milk hypersensitivity

Summary

Summary: Allergic reaction to milk (usually cow's milk) or milk products. MILK HYPERSENSITIVITY should be differentiated from LACTOSE INTOLERANCE, an intolerance to milk as a result of congenital deficiency of lactase.

Top Publications

  1. Skripak J, Matsui E, Mudd K, Wood R. The natural history of IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;120:1172-7 pubmed
    ..Most studies have shown the prognosis of developing tolerance to cow's milk to be good, with most outgrowing their allergy by age 3 years...
  2. Ott H, Baron J, Heise R, Ocklenburg C, Stanzel S, Merk H, et al. Clinical usefulness of microarray-based IgE detection in children with suspected food allergy. Allergy. 2008;63:1521-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of microarray-based IgE detection in the diagnostic workup of food allergy and to compare this new diagnostic tool with established methods of allergen-specific IgE detection...
  3. Alvaro M, Giner M, Vazquez M, Lozano J, Dominguez O, Piquer M, et al. Specific oral desensitization in children with IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy. Evolution in one year. Eur J Pediatr. 2012;171:1389-95 pubmed publisher
    ..One year after desensitization, the medium specific cow's milk levels and casein IgE levels had dropped significantly...
  4. Schulmeister U, Hochwallner H, Swoboda I, Focke Tejkl M, Geller B, Nystrand M, et al. Cloning, expression, and mapping of allergenic determinants of alphaS1-casein, a major cow's milk allergen. J Immunol. 2009;182:7019-29 pubmed publisher
  5. Konstantinou G, Kim J. Paradigm shift in the management of milk and egg allergy: baked milk and egg diet. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2012;32:151-64 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, the authors review the important role of thermal processing on milk and egg proteins, which comprise the commonest food allergies in infancy and early childhood...
  6. Savilahti E, Karinen S, Salo H, Klemetti P, Saarinen K, Klemola T, et al. Combined T regulatory cell and Th2 expression profile identifies children with cow's milk allergy. Clin Immunol. 2010;136:16-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression profile of both Th2- and T regulatory cell-related genes thus reflects the clinical activity of CMA. Tolerance, in contrast, is not characterized by activation of circulating T regulatory cells...
  7. Brand P, Rijk van Gent H. [Cow's milk allergy in infants: new insights]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2011;155:A3508 pubmed
    ..In the future, oral immunotherapy may be a promising new treatment for cow's milk allergy...
  8. Sicherer S, Wood R, Stablein D, Burks A, Liu A, Jones S, et al. Immunologic features of infants with milk or egg allergy enrolled in an observational study (Consortium of Food Allergy Research) of food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;125:1077-1083.e8 pubmed publisher
    ..Immune features of infants with food allergy have not been delineated...
  9. Fiocchi A, Bouygue G, Albarini M, Restani P. Molecular diagnosis of cow's milk allergy. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;11:216-21 pubmed publisher
    ..To identify and discuss studies on the molecular diagnosis of cow's milk allergy (CMA) with a view to update allergists since a general review of the methodology in 2006...
  10. Costa A, Sarinho E, Motta M, Gomes P, de Oliveira de Melo S, da Silva G. Allergy to cow's milk proteins: what contribution does hypersensitivity in skin tests have to this diagnosis?. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2011;22:e133-8 pubmed publisher
    ..5%, 88.9%, 52.9% and 64.6%. Despite the operational difficulty and the possible exposure risk, oral challenge is the best method for diagnosing CMPA, because of the low sensitivity and PPV of skin and specific IgE tests...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Skripak J, Matsui E, Mudd K, Wood R. The natural history of IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;120:1172-7 pubmed
    ..Most studies have shown the prognosis of developing tolerance to cow's milk to be good, with most outgrowing their allergy by age 3 years...
  2. Ott H, Baron J, Heise R, Ocklenburg C, Stanzel S, Merk H, et al. Clinical usefulness of microarray-based IgE detection in children with suspected food allergy. Allergy. 2008;63:1521-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of microarray-based IgE detection in the diagnostic workup of food allergy and to compare this new diagnostic tool with established methods of allergen-specific IgE detection...
  3. Alvaro M, Giner M, Vazquez M, Lozano J, Dominguez O, Piquer M, et al. Specific oral desensitization in children with IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy. Evolution in one year. Eur J Pediatr. 2012;171:1389-95 pubmed publisher
    ..One year after desensitization, the medium specific cow's milk levels and casein IgE levels had dropped significantly...
  4. Schulmeister U, Hochwallner H, Swoboda I, Focke Tejkl M, Geller B, Nystrand M, et al. Cloning, expression, and mapping of allergenic determinants of alphaS1-casein, a major cow's milk allergen. J Immunol. 2009;182:7019-29 pubmed publisher
  5. Konstantinou G, Kim J. Paradigm shift in the management of milk and egg allergy: baked milk and egg diet. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2012;32:151-64 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, the authors review the important role of thermal processing on milk and egg proteins, which comprise the commonest food allergies in infancy and early childhood...
  6. Savilahti E, Karinen S, Salo H, Klemetti P, Saarinen K, Klemola T, et al. Combined T regulatory cell and Th2 expression profile identifies children with cow's milk allergy. Clin Immunol. 2010;136:16-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression profile of both Th2- and T regulatory cell-related genes thus reflects the clinical activity of CMA. Tolerance, in contrast, is not characterized by activation of circulating T regulatory cells...
  7. Brand P, Rijk van Gent H. [Cow's milk allergy in infants: new insights]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2011;155:A3508 pubmed
    ..In the future, oral immunotherapy may be a promising new treatment for cow's milk allergy...
  8. Sicherer S, Wood R, Stablein D, Burks A, Liu A, Jones S, et al. Immunologic features of infants with milk or egg allergy enrolled in an observational study (Consortium of Food Allergy Research) of food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;125:1077-1083.e8 pubmed publisher
    ..Immune features of infants with food allergy have not been delineated...
  9. Fiocchi A, Bouygue G, Albarini M, Restani P. Molecular diagnosis of cow's milk allergy. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;11:216-21 pubmed publisher
    ..To identify and discuss studies on the molecular diagnosis of cow's milk allergy (CMA) with a view to update allergists since a general review of the methodology in 2006...
  10. Costa A, Sarinho E, Motta M, Gomes P, de Oliveira de Melo S, da Silva G. Allergy to cow's milk proteins: what contribution does hypersensitivity in skin tests have to this diagnosis?. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2011;22:e133-8 pubmed publisher
    ..5%, 88.9%, 52.9% and 64.6%. Despite the operational difficulty and the possible exposure risk, oral challenge is the best method for diagnosing CMPA, because of the low sensitivity and PPV of skin and specific IgE tests...
  11. Pajno G, Caminiti L, Ruggeri P, De Luca R, Vita D, La Rosa M, et al. Oral immunotherapy for cow's milk allergy with a weekly up-dosing regimen: a randomized single-blind controlled study. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2010;105:376-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Cow's milk allergy (CMA) in children is a important problem in medical practice. Oral desensitization has been proposed as a therapeutic approach, but current protocols are time-consuming and impractical...
  12. Cerecedo I, Zamora J, Shreffler W, Lin J, Bardina L, Dieguez M, et al. Mapping of the IgE and IgG4 sequential epitopes of milk allergens with a peptide microarray-based immunoassay. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;122:589-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Peptide microarray analysis is a novel method that can provide useful information on the nature of specific allergies...
  13. Caminiti L, Passalacqua G, Barberi S, Vita D, Barberio G, De Luca R, et al. A new protocol for specific oral tolerance induction in children with IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2009;30:443-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A weekly up-dosing oral tolerance induction could be a viable alternative to traditional protocols for children with IgE-mediated CMA...
  14. Allen K, Davidson G, Day A, Hill D, Kemp A, Peake J, et al. Management of cow's milk protein allergy in infants and young children: an expert panel perspective. J Paediatr Child Health. 2009;45:481-6 pubmed publisher
  15. Pustisek N, Jaklin Kekez A, Frkanec R, Sikanić Dugić N, Misak Z, Jadresin O, et al. Our experiences with the use of atopy patch test in the diagnosis of cow's milk hypersensitivity. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat. 2010;18:14-20 pubmed
    ..For these reasons, it should become part of the routine diagnostic toolset for food allergies to cow's milk in infants and children, and applied before a food challenge test...
  16. Hochwallner H, Schulmeister U, Swoboda I, Balic N, Geller B, Nystrand M, et al. Microarray and allergenic activity assessment of milk allergens. Clin Exp Allergy. 2010;40:1809-18 pubmed publisher
    ..5% of infants in the first years of their life. However, only limited information regarding the allergenic activity of individual cow's milk allergens is available...
  17. Martin Muñoz M, Fortuni M, Caminoa M, Belver T, Quirce S, Caballero T. Anaphylactic reaction to probiotics. Cow's milk and hen's egg allergens in probiotic compounds. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2012;23:778-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Probiotics are used in the treatment of allergic diseases. We investigated the safety of probiotics for subjects with food allergy...
  18. Martorell A, de la Hoz B, Ibanez M, Bone J, Terrados M, Michavila A, et al. Oral desensitization as a useful treatment in 2-year-old children with cow's milk allergy. Clin Exp Allergy. 2011;41:1297-304 pubmed publisher
    ..Limited published evidence shows oral desensitization to be a potential intervention option for cow's milk protein (CMPs) allergy...
  19. Kim J, Nowak Wegrzyn A, Sicherer S, Noone S, Moshier E, Sampson H. Dietary baked milk accelerates the resolution of cow's milk allergy in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128:125-131.e2 pubmed publisher
    ..The majority (approximately 75%) of children with cow's milk allergy tolerate extensively heated (baked) milk products. Long-term effects of inclusion of dietary baked milk have not been reported...
  20. Carroccio A, Brusca I, Mansueto P, Soresi M, D Alcamo A, Ambrosiano G, et al. Fecal assays detect hypersensitivity to cow's milk protein and gluten in adults with irritable bowel syndrome. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;9:965-971.e3 pubmed publisher
    ..We determined the frequency of FH among patients with symptoms of IBS and the ability of fecal assays for tryptase, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), or calprotectin to diagnose FH...
  21. Rodriguez B, Prioult G, Hacini Rachinel F, Moine D, Bruttin A, Ngom Bru C, et al. Infant gut microbiota is protective against cow's milk allergy in mice despite immature ileal T-cell response. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2012;79:192-202 pubmed publisher
  22. Fiocchi A, Schunemann H, Brozek J, Restani P, Beyer K, Troncone R, et al. Diagnosis and Rationale for Action Against Cow's Milk Allergy (DRACMA): a summary report. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126:1119-28.e12 pubmed publisher
  23. Bedoret D, Singh A, Shaw V, Hoyte E, Hamilton R, DeKruyff R, et al. Changes in antigen-specific T-cell number and function during oral desensitization in cow's milk allergy enabled with omalizumab. Mucosal Immunol. 2012;5:267-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies suggest that high-dose oral allergen desensitization may be associated with deletion of allergen-specific T cells, without the apparent development of allergen-specific Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells...
  24. Barbi E, Longo G, Berti I, Neri E, Saccari A, Rubert L, et al. Adverse effects during specific oral tolerance induction: in-hospital "rush" phase. Eur Ann Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;44:18-25 pubmed
    ..Different protocols have demonstrated its efficacy. Nevertheless, SOTI is still considered an experimental method and should be limited to highly controlled settings...
  25. Nowak Wegrzyn A, Bloom K, Sicherer S, Shreffler W, Noone S, Wanich N, et al. Tolerance to extensively heated milk in children with cow's milk allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;122:342-7, 347.e1-2 pubmed publisher
  26. Staden U, Blumchen K, Blankenstein N, Dannenberg N, Ulbricht H, Dobberstein K, et al. Rush oral immunotherapy in children with persistent cow's milk allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;122:418-9 pubmed publisher
  27. Skripak J, Nash S, Rowley H, Brereton N, Oh S, Hamilton R, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of milk oral immunotherapy for cow's milk allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;122:1154-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Orally administered, food-specific immunotherapy appears effective in desensitizing and potentially permanently tolerizing allergic individuals...
  28. Shreffler W, Wanich N, Moloney M, Nowak Wegrzyn A, Sampson H. Association of allergen-specific regulatory T cells with the onset of clinical tolerance to milk protein. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;123:43-52.e7 pubmed publisher
    ..About 70% of children with milk allergy tolerate extensively heated milk (HM) products and outgrow their allergy earlier than those who react to HM...
  29. Smaldini P, Curciarello R, Candreva A, Rey M, Fossati C, Petruccelli S, et al. In vivo evidence of cross-reactivity between cow's milk and soybean proteins in a mouse model of food allergy. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2012;158:335-46 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, we used a food allergy model in BALB/c mice to study the cross-reactivity between cow's milk protein (CMP) and soy proteins (SP)...
  30. Miyazawa T, Itahashi K, Imai T. Management of neonatal cow's milk allergy in high-risk neonates. Pediatr Int. 2009;51:544-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We conducted a multicenter clinical survey to clarify the current attitudes to diagnosis or treatment of neonatal milk allergy (NMA) in institutions providing medical care for high-risk neonates in Japan...
  31. Baldassarre M, Laforgia N, Fanelli M, Laneve A, Grosso R, Lifschitz C. Lactobacillus GG improves recovery in infants with blood in the stools and presumptive allergic colitis compared with extensively hydrolyzed formula alone. J Pediatr. 2010;156:397-401 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the benefits of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) in an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (EHCF) in improving hematochezia and fecal calprotectin over EHCF alone...
  32. Mori F, Bianchi L, Pucci N, Azzari C, De Martino M, Novembre E. CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T regulatory cells are not involved in oral desensitization. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2010;23:359-61 pubmed
  33. Keet C, Frischmeyer Guerrerio P, Thyagarajan A, Schroeder J, Hamilton R, Boden S, et al. The safety and efficacy of sublingual and oral immunotherapy for milk allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;129:448-55, 455.e1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Oral immunotherapy (OIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) are potential therapies for food allergy, but the optimal method of administration, mechanism of action, and duration of response remain unknown...
  34. Wood R, Sicherer S, Vickery B, Jones S, Liu A, Fleischer D, et al. The natural history of milk allergy in an observational cohort. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;131:805-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Baseline milk-specific IgE level, SPT wheal size, and AD severity were all important predictors of the likelihood of resolution. ..
  35. Guest J, Valovirta E. Modelling the resource implications and budget impact of new reimbursement guidelines for the management of cow milk allergy in Finland. Curr Med Res Opin. 2008;24:1167-77 pubmed
  36. Karlsson M, Rugtveit J, Brandtzaeg P. Allergen-responsive CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in children who have outgrown cow's milk allergy. J Exp Med. 2004;199:1679-88 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our study provides human data to suggest that mucosal induction of tolerance against dietary antigens is associated with the development of CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells...
  37. Hwang J, Lee S, Kang Y, Kim S, Suh S, Kam S. Indexes of suspicion of typical cow's milk protein-induced enterocolitis. J Korean Med Sci. 2007;22:993-7 pubmed
    ..75 [95% CI, 1.53-66.12]) (p= 0.014) and hypoalbuminemia (OR, 9.53 [95% CI, 1.62-49.01]) (p=0.010). The early recognition of indexes of suspicion for CMPIE may be of help in the diagnosis and treatment of this disorder...
  38. Nielsen R, Bindslev Jensen C, Kruse Andersen S, Husby S. Severe gastroesophageal reflux disease and cow milk hypersensitivity in infants and children: disease association and evaluation of a new challenge procedure. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2004;39:383-91 pubmed
    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and cow milk hypersensitivity are frequent disorders of infancy. A possible causative association between these two entities has been suggested.
  39. Rona R, Keil T, Summers C, Gislason D, Zuidmeer L, Sodergren E, et al. The prevalence of food allergy: a meta-analysis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;120:638-46 pubmed
    ..There is uncertainty about the prevalence of food allergy in communities...
  40. Ehn B, Allmere T, Telemo E, Bengtsson U, Ekstrand B. Modification of IgE binding to beta-lactoglobulin by fermentation and proteolysis of cow's milk. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:3743-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, we measured the inhibition pattern of beta-lactoglobulin in various selected commercially available fermented milk products. These showed an IgE binding capacity similar to that of nonfermented high pasteurized milk...
  41. Martorell A, Plaza A, Boné J, Nevot S, García Ara M, Echeverria L, et al. Cow's milk protein allergy. A multi-centre study: clinical and epidemiological aspects. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2006;34:46-53 pubmed
    ..The objective of this multi-centre study carried out at the Allergy Units of 14 Children's Hospitals was to discover the epidemiological, clinical and evolutionary characteristics of cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA)...
  42. Kvenshagen B, Halvorsen R, Jacobsen M. Adverse reactions to milk in infants. Acta Paediatr. 2008;97:196-200 pubmed publisher
    ..To study the age when symptoms of adverse reactions to milk occur, in premature and term children, the debut of various symptoms, immunoglobulin E (IgE)- and non-IgE-mediated reactions and the frequency of tolerance at 1 year...
  43. De Boissieu D, Waguet J, Dupont C. The atopy patch tests for detection of cow's milk allergy with digestive symptoms. J Pediatr. 2003;142:203-5 pubmed
    ..Milk atopy patch tests (APTs) were positive in 19 of 24 CMA versus 1 of 11 in non-CMA patients (P <.001). This sensitivity (79%) and specificity (91%) suggest that the APT could improve the detection of conditions related to CMA...
  44. Pohjavuori E, Viljanen M, Korpela R, Kuitunen M, Tiittanen M, Vaarala O, et al. Lactobacillus GG effect in increasing IFN-gamma production in infants with cow's milk allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004;114:131-6 pubmed
    ..Probiotic bacteria are potentially beneficial to maturation of the infant's immune system...
  45. Sletten G, Halvorsen R, Egaas E, Halstensen T. Memory T cell proliferation in cow's milk allergy after CD25+ regulatory T cell removal suggests a role for casein-specific cellular immunity in IgE-mediated but not in non-IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2007;142:190-8 pubmed
    ..Moreover, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) contain both B cells, CD45RA+ naïve T cells, CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in addition to antigen-specific CD45RA- memory T cells...
  46. Kristjansson G, Venge P, Hallgren R. Mucosal reactivity to cow's milk protein in coeliac disease. Clin Exp Immunol. 2007;147:449-55 pubmed
    ..A mucosal inflammatory response similar to that elicited by gluten was produced by CM protein in about 50% of the patients with coeliac disease. Casein, in particular, seems to be involved in this reaction...
  47. Apostolou E, Pelto L, Kirjavainen P, Isolauri E, Salminen S, Gibson G. Differences in the gut bacterial flora of healthy and milk-hypersensitive adults, as measured by fluorescence in situ hybridization. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2001;30:217-21 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the composition of the gut microbiota in milk-hypersensitive adults appears to be normal. LGG may have potential in reinforcing the endogenous flora...
  48. Hill D, Murch S, Rafferty K, Wallis P, Green C. The efficacy of amino acid-based formulas in relieving the symptoms of cow's milk allergy: a systematic review. Clin Exp Allergy. 2007;37:808-22 pubmed
    ..Further studies are required to determine the relative medical or economic value of initial treatment with AAF in infants at high risk of eHF intolerance...
  49. Meglio P, Bartone E, Plantamura M, Arabito E, Giampietro P. A protocol for oral desensitization in children with IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy. Allergy. 2004;59:980-7 pubmed
  50. Høst A, Halken S. Hypoallergenic formulas--when, to whom and how long: after more than 15 years we know the right indication!. Allergy. 2004;59 Suppl 78:45-52 pubmed
    ..Thus, if exclusive breast-feeding for 4-6 months is not possible in high-risk infants, a documented hypoallergenic formula and avoidance of solid foods are recommended for the first 4 months of life...
  51. Vassilopoulou E, Konstantinou G, Kassimos D, Douladiris N, Xepapadaki P, Manoussakis E, et al. Reintroduction of cow's milk in milk-allergic children: safety and risk factors. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2008;146:156-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Less 'invasive' procedures able to predict tolerance would be useful as clinical tools. The purpose of this study was to identify potential risk factors for clinical reactivity in CM-allergic children assessed for CM reintroduction...
  52. Piacentini G, Vicentini L, Bodini A, Mazzi P, Peroni D, Maffeis C, et al. Allergenicity of a hydrolyzed rice infant formula in a guinea pig model. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2003;91:61-4 pubmed
    ..Because sensitization to cow's milk is a common finding in children, the identification of safe alternative protein sources is important in the management of childhood allergy...
  53. Ulanova M, Torebring M, Porcelli S, Bengtsson U, Magnusson J, Magnusson O, et al. Expression of CD1d in the duodenum of patients with cow's milk hypersensitivity. Scand J Immunol. 2000;52:609-17 pubmed
    ..The exclusive presence of CD1d in the duodenal lamina propria of the patients with cow's milk hypersensitivity might suggest the participation of these molecules in the pathogenesis of allergic reactions to food.
  54. Patriarca G, Nucera E, Pollastrini E, Roncallo C, De Pasquale T, Lombardo C, et al. Oral specific desensitization in food-allergic children. Dig Dis Sci. 2007;52:1662-72 pubmed
  55. Heine R, Elsayed S, Hosking C, Hill D. Cow's milk allergy in infancy. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002;2:217-25 pubmed
    ..The treatment of cow's milk allergy relies on allergen avoidance and hypoallergenic formulae, or maternal elimination diets in breast-fed infants...
  56. Meglio P, Giampietro P, Gianni S, Galli E. Oral desensitization in children with immunoglobulin E-mediated cow's milk allergy--follow-up at 4 yr and 8 months. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2008;19:412-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Oral CM desensitization seems to be a promising method to treat CM food allergy. This protocol is time-consuming but offers the advantage that it can be performed at home. This methodology must only be used by trained staff...
  57. Osterlund P, von Willebrand M, Andersson L, Suomalainen H. T-cell signal transduction in children with cow's milk allergy -- increased MAP kinase activation in patients with acute symptoms of cow's milk allergy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2003;14:163-8 pubmed
    ..The increased MAP kinase activation was found to correlate positively with non-IgE mediated CMA in patients with acute symptoms of CMA...
  58. Staden U, Rolinck Werninghaus C, Brewe F, Wahn U, Niggemann B, Beyer K. Specific oral tolerance induction in food allergy in children: efficacy and clinical patterns of reaction. Allergy. 2007;62:1261-9 pubmed
    ..Specific oral tolerance induction (SOTI) seems to be a promising treatment of food allergy. Specific oral tolerance induction and elimination diet were compared with respect to efficacy rate and patterns of clinical reaction...
  59. Han D, Kim M, Yoo J, Choi S, Kwon B, Sohn M, et al. Food sensitization in infants and young children with atopic dermatitis. Yonsei Med J. 2004;45:803-9 pubmed
    ..In summary, presence of food specific IgE is prevalent in infants and young children with AD, and clinically relevant food sensitization is important in Korean infants and children with moderate to severe AD...
  60. Hospers I, de Vries Vrolijk K, Brand P. [Double-blind, placebo-controlled cow's milk challenge in children with alleged cow's milk allergies, performed in a general hospital: diagnosis rejected in two-thirds of the children]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2006;150:1292-7 pubmed
    ..To present the results of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges with cow's milk in a general hospital...
  61. De Boissieu D, Dupont C. Sublingual immunotherapy for cow's milk protein allergy: a preliminary report. Allergy. 2006;61:1238-9 pubmed
  62. Giampietro P, Kjellman N, Oldaeus G, Wouters Wesseling W, Businco L. Hypoallergenicity of an extensively hydrolyzed whey formula. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2001;12:83-6 pubmed
    ..Introduction of new products to these children should be carried out under a doctor's supervision. However, the majority of the SPT-positive children did tolerate the two extensively hydrolyzed whey-based formulas tested...