international classification of diseases

Summary

Summary: A system of categories to which morbid entries are assigned according to established criteria. Included is the entire range of conditions in a manageable number of categories, grouped to facilitate mortality reporting. It is produced by the World Health Organization (From ICD-10, p1). The Clinical Modifications, produced by the UNITED STATES DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, are larger extensions used for morbidity and general epidemiological purposes, primarily in the U.S.

Top Publications

  1. Warner J, Alterovitz G, Bodio K, Joyce R. External phenome analysis enables a rational federated query strategy to detect changing rates of treatment-related complications associated with multiple myeloma. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2013;20:696-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This proof of concept demonstrates that a staged approach to federated queries, using external EHR data, can yield potentially clinically meaningful results. ..
  2. Hebbring S, Schrodi S, Ye Z, Zhou Z, Page D, Brilliant M. A PheWAS approach in studying HLA-DRB1*1501. Genes Immun. 2013;14:187-91 pubmed publisher
    ..This study not only builds on the feasibility/utility of the PheWAS approach, represents the first external validation of a PheWAS, but may also demonstrate the complex etiologies associated with the HLA-DRB1*1501 loci. ..
  3. Grill E, Stucki G. Criteria for validating comprehensive ICF Core Sets and developing brief ICF Core Set versions. J Rehabil Med. 2011;43:87-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We present an algorithm to identify candidate categories for brief ICF Core Sets extracted from the comprehensive acute and post-acute ICF Core Sets. ..
  4. Schafer I, von Leitner E, Schön G, Koller D, Hansen H, Kolonko T, et al. Multimorbidity patterns in the elderly: a new approach of disease clustering identifies complex interrelations between chronic conditions. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15941 pubmed publisher
    ..In recognizing the full complexity of multimorbidity we might improve our ability to predict needs and achieve possible benefits for elderly patients who suffer from multimorbidity. ..
  5. Madsen A, Thihalolipavan S, Maduro G, Zimmerman R, Koppaka R, Li W, et al. An intervention to improve cause-of-death reporting in New York City hospitals, 2009-2010. Prev Chronic Dis. 2012;9:E157 pubmed publisher
    ..At nonintervention hospitals, these measures remained relatively consistent across the intervention and postintervention period. This NYC health department's hospital-level intervention led to durable changes in COD reporting. ..
  6. Stausberg J, Hasford J. Drug-related admissions and hospital-acquired adverse drug events in Germany: a longitudinal analysis from 2003 to 2007 of ICD-10-coded routine data. BMC Health Serv Res. 2011;11:134 pubmed publisher
    ..Before the use of routine data in pharmacovigilance and patient safety can be fully exploited, a further tailoring of both the ICD and the available variable set is needed. ..
  7. Ptyushkin P, Vidmar G, Burger H, Marincek C. Use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health in traumatic brain injury rehabilitation: linking issues and general perspectives. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2012;91:S48-54 pubmed publisher
  8. Salvador Carulla L, Garcia Gutierrez C. The WHO construct of health-related functioning (HrF) and its implications for health policy. BMC Public Health. 2011;11 Suppl 4:S9 pubmed publisher
    ..This should also comprise harmonization with other classifications of the WHO Family of International Classifications and other models of health functioning. ..
  9. Hollenweger J. Development of an ICF-based eligibility procedure for education in Switzerland. BMC Public Health. 2011;11 Suppl 4:S7 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, some observations are made regarding transparent and just applications of the eligibility procedure, and the implementation of this new eligibility procedure. ..
  10. Madden R, Glozier N, Mpofu E, Llewellyn G. Eligibility, the ICF and the UN Convention: Australian perspectives. BMC Public Health. 2011;11 Suppl 4:S6 pubmed publisher

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Warner J, Alterovitz G, Bodio K, Joyce R. External phenome analysis enables a rational federated query strategy to detect changing rates of treatment-related complications associated with multiple myeloma. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2013;20:696-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This proof of concept demonstrates that a staged approach to federated queries, using external EHR data, can yield potentially clinically meaningful results. ..
  2. Hebbring S, Schrodi S, Ye Z, Zhou Z, Page D, Brilliant M. A PheWAS approach in studying HLA-DRB1*1501. Genes Immun. 2013;14:187-91 pubmed publisher
    ..This study not only builds on the feasibility/utility of the PheWAS approach, represents the first external validation of a PheWAS, but may also demonstrate the complex etiologies associated with the HLA-DRB1*1501 loci. ..
  3. Grill E, Stucki G. Criteria for validating comprehensive ICF Core Sets and developing brief ICF Core Set versions. J Rehabil Med. 2011;43:87-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We present an algorithm to identify candidate categories for brief ICF Core Sets extracted from the comprehensive acute and post-acute ICF Core Sets. ..
  4. Schafer I, von Leitner E, Schön G, Koller D, Hansen H, Kolonko T, et al. Multimorbidity patterns in the elderly: a new approach of disease clustering identifies complex interrelations between chronic conditions. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15941 pubmed publisher
    ..In recognizing the full complexity of multimorbidity we might improve our ability to predict needs and achieve possible benefits for elderly patients who suffer from multimorbidity. ..
  5. Madsen A, Thihalolipavan S, Maduro G, Zimmerman R, Koppaka R, Li W, et al. An intervention to improve cause-of-death reporting in New York City hospitals, 2009-2010. Prev Chronic Dis. 2012;9:E157 pubmed publisher
    ..At nonintervention hospitals, these measures remained relatively consistent across the intervention and postintervention period. This NYC health department's hospital-level intervention led to durable changes in COD reporting. ..
  6. Stausberg J, Hasford J. Drug-related admissions and hospital-acquired adverse drug events in Germany: a longitudinal analysis from 2003 to 2007 of ICD-10-coded routine data. BMC Health Serv Res. 2011;11:134 pubmed publisher
    ..Before the use of routine data in pharmacovigilance and patient safety can be fully exploited, a further tailoring of both the ICD and the available variable set is needed. ..
  7. Ptyushkin P, Vidmar G, Burger H, Marincek C. Use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health in traumatic brain injury rehabilitation: linking issues and general perspectives. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2012;91:S48-54 pubmed publisher
  8. Salvador Carulla L, Garcia Gutierrez C. The WHO construct of health-related functioning (HrF) and its implications for health policy. BMC Public Health. 2011;11 Suppl 4:S9 pubmed publisher
    ..This should also comprise harmonization with other classifications of the WHO Family of International Classifications and other models of health functioning. ..
  9. Hollenweger J. Development of an ICF-based eligibility procedure for education in Switzerland. BMC Public Health. 2011;11 Suppl 4:S7 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, some observations are made regarding transparent and just applications of the eligibility procedure, and the implementation of this new eligibility procedure. ..
  10. Madden R, Glozier N, Mpofu E, Llewellyn G. Eligibility, the ICF and the UN Convention: Australian perspectives. BMC Public Health. 2011;11 Suppl 4:S6 pubmed publisher
  11. Anaya D, Becker N, Richardson P, Abraham N. Use of administrative data to identify colorectal liver metastasis. J Surg Res. 2012;176:141-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This diagnostic algorithm is highly predictive of CRCLM diagnosis and can be used for research studies evaluating population-level features of this disease within the VA system. ..
  12. Yuen E, Louis D, Cisbani L, Rabinowitz C, De Palma R, Maio V, et al. Using administrative data to identify and stage breast cancer cases: implications for assessing quality of care. Tumori. 2011;97:428-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The study evaluated the use of Italian hospital discharge data (SDO, scheda di dimissione ospedaliera) for identifying women with incident breast cancer, determining stage at diagnosis and assessing quality of care...
  13. Manzoni G, Grisendi I, Torelli P. ICHD-3: what changes do we need regarding migraine?. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2011;15:170-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, it should assess the opportunity of a different classification for medication-overuse headache. ..
  14. Álvarezz A. The application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health in psychiatry: possible reasons for the lack of implementation. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2012;91:S69-73 pubmed publisher
  15. McKenzie K, Scott D, Waller G, Campbell M. Reliability of routinely collected hospital data for child maltreatment surveillance. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:8 pubmed publisher
    ..Routinely collected hospital separation data coded using the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) system provide an internationally standardised data source for ..
  16. Grill E, Bronstein A, Furman J, Zee D, Muller M. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Set for patients with vertigo, dizziness and balance disorders. J Vestib Res. 2012;22:261-71 pubmed publisher
    ..ICF Core Sets create patient-relevant outcomes that can be used as evidence for the success of treatments...
  17. Nadkarni P, Darer J. Migrating existing clinical content from ICD-9 to SNOMED. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2010;17:602-7 pubmed publisher
  18. Quintas R, Cerniauskaite M, Ajovalasit D, Sattin D, Boncoraglio G, Parati E, et al. Describing functioning, disability, and health with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health Brief Core Set for Stroke. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2012;91:S14-21 pubmed publisher
    ..It is a brief and useful instrument to use in clinical practice and it can be proposed as a "starting point" to plan interventions and organize services for patients after stroke. ..
  19. Kuhle S, Kirk S, Ohinmaa A, Veugelers P. Comparison of ICD code-based diagnosis of obesity with measured obesity in children and the implications for health care cost estimates. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2011;11:173 pubmed publisher
    ..An ICD diagnosis of obesity in Canadian administrative health data grossly underestimates the true prevalence of childhood obesity and overestimates the health care cost differential between obese and non-obese children. ..
  20. Sickbert Bennett E, Weber D, Poole C, MacDonald P, Maillard J. Utility of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes for communicable disease surveillance. Am J Epidemiol. 2010;172:1299-305 pubmed publisher
    b>International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes have been proposed as a method of public health surveillance and are widely used in public health and clinical research...
  21. Januel J, Luthi J, Quan H, Borst F, Taffe P, Ghali W, et al. Improved accuracy of co-morbidity coding over time after the introduction of ICD-10 administrative data. BMC Health Serv Res. 2011;11:194 pubmed publisher
    ..co-morbidities at three time points over a 5-year period, following the introduction of the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10), coding of hospital discharges...
  22. Mnatzaganian G, Ryan P, Norman P, Hiller J. Accuracy of hospital morbidity data and the performance of comorbidity scores as predictors of mortality. J Clin Epidemiol. 2012;65:107-15 pubmed publisher
    ..More research is required to integrate the effect of repeated episodes in currently used methods that measure and adjust for comorbidity. ..
  23. Warner J, Alterovitz G. Phenome based analysis as a means for discovering context dependent clinical reference ranges. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2012;2012:1441-9 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, context-dependent clinical reference ranges are critical to clinical decision making; furthermore, important findings can be discovered through EMR-driven phenome association studies. ..
  24. McKenzie K, Scott D. Using routinely collected hospital data for child maltreatment surveillance: issues, methods and patterns. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:7 pubmed publisher
  25. Kostanjsek N. Use of The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a conceptual framework and common language for disability statistics and health information systems. BMC Public Health. 2011;11 Suppl 4:S3 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the article presents key features of the ICF tooling environment and outlines current and future developments of the classification. ..
  26. Kirschneck M, Kirchberger I, Amann E, Cieza A. Validation of the comprehensive ICF core set for low back pain: the perspective of physical therapists. Man Ther. 2011;16:364-72 pubmed publisher
    ..However, several body functions were identified which are not covered and need further investigation. ..
  27. Stein B, Bautista A, Schumock G, Lee T, Charbeneau J, Lauderdale D, et al. The validity of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis codes for identifying patients hospitalized for COPD exacerbations. Chest. 2012;141:87-93 pubmed publisher
    ..conduct observational comparative effectiveness research studies, various algorithms based on the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes have been used to identify patients with ..
  28. Fayed N, Cieza A, Bickenbach J. Linking health and health-related information to the ICF: a systematic review of the literature from 2001 to 2008. Disabil Rehabil. 2011;33:1941-51 pubmed publisher
  29. Schnitzer P, Slusher P, Kruse R, Tarleton M. Identification of ICD codes suggestive of child maltreatment. Child Abuse Negl. 2011;35:3-17 pubmed publisher
    ..When used in conjunction with ICD maltreatment-specific codes, these suggestive codes may enhance the use of medical data for monitoring child maltreatment trends. ..
  30. Grotkamp S, Cibis W, Behrens J, Bucher P, Deetjen W, Nyffeler I, et al. [Personal contextual factors of the ICF draft from the Working Group "ICF" of Specialty Group II of the Geman Society for Social Medicine and Prevention]. Gesundheitswesen. 2010;72:908-16 pubmed publisher
    ..This classification is published as work in progress intending to broaden and prepare the process of discussion for a consensus conference to be held in Germany in 2011. ..
  31. Roberts M, Reed G, Medina Mora M, Keeley J, Sharan P, Johnson D, et al. A global clinicians' map of mental disorders to improve ICD-11: analysing meta-structure to enhance clinical utility. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2012;24:578-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Health Organization's development of the mental and behavioural disorders chapter of the next International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11)...
  32. Hooft A, Ronda J, Schaeffer P, Asnes A, Leventhal J. Identification of physical abuse cases in hospitalized children: accuracy of International Classification of Diseases codes. J Pediatr. 2013;162:80-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These databases use International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes to categorize illnesses and injuries in ..
  33. Herrmann K, Kirchberger I, Stucki G, Cieza A. The comprehensive ICF core sets for spinal cord injury from the perspective of occupational therapists: a worldwide validation study using the Delphi technique. Spinal Cord. 2011;49:600-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The Comprehensive ICF core sets covered a high percentage of these problems. Further research is necessary on a few aspects that are not included in the ICF core sets for SCI. ..
  34. Nilsing E, Söderberg E, Normelli H, Oberg B. Description of functioning in sickness certificates. Scand J Public Health. 2011;39:508-16 pubmed publisher
    ..In a consecutive sample of sickness certificates, it was shown that information on functioning is scarce. When functioning was described, it was mainly body oriented. ..
  35. Alviar M, Olver J, Brand C, Hale T, Khan F. Do patient-reported outcome measures used in assessing outcomes in rehabilitation after hip and knee arthroplasty capture issues relevant to patients? Results of a systematic review and ICF linking process. J Rehabil Med. 2011;43:374-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Patient-reported outcome measures in arthroplasty rehabilitation do not fully address relevant areas of activity, participation and environment, suggesting limited clinical applicability. ..
  36. Narongroeknawin P, Patkar N, Shakoory B, Jain A, Curtis J, Delzell E, et al. Validation of diagnostic codes for subtrochanteric, diaphyseal, and atypical femoral fractures using administrative claims data. J Clin Densitom. 2012;15:92-102 pubmed publisher
    ..all adults admitted at University of Alabama at Birmingham Health System from 2004 to 2008 with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision hospital discharges and surgeons' fracture repair codes for subtrochanteric ..
  37. van Walraven C, Bennett C, Forster A. Administrative database research infrequently used validated diagnostic or procedural codes. J Clin Epidemiol. 2011;64:1054-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In ADR, diagnostic and procedural codes are commonly used but infrequently validated. People with a code frequently do not have the condition it represents. ..
  38. Ng L, Khan F. Use of the international classification of functioning, disability and health to describe patient-reported disability: a comparison of motor neurone disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome and multiple sclerosis in an Australian cohort. Disabil Rehabil. 2012;34:295-303 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparison of three long-term neurological conditions will assist with development of a core set of categories to optimise consensus of care and communication amongst treating clinicians. ..
  39. Francescutti C, Gongolo F, Simoncello A, Frattura L. Description of the person-environment interaction: methodological issues and empirical results of an Italian large-scale disability assessment study using an ICF-based protocol. BMC Public Health. 2011;11 Suppl 4:S11 pubmed publisher
    ..Personal profiles may be elaborated and groups created based on the characteristics of the person-environment interactions. Personal profiles may also be used as a "rationale" for defining personalized intervention programs. ..
  40. Good A. Using the ICF in Ireland. BMC Public Health. 2011;11 Suppl 4:S5 pubmed publisher
    ..Some general conclusions regarding the benefits and limitations of ICF based on this experience are also drawn. ..
  41. Johns L, Madsen A, Maduro G, Zimmerman R, Konty K, Begier E. A case study of the impact of inaccurate cause-of-death reporting on health disparity tracking: New York City premature cardiovascular mortality. Am J Public Health. 2013;103:733-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Efforts to reduce overreporting may increase the observed disparity, potentially obscuring any programmatic or policy-driven advances. ..
  42. Stanton T, Latimer J, Maher C, Hancock M. A modified Delphi approach to standardize low back pain recurrence terminology. Eur Spine J. 2011;20:744-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Future research is necessary to evaluate these definitions. ..
  43. Mueller M, Schuster E, Strobl R, Grill E. Identification of aspects of functioning, disability and health relevant to patients experiencing vertigo: a qualitative study using the international classification of functioning, disability and health. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2012;10:75 pubmed publisher
    ..Aims of this study were to identify aspects of functioning and health relevant to patients with vertigo expressed by ICF categories and to explore the potential of the ICF to describe the patient perspective in vertigo...
  44. Lee C, Williams S, Sathe N, McPheeters M. A systematic review of validated methods to capture several rare conditions using administrative or claims data. Vaccine. 2013;31 Suppl 10:K21-7 pubmed publisher
    ..positive predictive value of 66%, however the identification algorithm contained a combination of International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes and other identification methods and the performance of the ICD-9 codes alone was not ..
  45. Guffey S, Duchek D. Preparing your practice for ICD-10. J Med Pract Manage. 2013;28:303-5 pubmed
  46. Oleynik M, Patrão D, Finger M. Automated Classification of Semi-Structured Pathology Reports into ICD-O Using SVM in Portuguese. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2017;235:256-260 pubmed
    ..of support vector machines (SVMs) to classify pathology reports written in Portuguese into the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O), a biaxial classification of cancer topography and morphology...
  47. Armstrong J, McDermott P, Saade G, Srinivas S. Coding update of the SMFM definition of low risk for cesarean delivery from ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017;217:B2-B12.e56 pubmed publisher
    ..delivery definition based on administrative claims-based diagnosis codes described by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification...
  48. Vieira G, Basano S, Camargo L. Transition of the morbidity and mortality profile in a municipality in the interior of the Brazilian Amazon. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2016;49:411-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The most common cause of death was external causes of morbidity and mortality [International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 chapter 20], followed by diseases of the circulatory system (ICD-10 chapter 9)...
  49. Mirzal A, Chaudhry S. Call for a Computer-Aided Cancer Detection and Classification Research Initiative in Oman. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016;17:2375-82 pubmed
    ..We also discuss future cancer research directions and benefits to Oman economy for entering the cancer research and treatment business as it is a multi-billion dollar industry worldwide. ..
  50. Hansell D. Classification of diffuse lung diseases: why and how. Radiology. 2013;268:628-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The challenge of understanding the logic behind current classifications and their shortcomings are explored in various examples of lung diseases. ..
  51. Grjibovski A, Nurgaliyeva N, Kosbayeva A, Sharbakov A, Seysembekov T, Menne B. Effect of high temperatures on daily counts of mortality from diseases of circulatory system in Astana, Kazakhstan. Medicina (Kaunas). 2012;48:640-6 pubmed
  52. Carlson K, Barnes J, Hagel E, Taylor B, Cifu D, Sayer N. Sensitivity and specificity of traumatic brain injury diagnosis codes in United States Department of Veterans Affairs administrative data. Brain Inj. 2013;27:640-50 pubmed publisher
    To examine the validity of using International Classification of Diseases (ICD) diagnosis codes from United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) data to describe prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among military veterans...
  53. Guillemette S, Witzke S, Leier J, Hinnenthal J, Prager J. Medical cost impact of intrathecal drug delivery for noncancer pain. Pain Med. 2013;14:504-15 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding complements published literature on the cost-effectiveness of IDD. ..
  54. Abrams T, Lund B, Bernardy N, Friedman M. Aligning clinical practice to PTSD treatment guidelines: medication prescribing by provider type. Psychiatr Serv. 2013;64:142-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Most of these prescriptions were written by mental health care providers. Interventions to align prescribing with PTSD treatment guidelines should emphasize provider type. ..
  55. Read T, Huson K, Millar J, Haydon A, Porter I, Grulich A, et al. Size of anal squamous cell carcinomas at diagnosis: a retrospective case series. Int J STD AIDS. 2013;24:879-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests most anal squamous cell carcinoma were visible or palpable for some time before diagnosis, meaning that screening high-risk groups by anal inspection and palpation is plausible. ..
  56. Haug P, Ferraro J, Holmen J, Wu X, Mynam K, Ebert M, et al. An ontology-driven, diagnostic modeling system. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2013;20:e102-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of medical knowledge, embedded in ontologies, to direct the initial development of diagnostic computing systems appears feasible. ..
  57. Moores K, Sathe N. A systematic review of validated methods for identifying systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) using administrative or claims data. Vaccine. 2013;31 Suppl 10:K62-73 pubmed publisher
    ..A requirement that the code is obtained from a record based on treatment by a rheumatologist increases the PPV of the algorithm but limits the generalizability in the general population. ..
  58. Vincent A. Corneal dystrophies and genetics in the International Committee for Classification of Corneal Dystrophies era: a review. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2014;42:4-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This review article will provide an overview of the knowledge to date, with an emphasis on findings since the IC3D classification was published in 2008. ..
  59. Zhang X, Zhou Z, Steiner T, Zhang W, Liu R, Dong Z, et al. Validation of ICHD-3 beta diagnostic criteria for 13.7 Tolosa-Hunt syndrome: Analysis of 77 cases of painful ophthalmoplegia. Cephalalgia. 2014;34:624-32 pubmed publisher
    ..It may be helpful to understand and master the entity of THS for researchers and clinicians to adjust the gradation and ranking of the diagnostic criteria. ..
  60. Guptill J, Bromberg M, Zhu L, Sharma B, Thompson A, Krueger A, et al. Patient demographics and health plan paid costs in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Muscle Nerve. 2014;50:47-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Healthcare costs for CIDP patients are substantial, with a large burden in pharmacy usage. Studies are needed to determine optimal long-term treatment strategies for CIDP, particularly related to IVIg. ..
  61. Meesters J, Bremander A, Bergman S, Petersson I, Turkiewicz A, Englund M. The risk for depression in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a population-based cohort study. Arthritis Res Ther. 2014;16:418 pubmed publisher
    ..49 (1.20 to 1.89) in men. The rate of doctor-diagnosed depression is increased about 80% in female and 50% in male AS patients. Future challenges are to timely identify and treat the AS patients who suffer from depression. ..
  62. Niemi Pynttäri J, Sund R, Putkonen H, Vorma H, Wahlbeck K, Pirkola S. Substance-induced psychoses converting into schizophrenia: a register-based study of 18,478 Finnish inpatient cases. J Clin Psychiatry. 2013;74:e94-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Substance-induced psychotic disorders predict schizophrenia spectrum disorders to a greater extent than previously thought. The intensity of clinical attention focused on substance-induced psychotic disorders should be increased. ..