associated with significant pain and anxiety in the veno-occlusive or low-flow variant...
  5. Champion H, Bivalacqua T, Takimoto E, Kass D, Burnett A. Phosphodiesterase-5A dysregulation in penile erectile tissue is a mechanism of priapism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:1661-6 pubmed
    The molecular mechanism for priapism is not well characterized...
  6. Burnett A, Bivalacqua T. Priapism: current principles and practice. Urol Clin North Am. 2007;34:631-42, viii pubmed
    b>Priapism, a pathologic condition of persistent penile erection in the absence of sexual excitation, is a true erectile disorder. Although it may seem to affect only a small population of male individuals, it carries major significance...
  7. Morrison B, Reid M, Madden W, Burnett A. Testosterone replacement therapy does not promote priapism in hypogonadal men with sickle cell disease: 12-month safety report. Andrology. 2013;1:576-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The safety of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in SCD in relation to priapism episodes is relatively unknown...
  8. Uluocak N, Atilgan D, Erdemir F, Parlaktas B, Yasar A, Erkorkmaz U, et al. An animal model of ischemic priapism and the effects of melatonin on antioxidant enzymes and oxidative injury parameters in rat penis. Int Urol Nephrol. 2010;42:889-95 pubmed publisher
    ..study was designed to produce ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rat corpus cavernosum by inducing 1 h of priapism and investigating the effects of melatonin on the levels of oxidative injury parameters...
  9. Claudino M, Franco Penteado C, Corat M, Gimenes A, Passos L, Antunes E, et al. Increased cavernosal relaxations in sickle cell mice priapism are associated with alterations in the NO-cGMP signaling pathway. J Sex Med. 2009;6:2187-96 pubmed publisher
    b>Priapism is defined as prolonged and persistent penile erection, unassociated with sexual interest or stimulation, and is one of the many serious complications associated with sickle cell disease (SCD).
  10. Fuentes E, Garcia S, Garrido M, Lorenzo C, Iglesias J, Sola J. Successful treatment of propofol-induced priapism with distal glans to corporal cavernosal shunt. Urology. 2009;74:113-5 pubmed publisher
    We report a case of postoperative pediatric priapism in a boy without a hematologic disorder after a propofol-based general anesthetic...
  11. Numan F, Cantasdemir M, Ozbayrak M, Sanli O, Kadioglu A, Hasanefendioglu A, et al. Posttraumatic nonischemic priapism treated with autologous blood clot embolization. J Sex Med. 2008;5:173-9 pubmed publisher
    High-flow arterial priapism is rare and characterized by a prolonged nonpainful erection. Autologous clot embolization allows complete resolution of the problem in most of the cases.
  12. Casiano H, Globerman D, Enns M. Recurrent priapism during treatment with clozapine, quetiapine and haloperidol. J Psychopharmacol. 2007;21:898-9 pubmed
    The following is a letter to the editor that represents a case of recurrent priapism. The patient received clozapine, quetiapine and haloperidol and had the adverse reaction of priapism, one episode of which required surgical intervention...
  13. Andrés Prado M, Vidal Formoso M. [Priapism associated with quetiapine in an elderly patient]. Actas Esp Psiquiatr. 2006;34:209-10 pubmed
  14. Hsu L, Diwan B, Ward J, Noguchi C. Pathology of "Berkeley" sickle-cell mice includes gallstones and priapism. Blood. 2006;107:3414-5 pubmed
  15. Ponniah A, Brown C, Taylor P. Priapism secondary to leukemia: effective management with prompt leukapheresis. Int J Urol. 2004;11:809-10 pubmed
    b>Priapism is a urological emergency; without prompt treatment the corpora cavernosa undergoes necrosis and fibrosis that may result in erectile dysfunction...
  16. Estrada C, Levine L. Tricorporal priapism in a patient with metastatic esophageal cancer. Urology. 2003;61:1259 pubmed
    Tricorporal priapism refers to priapism involving the corpora cavernosa and spongiosum. It is exceedingly rare and, depending on the etiology, may be difficult or impossible to treat...
  17. Morrison B, Burnett A. Stuttering priapism: insights into pathogenesis and management. Curr Urol Rep. 2012;13:268-76 pubmed publisher
    b>Priapism is defined as a persistent, painful erection that continues beyond, or is unrelated to, sexual stimulation. It may be categorized as either ischemic (low/absent flow) or nonischemic (high flow)...
  18. BURT F, Schirmer H, Scott W. A new concept in the management of priapism. J Urol. 1960;83:60-1 pubmed
  19. Brant W, Garcia M, Bella A, Chi T, Lue T. T-shaped shunt and intracavernous tunneling for prolonged ischemic priapism. J Urol. 2009;181:1699-705 pubmed publisher
    Conservative management of prolonged ischemic priapism is rarely effective. Interventions include corporal aspiration/irrigation, injection of vasoconstrictive agents or surgical procedures...
  20. Munarriz R, Park K, Huang Y, SAENZ DE TEJADA I, Moreland R, Goldstein I, et al. Reperfusion of ischemic corporal tissue: physiologic and biochemical changes in an animal model of ischemic priapism. Urology. 2003;62:760-4 pubmed
    ..Effective therapy for ischemic priapism reestablishes corporal venous outflow and arterial inflow and results in increased corporal partial pressure of ..
  21. Myers A, Barrueto F. Refractory priapism associated with ingestion of yohimbe extract. J Med Toxicol. 2009;5:223-5 pubmed
    ..In this report, we describe a severe case of intractable priapism associated with the ingestion of yohimbe extract...
  22. Olujohungbe A, Adeyoju A, Yardumian A, Akinyanju O, Morris J, Westerdale N, et al. A prospective diary study of stuttering priapism in adolescents and young men with sickle cell anemia: report of an international randomized control trial--the priapism in sickle cell study. J Androl. 2011;32:375-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Priapism is defined as a prolonged, persistent, and purposeless penile erection. It is a common (35%) but frequently understated complication in young men and adults with sickle cell disease...
  23. Kato G, Gladwin M, Steinberg M. Deconstructing sickle cell disease: reappraisal of the role of hemolysis in the development of clinical subphenotypes. Blood Rev. 2007;21:37-47 pubmed
    ..Pulmonary hypertension, priapism, leg ulceration and stroke, all subphenotypes of sickle cell disease, can be linked to the intensity of hemolysis...
  24. Gbadoe A, Geraldo A, Guedenon K, Koffi S, Agbetiafa K, Akpako P. [Stuttering priapism in children with sickle cell anemia in Togo]. Arch Pediatr. 2007;14:861-3 pubmed
    To describe clinical aspects and outcome of stuttering priapism (SP) in children with sickle cell anemia.
  25. Huang Y, Harraz A, Shindel A, Lue T. Evaluation and management of priapism: 2009 update. Nat Rev Urol. 2009;6:262-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Priapism is defined as a persistent penile erection (typically 4 h or longer) that is unrelated to sexual stimulation. Priapism can be classified as either ischemic or nonischemic...
  26. Burnett A, Pierorazio P. Corporal "snake" maneuver: corporoglanular shunt surgical modification for ischemic priapism. J Sex Med. 2009;6:1171-1176 pubmed publisher
    Current surgical shunting procedures for major ischemic priapism do not always effectively resolve acute presentations of this disorder...
  27. Abu Sham a R, Kufri F, Yassin I. Stuttering priapism complicating warfarin therapy in a patient with protein C deficiency. Int J Lab Hematol. 2008;30:339-43 pubmed publisher
    b>Priapism is a rare disorder defined as a persistent penile erection that continues hours beyond, or is unrelated to, sexual stimulation...
  28. Merritt A, Haiman C, Henderson S. Myth: blood transfusion is effective for sickle cell anemia-associated priapism. CJEM. 2006;8:119-22 pubmed
    b>Priapism is a recognized complication of sickle cell anemia (SCA). When initial conventional treatments fail, simple or exchange blood transfusion has been advocated as a secondary intervention...
  29. Burnett A, Bivalacqua T, Champion H, Musicki B. Feasibility of the use of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors in a pharmacologic prevention program for recurrent priapism. J Sex Med. 2006;3:1077-1084 pubmed publisher
    Recurrent ischemic priapism is an enigmatic erectile disorder in need of improved clinical interventions to avert its known, potentially serious complications.
  30. Broderick G. Priapism and sickle-cell anemia: diagnosis and nonsurgical therapy. J Sex Med. 2012;9:88-103 pubmed publisher
    b>Priapism describes a persistent erection lasting longer than 4 hours. Ischemic priapism and stuttering priapism are phenotypic manifestations of sickle-cell disease (SCD).
  31. du Toit R, Millson R, Heaton J, Adams M. Priapism. Can J Psychiatry. 2004;49:868-9 pubmed
  32. Levey H, Kutlu O, Bivalacqua T. Medical management of ischemic stuttering priapism: a contemporary review of the literature. Asian J Androl. 2012;14:156-63 pubmed publisher
    b>Priapism is defined as a prolonged and persistent erection of the penis without sexual stimulation. This is a poorly understood disease process with little information on the pathophysiology of this erectile disorder...
  33. Vesta K, Martina S, Kozlowski E. Propofol-induced priapism, a case confirmed with rechallenge. Ann Pharmacother. 2006;40:980-2 pubmed
    To report a case of propofol-induced priapism.
  34. Ahmed S, Ibrahim U, Hassan A. Hematological parameters in sickle cell anemia patients with and without priapism. Ann Saudi Med. 2006;26:439-43 pubmed
    b>Priapism was associated with certain hematological parameters in sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients in one report but not in another. We studied differences in haematological parameters between SCA patients with and without priapism.
  35. Harrison G, Dilley J, Loeb L, Nelson K. Priapism and quetiapine: a case report. Psychopharmacol Bull. 2006;39:117-9 pubmed
    b>Priapism is a "persistent erection not accompanied by sexual desire or stimulation, usually lasting more than six hours and typically involving only the corpora cavernosa...
  36. Salem E, El Aasser O. Management of ischemic priapism by penile prosthesis insertion: prevention of distal erosion. J Urol. 2010;183:2300-3 pubmed publisher
    Refractory ischemic priapism results in cavernous smooth muscle necrosis, fibrosis and eventual penile shortening...
  37. Muneer A, Cellek S, Ralph D, Minhas S. The investigation of putative agents, using an in vitro model, to prevent cavernosal smooth muscle dysfunction during low-flow priapism. BJU Int. 2008;102:988-92 pubmed publisher
    ..of putative agents for preventing irreversible smooth muscle dysfunction, using an in vitro model of low-flow priapism (a condition conventionally managed using a combination of corporal blood aspiration and instillation of alpha-..
  38. Costa W, Felix B, Cavalcanti A, Medeiros J, Sampaio F. Structural analysis of the corpora cavernosa in patients with ischaemic priapism. BJU Int. 2010;105:838-41; discussion 841 pubmed publisher
    ..Therapy (case series)...
  39. Oztürk M, Gumus M, Donmez H, Peynircioglu B, Onal B, Dinc H. Materials in embolotherapy of high-flow priapism: results and long-term follow-up. Diagn Interv Radiol. 2009;15:215-20 pubmed
    To review our experience with embolic materials used in the selective arterial embolization of high-flow priapism and present the results of long-term follow-up.
  40. McDonald M, Santucci R. Successful management of stuttering priapism using home self-injections of the alpha-agonist metaraminol. Int Braz J Urol. 2004;30:121-2 pubmed
    Low-flow priapism can result in impotence if treatment is delayed, yet patients with recurrent priapism often suffer delay before therapy...
  41. Imamoglu A, Bakirtas H, Conkbayir I, Tuygun C, Sarící H. An alternative noninvasive approach for the treatment of high-flow priapism in a child: duplex ultrasound-guided compression. J Pediatr Surg. 2006;41:446-8 pubmed
    We are presenting a 5-year-old boy with a traumatic high-flow priapism developed after a straddle injury and successfully treated by compression and simultaneous monitoring with a duplex ultrasound probe...
  42. Backenroth R, Landau E, Goren M, Raas Rothschild A. Fabry disease and G6PD in three family members with priapism: is the nitric oxide pathway to blame?. J Sex Med. 2010;7:1588-91 pubmed publisher
  43. Harrison G, Dilley J, Loeb L, Nelson K. Priapism and quetiapine in an HIV-positive male. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2006;26:100-1 pubmed
  44. Burnett A. Pathophysiology of priapism: dysregulatory erection physiology thesis. J Urol. 2003;170:26-34 pubmed
    While a modest amount of medical literature has been written on the topic of priapism, reports heretofore have focused predominantly on diagnostic and management related aspects of the disorder, providing meager information in regard to ..
  45. Gordon S, Stage K, Tansey K, Lotan Y. Conservative management of priapism in acute spinal cord injury. Urology. 2005;65:1195-7 pubmed
    To perform a retrospective chart review of priapism as a complication of spinal cord injury and review the management and follow-up...
  46. Burnett A, Bivalacqua T, Champion H, Musicki B. Long-term oral phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor therapy alleviates recurrent priapism. Urology. 2006;67:1043-8 pubmed
    Recurrent ischemic priapism describes a disorder of repeated episodes of prolonged penile erection that frequently leads to devastating complications of erectile tissue damage and erectile dysfunction...
  47. Husar M, Zerhau P. [Priapism in childhood--case report of 14-year-old boy]. Rozhl Chir. 2006;85:329-30 pubmed
    In this article, a 14-year-old boy with priapism is presented. A secondary low-flow type of priapism, persisting 11 hours, as a result of olanzapine and methylphenidate therapy was diagnosted...
  48. Yuan J, DeSouza R, Westney O, Wang R. Insights of priapism mechanism and rationale treatment for recurrent priapism. Asian J Androl. 2008;10:88-101 pubmed
    b>Priapism is defined as abnormal prolonged penile erection occurring beyond or unrelated to sexual interest...
  49. Vilke G, Harrigan R, Ufberg J, Chan T. Emergency evaluation and treatment of priapism. J Emerg Med. 2004;26:325-9 pubmed
    b>Priapism is a fairly uncommon presentation to the Emergency Department, but when it does present, it represents a true urologic emergency. Prompt treatment will decrease the risk of permanent sequelae including impotence...
  50. Andersohn F, Schmedt N, Weinmann S, Willich S, Garbe E. Priapism associated with antipsychotics: role of alpha1 adrenoceptor affinity. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2010;30:68-71 pubmed publisher
    Case reports indicate that antipsychotics can cause priapism, a persistent penile erection possibly leading to erectile dysfunction...
  51. Finley D. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency associated stuttering priapism: report of a case. J Sex Med. 2008;5:2963-6 pubmed publisher
    Stuttering priapism is an uncommon form of recurrent priapism whose etiology if often unknown. To date, there has been one report of a patient with stuttering priapism and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency...
  52. Lin G, Xin Z, Lue T, Lin C. Up and down-regulation of phosphodiesterase-5 as related to tachyphylaxis and priapism. J Urol. 2003;170:S15-8; discussion S19 pubmed
    We identify whether tachyphylaxis and priapism effects of sildenafil are related to regulation of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) expression.
  53. Bivalacqua T, Ross A, Strong T, Gebska M, Musicki B, Champion H, et al. Attenuated RhoA/Rho-kinase signaling in penis of transgenic sickle cell mice. Urology. 2010;76:510.e7-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The pathophysiology of sickle cell disease-associated priapism is not well defined...
  54. Lue T, Pescatori E. Distal cavernosum-glans shunts for ischemic priapism. J Sex Med. 2006;3:749-752 pubmed publisher
  55. Cherian J, Rao A, Thwaini A, Kapasi F, Shergill I, Samman R. Medical and surgical management of priapism. Postgrad Med J. 2006;82:89-94 pubmed
    b>Priapism is a pathological condition of penile erection that persists beyond, or is unrelated to, sexual stimulation...
  56. Burnett A, Kan Dobrosky N, Miller M. Testosterone replacement with 1% testosterone gel and priapism: no definite risk relationship. J Sex Med. 2013;10:1151-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Although testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is the preferred treatment for hypogonadism, information for patients using testosterone includes too frequent or prolonged erections as a potential side effect...
  57. Dai Y, Zhang Y, Phatarpekar P, Mi T, Zhang H, Blackburn M, et al. Adenosine signaling, priapism and novel therapies. J Sex Med. 2009;6 Suppl 3:292-301 pubmed publisher
    b>Priapism is defined as abnormal prolonged penile erection lasting at least for 4 hours occurring without sexual interest. Forty percent of sickle cell disease (SCD) patients display priapism...
  58. Montague D, Jarow J, Broderick G, Dmochowski R, Heaton J, Lue T, et al. American Urological Association guideline on the management of priapism. J Urol. 2003;170:1318-24 pubmed
  59. Dong Q, Deng S, Wang R, Yuan J. In vitro and in vivo animal models in priapism research. J Sex Med. 2011;8:347-59 pubmed publisher
    b>Priapism is an enigmatic yet devastating clinical phenomenon. In the last two decades, the use of various animal models to study this disorder has dramatically advanced our understanding of this mysterious disorder.
  60. Guvel S, Kilinc F, Torun D, Egilmez T, Ozkardes H. Malignant priapism secondary to bladder cancer. J Androl. 2003;24:499-500 pubmed
  61. Roberts J, Price C, Mazzeo T. Intracavernous epinephrine: a minimally invasive treatment for priapism in the emergency department. J Emerg Med. 2009;36:285-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Priapism is the prolonged erection of the penis in the absence of sexual arousal...
  62. Bivalacqua T, Musicki B, Hsu L, Gladwin M, Burnett A, Champion H. Establishment of a transgenic sickle-cell mouse model to study the pathophysiology of priapism. J Sex Med. 2009;6:2494-504 pubmed publisher
    b>Priapism is a poorly understood disease process with little information on the etiology and pathophysiology of this erectile disorder. One group of patients with a high prevalence of priapism is men with sickle-cell disease.