antigen presentation

Summary

Summary: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)

Top Publications

  1. Sivaganesh S, Harper S, Conlon T, Callaghan C, Saeb Parsy K, Negus M, et al. Copresentation of intact and processed MHC alloantigen by recipient dendritic cells enables delivery of linked help to alloreactive CD8 T cells by indirect-pathway CD4 T cells. J Immunol. 2013;190:5829-38 pubmed publisher
  2. Barnett L, Simkins H, Barnett B, Korn L, Johnson A, Wherry E, et al. B cell antigen presentation in the initiation of follicular helper T cell and germinal center differentiation. J Immunol. 2014;192:3607-17 pubmed publisher
    ..This study highlights the roles for B cells in both CD4+ T cell priming and T(FH) differentiation, and demonstrates that different APC subsets work in tandem to mediate the GC response...
  3. Calderon B, Carrero J, Unanue E. The central role of antigen presentation in islets of Langerhans in autoimmune diabetes. Curr Opin Immunol. 2014;26:32-40 pubmed publisher
    ..levels of major histocompatibility complexes (MHC) molecules on their surfaces and are highly active in antigen presentation in the autoimmune diabetes of the NOD mouse: they do this by presenting peptides derived from molecules of ..
  4. Vander Lugt B, Khan A, Hackney J, Agrawal S, Lesch J, Zhou M, et al. Transcriptional programming of dendritic cells for enhanced MHC class II antigen presentation. Nat Immunol. 2014;15:161-7 pubmed publisher
    ..ChIP-Seq) analyses delineated an IRF4-dependent regulatory module that programs enhanced MHC class II antigen presentation. Expression of the transcription factor IRF4 but not of IRF8 restored the ability of IRF4-deficient DCs to ..
  5. Ravindran R, Khan N, Nakaya H, Li S, Loebbermann J, Maddur M, et al. Vaccine activation of the nutrient sensor GCN2 in dendritic cells enhances antigen presentation. Science. 2014;343:313-317 pubmed publisher
    ..role for virus-induced GCN2 activation in programming dendritic cells to initiate autophagy and enhanced antigen presentation to both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells...
  6. Ciechomska M, Wilson C, Floudas A, Hui W, Rowan A, van Eden W, et al. Antigen-specific B lymphocytes acquire proteoglycan aggrecan from cartilage extracellular matrix resulting in antigen presentation and CD4+ T-cell activation. Immunology. 2014;141:70-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies have identified B-cell-mediated antigen presentation as essential for the development of autoimmunity, but a unique role for B cells compared with other APC has ..
  7. Sandgren K, Smed S rensen A, Forsell M, Soldemo M, Adams W, Liang F, et al. Human plasmacytoid dendritic cells efficiently capture HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins via CD4 for antigen presentation. J Immunol. 2013;191:60-9 pubmed publisher
  8. Wong C, Goldstein D. Impact of aging on antigen presentation cell function of dendritic cells. Curr Opin Immunol. 2013;25:535-41 pubmed publisher
    ..How aging impacts antigen presentation by DCs is complex and without a clear unifying biological underpinning.
  9. Jaini R, Popescu D, Flask C, Macklin W, Tuohy V. Myelin antigen load influences antigen presentation and severity of central nervous system autoimmunity. J Neuroimmunol. 2013;259:37-46 pubmed publisher
  10. Bhandari T, Olson J, Johnson R, Nizet V. HIF-1? influences myeloid cell antigen presentation and response to subcutaneous OVA vaccination. J Mol Med (Berl). 2013;91:1199-205 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, HIF-1 participates in bridging the innate and adaptive immune responses and may merit further exploration as an adjuvant target. ..

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Sivaganesh S, Harper S, Conlon T, Callaghan C, Saeb Parsy K, Negus M, et al. Copresentation of intact and processed MHC alloantigen by recipient dendritic cells enables delivery of linked help to alloreactive CD8 T cells by indirect-pathway CD4 T cells. J Immunol. 2013;190:5829-38 pubmed publisher
  2. Barnett L, Simkins H, Barnett B, Korn L, Johnson A, Wherry E, et al. B cell antigen presentation in the initiation of follicular helper T cell and germinal center differentiation. J Immunol. 2014;192:3607-17 pubmed publisher
    ..This study highlights the roles for B cells in both CD4+ T cell priming and T(FH) differentiation, and demonstrates that different APC subsets work in tandem to mediate the GC response...
  3. Calderon B, Carrero J, Unanue E. The central role of antigen presentation in islets of Langerhans in autoimmune diabetes. Curr Opin Immunol. 2014;26:32-40 pubmed publisher
    ..levels of major histocompatibility complexes (MHC) molecules on their surfaces and are highly active in antigen presentation in the autoimmune diabetes of the NOD mouse: they do this by presenting peptides derived from molecules of ..
  4. Vander Lugt B, Khan A, Hackney J, Agrawal S, Lesch J, Zhou M, et al. Transcriptional programming of dendritic cells for enhanced MHC class II antigen presentation. Nat Immunol. 2014;15:161-7 pubmed publisher
    ..ChIP-Seq) analyses delineated an IRF4-dependent regulatory module that programs enhanced MHC class II antigen presentation. Expression of the transcription factor IRF4 but not of IRF8 restored the ability of IRF4-deficient DCs to ..
  5. Ravindran R, Khan N, Nakaya H, Li S, Loebbermann J, Maddur M, et al. Vaccine activation of the nutrient sensor GCN2 in dendritic cells enhances antigen presentation. Science. 2014;343:313-317 pubmed publisher
    ..role for virus-induced GCN2 activation in programming dendritic cells to initiate autophagy and enhanced antigen presentation to both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells...
  6. Ciechomska M, Wilson C, Floudas A, Hui W, Rowan A, van Eden W, et al. Antigen-specific B lymphocytes acquire proteoglycan aggrecan from cartilage extracellular matrix resulting in antigen presentation and CD4+ T-cell activation. Immunology. 2014;141:70-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies have identified B-cell-mediated antigen presentation as essential for the development of autoimmunity, but a unique role for B cells compared with other APC has ..
  7. Sandgren K, Smed S rensen A, Forsell M, Soldemo M, Adams W, Liang F, et al. Human plasmacytoid dendritic cells efficiently capture HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins via CD4 for antigen presentation. J Immunol. 2013;191:60-9 pubmed publisher
  8. Wong C, Goldstein D. Impact of aging on antigen presentation cell function of dendritic cells. Curr Opin Immunol. 2013;25:535-41 pubmed publisher
    ..How aging impacts antigen presentation by DCs is complex and without a clear unifying biological underpinning.
  9. Jaini R, Popescu D, Flask C, Macklin W, Tuohy V. Myelin antigen load influences antigen presentation and severity of central nervous system autoimmunity. J Neuroimmunol. 2013;259:37-46 pubmed publisher
  10. Bhandari T, Olson J, Johnson R, Nizet V. HIF-1? influences myeloid cell antigen presentation and response to subcutaneous OVA vaccination. J Mol Med (Berl). 2013;91:1199-205 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, HIF-1 participates in bridging the innate and adaptive immune responses and may merit further exploration as an adjuvant target. ..
  11. Lalwani P, Raftery M, Kobak L, Rang A, Giese T, Matthaei M, et al. Hantaviral mechanisms driving HLA class I antigen presentation require both RIG-I and TRIF. Eur J Immunol. 2013;43:2566-76 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we analyzed possible hantaviral mechanisms that enhance the HLA-I antigen presentation machinery...
  12. Rosalia R, Quakkelaar E, Redeker A, Khan S, Camps M, Drijfhout J, et al. Dendritic cells process synthetic long peptides better than whole protein, improving antigen presentation and T-cell activation. Eur J Immunol. 2013;43:2554-65 pubmed publisher
  13. Tardif V, Riquelme S, Rémy S, Carreño L, Cortes C, Simon T, et al. Carbon monoxide decreases endosome-lysosome fusion and inhibits soluble antigen presentation by dendritic cells to T cells. Eur J Immunol. 2013;43:2832-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we evaluated the capacity of HO-1 and CO to regulate antigen presentation on MHC class I and MHC class II molecules by LPS-treated DCs...
  14. Zhou F, Chen J, Zhao K. Human papillomavirus 16-encoded E7 protein inhibits IFN-?-mediated MHC class I antigen presentation and CTL-induced lysis by blocking IRF-1 expression in mouse keratinocytes. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:2504-14 pubmed publisher
    ..that IFN-?-treated KCs-E7 escaped from CTL recognition because HPV16 E7 downregulated MHC class I antigen presentation on KCs...
  15. Romao S, Gannage M, MUNZ C. Checking the garbage bin for problems in the house, or how autophagy assists in antigen presentation to the immune system. Semin Cancer Biol. 2013;23:391-6 pubmed publisher
    ..to lysosomes can be used for innate and adaptive immunity, but that the core machinery assists antigen presentation to the immune system by a variety of vesicular transport pathways...
  16. Kotsias F, Hoffmann E, Amigorena S, Savina A. Reactive oxygen species production in the phagosome: impact on antigen presentation in dendritic cells. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2013;18:714-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Contrary to macrophages and neutrophils, the main function of DC phagosomes is antigen presentation rather than pathogen killing or clearance of cell debris...
  17. Gallo R, Khan M, Shi J, Kapur R, Wei L, Bailey J, et al. Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton by Rho kinase controls antigen presentation by CD1d. J Immunol. 2012;189:1689-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our overall results reveal a model whereby CD1d-mediated Ag presentation is negatively regulated by ROCK via its effects on the actin cytoskeleton. ..
  18. Müller A, Filipe Santos O, Eberl G, Aebischer T, Späth G, Bousso P. CD4+ T cells rely on a cytokine gradient to control intracellular pathogens beyond sites of antigen presentation. Immunity. 2012;37:147-57 pubmed publisher
    ..that this effector bystander activity extends via a gradient of IFN-? more than 80 ?m beyond the site of antigen presentation, promoting pathogen clearance in the absence of immunological synapse formation...
  19. Ma J, Becker C, Lowell C, Underhill D. Dectin-1-triggered recruitment of light chain 3 protein to phagosomes facilitates major histocompatibility complex class II presentation of fungal-derived antigens. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:34149-56 pubmed publisher
  20. Hivroz C, Chemin K, Tourret M, Bohineust A. Crosstalk between T lymphocytes and dendritic cells. Crit Rev Immunol. 2012;32:139-55 pubmed
    ..Here we discuss the particular aspects of immunological synapses formed between T cells and DCs and the role these organized interactions have in T-cell-DC crosstalk. ..
  21. Himoudi N, Morgenstern D, Yan M, Vernay B, Saraiva L, Wu Y, et al. Human ?? T lymphocytes are licensed for professional antigen presentation by interaction with opsonized target cells. J Immunol. 2012;188:1708-16 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that licensing by Ab is a mechanism whereby the adaptive properties of ?? T cells are induced by their innate functions in a spatially and temporally controlled manner. ..
  22. Tkach A, Yanamala N, Stanley S, Shurin M, Shurin G, Kisin E, et al. Graphene oxide, but not fullerenes, targets immunoproteasomes and suppresses antigen presentation by dendritic cells. Small. 2013;9:1686-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to C60 -fullerenes, GO decreases the intracellular levels of LMP7 immunoproteasome subunits required for processing of protein antigens. This is important for the development of DC-based vaccines...
  23. Huh J, Kim J, Park Y, Hwang I, Lee Y, Sohn J, et al. A novel function of adipocytes in lipid antigen presentation to iNKT cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:328-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, CD1d, a molecule involved in lipid antigen presentation to iNKT cells, was highly expressed in adipocytes, and CD1d-expressing adipocytes stimulated iNKT cell ..
  24. Bosma A, Abdel Gadir A, Isenberg D, Jury E, Mauri C. Lipid-antigen presentation by CD1d(+) B cells is essential for the maintenance of invariant natural killer T cells. Immunity. 2012;36:477-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that healthy B cells are pivotal for iNKT cell homeostasis. ..
  25. De Libero G, Mori L. Novel insights into lipid antigen presentation. Trends Immunol. 2012;33:103-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review the latest information on the mechanisms of lipid antigen presentation by CD1 molecules...
  26. Swee L, Guimaraes C, Sehrawat S, Spooner E, Barrasa M, Ploegh H. Sortase-mediated modification of ?DEC205 affords optimization of antigen presentation and immunization against a set of viral epitopes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:1428-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We also conjugated ?DEC205 with a linker-optimized peptide library of known CD8 T-cell epitopes from the mouse ?-herpes virus 68. Animals immunized with such conjugates displayed a 10-fold reduction in viral load. ..
  27. Thaunat O, Granja A, Barral P, Filby A, Montaner B, Collinson L, et al. Asymmetric segregation of polarized antigen on B cell division shapes presentation capacity. Science. 2012;335:475-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The generation of progeny with differential capacities for antigen presentation may have implications for somatic hypermutation and class switching during affinity maturation and as B ..
  28. Farfán Arribas D, Stern L, Rock K. Using intein catalysis to probe the origin of major histocompatibility complex class I-presented peptides. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:16998-7003 pubmed publisher
    ..that for the constructs we have analyzed, DRiPs are not a more efficient source of class I peptides for antigen presentation than the turnover of mature functional proteins...
  29. Guerder S, Viret C, Luche H, Ardouin L, Malissen B. Differential processing of self-antigens by subsets of thymic stromal cells. Curr Opin Immunol. 2012;24:99-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we discuss how these different features allow for the development of a highly diverse but poorly self-reactive repertoire of functional T cells...
  30. Granados D, Yahyaoui W, Laumont C, Daouda T, Muratore Schroeder T, Côté C, et al. MHC I-associated peptides preferentially derive from transcripts bearing miRNA response elements. Blood. 2012;119:e181-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support an emerging model in which the generation of MIPs by a transcript depends on its abundance and DRiP rate, which is regulated to a large extent by miRNAs. ..
  31. Zhan Y, Vega Ramos J, Carrington E, Villadangos J, Lew A, Xu Y. The inflammatory cytokine, GM-CSF, alters the developmental outcome of murine dendritic cells. Eur J Immunol. 2012;42:2889-900 pubmed publisher
    ..Our finding that GM-CSF dominantly changes the regulation of DC development in vitro and in vivo has important implications for inflammatory diseases or GM-CSF therapy. ..
  32. Tey S, Khanna R. Host immune system strikes back: autophagy-mediated antigen presentation bypasses viral blockade of the classic MHC class I processing pathway. Autophagy. 2012;8:1839-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we discuss different mechanisms by which autophagy mediates MHC class I-restricted antigen presentation, which is crucial to its role in the control of intracellular pathogens.
  33. Crotzer V, Matute J, Arias A, Zhao H, Quilliam L, Dinauer M, et al. Cutting edge: NADPH oxidase modulates MHC class II antigen presentation by B cells. J Immunol. 2012;189:3800-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Remarkably, class II presentation of epitopes from membrane Ag was robust in p40(phox)-deficient B cells. These studies reveal a role for NADPH oxidase and p40(phox) in skewing epitope selection and T cell recognition of self Ag. ..
  34. Smed Sorensen A, Chalouni C, Chatterjee B, Cohn L, Blattmann P, Nakamura N, et al. Influenza A virus infection of human primary dendritic cells impairs their ability to cross-present antigen to CD8 T cells. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002572 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that cross-presentation by uninfected mDCs is a preferred mechanism of antigen-presentation for the activation and expansion of CD8 T cells during IAV infection. ..
  35. Grover H, Blanchard N, Gonzalez F, Chan S, Robey E, Shastri N. The Toxoplasma gondii peptide AS15 elicits CD4 T cells that can control parasite burden. Infect Immun. 2012;80:3279-88 pubmed publisher
  36. Koido S, Gong J. Characterization of structure and direct antigen presentation by dendritic/tumor-fused cells as cancer vaccines. Anticancer Res. 2013;33:347-54 pubmed
    ..The characterization of structure and antigen presentation by fused cells was examined by immunoelectron microscopic and flow cytometric analyses...
  37. Lu X, Gibbs J, Hickman H, David A, Dolan B, Jin Y, et al. Endogenous viral antigen processing generates peptide-specific MHC class I cell-surface clusters. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:15407-12 pubmed
    ..We propose that endogenous processing generates peptide-specific clusters of class I molecules to maximize the sensitivity and speed of T-cell immunosurveillance. ..
  38. Moffat J, Mintern J, Villadangos J. Control of MHC II antigen presentation by ubiquitination. Curr Opin Immunol. 2013;25:109-14 pubmed publisher
    MHC II antigen presentation is a critical pathway involved in the activation of the adaptive immune system. Tight regulatory controls are necessary to ensure appropriate MHC II antigen presentation...
  39. Patterson N, Mintern J. Intersection of autophagy with pathways of antigen presentation. Protein Cell. 2012;3:911-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we will review the contribution of autophagy to pathways of antigen presentation. The autophagy machinery acts to modulate both MHCI and MHCII antigen presentation...
  40. Ghimire T, Benson R, Garside P, Brewer J. Alum increases antigen uptake, reduces antigen degradation and sustains antigen presentation by DCs in vitro. Immunol Lett. 2012;147:55-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a novel approach to tracking antigen and antigen presentation, we demonstrate that alum induces higher antigen accumulation and increased antigen presentation by ..
  41. Lopez Sagaseta J, Sibener L, Kung J, Gumperz J, Adams E. Lysophospholipid presentation by CD1d and recognition by a human Natural Killer T-cell receptor. EMBO J. 2012;31:2047-59 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide insight into how lysophospholipids are presented by human CD1d molecules and how this complex is recognized by some, but not all, human iNKT cells. ..
  42. Wang J, Jin X, Liu J, Khosla C, Xia J. Resolving multiple protein-peptide binding events: implication for HLA-DQ2 mediated antigen presentation in celiac disease. Chem Asian J. 2012;7:992-9 pubmed publisher
    ..As antigen presentation in vivo involves both endogenous ligands and exogenous antigens, the deconvolution of multiple binding ..
  43. Smith C, Elhassen D, Gras S, Wynn K, Dasari V, Tellam J, et al. Endogenous antigen presentation impacts on T-box transcription factor expression and functional maturation of CD8+ T cells. Blood. 2012;120:3237-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings illustrate how endogenous viral antigen presentation during persistent viral infection may influence the transcriptional program of virus-specific T cells and ..
  44. Painter C, Stern L. Conformational variation in structures of classical and non-classical MHCII proteins and functional implications. Immunol Rev. 2012;250:144-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we provide an overview of the regions within classical and non-classical MHCII proteins that display conformational changes and the potential role that these changes may have in the peptide loading/exchange process. ..
  45. Yao Y, Wang Y, Chen F, Huang Y, Zhu S, Leng Q, et al. NLRC5 regulates MHC class I antigen presentation in host defense against intracellular pathogens. Cell Res. 2012;22:836-47 pubmed publisher
    ..NLRC5 was specifically required for the expression of genes involved in MHC class I antigen presentation. NLRC5-deficient mice showed a profound defect in the expression of MHC class I genes and a concomitant ..
  46. Said A, Azab W, Damiani A, Osterrieder N. Equine herpesvirus type 4 UL56 and UL49.5 proteins downregulate cell surface major histocompatibility complex class I expression independently of each other. J Virol. 2012;86:8059-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Second, EHV-4 can interfere with MHC-I antigen presentation, starting at 6 h after infection, by inhibition of the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) ..
  47. Faraco J, Lin L, Kornum B, Kenny E, Trynka G, Einen M, et al. ImmunoChip study implicates antigen presentation to T cells in narcolepsy. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003270 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings underline the importance of antigen presentation by HLA Class II to T cells in the pathophysiology of this autoimmune disease.
  48. Ressing M, Luteijn R, Horst D, Wiertz E. Viral interference with antigen presentation: trapping TAP. Mol Immunol. 2013;55:139-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Expanding our knowledge on how viruses perturb antigen presentation, in particular by targeting TAP, not only provides information on viral pathogenesis, but also reveals ..
  49. McCoy W, Wang X, Yokoyama W, Hansen T, Fremont D. Cowpox virus employs a two-pronged strategy to outflank MHCI antigen presentation. Mol Immunol. 2013;55:156-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent experiments have established that cowpox can disrupt MHCI antigen presentation during viral infection of both human and murine cells, a process enabled by two unique proteins, CPXV012 ..
  50. Hoffmann E, Kotsias F, Visentin G, Bruhns P, Savina A, Amigorena S. Autonomous phagosomal degradation and antigen presentation in dendritic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:14556-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Likewise, IgG opsonization enhances antigen presentation to CD4(+) T lymphocytes only when antigen and IgG are present within the same phagosome, whereas cells ..
  51. McKee A, Burchill M, Munks M, Jin L, Kappler J, Friedman R, et al. Host DNA released in response to aluminum adjuvant enhances MHC class II-mediated antigen presentation and prolongs CD4 T-cell interactions with dendritic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E1122-31 pubmed publisher
    ..DNase does inhibit prolonged T-cell-DC conjugate formation and antigen presentation between antigen-positive DCs and antigen-specific CD4 T cells following i.m. injection...
  52. Osborne D, Wetzel S. Trogocytosis results in sustained intracellular signaling in CD4(+) T cells. J Immunol. 2012;189:4728-39 pubmed publisher
    ..These novel findings suggest that trogocytosed molecules continue to engage their receptors on the T cell surface and sustain intracellular signaling leading to selective survival of these cells. ..
  53. Nelson R, McLachlan J, Kurtz J, Jenkins M. CD4+ T cell persistence and function after infection are maintained by low-level peptide:MHC class II presentation. J Immunol. 2013;190:2828-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, persistent infection of phagocytes produced a CD4(+) T cell population that was stably maintained by low-level peptide:MHCII presentation. ..
  54. Zelenay S, Keller A, Whitney P, Schraml B, Deddouche S, Rogers N, et al. The dendritic cell receptor DNGR-1 controls endocytic handling of necrotic cell antigens to favor cross-priming of CTLs in virus-infected mice. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:1615-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of specialized receptors that regulate antigenicity of virus-infected cells reveals determinants of antiviral immunity that might underlie the human response to infection and vaccination. ..
  55. Jackson N, Kang Y, Lapaque N, Janssen H, Trowsdale J, Kelly A. Salmonella polarises peptide-MHC-II presentation towards an unconventional Type B CD4+ T-cell response. Eur J Immunol. 2013;43:897-906 pubmed publisher
    ..Reduced MHC-II surface expression in S. Typhimurium-infected BMDCs correlated with reduced antigen presentation to Type A T cells. Salmonella infection is implicated in reactive arthritis...
  56. Wang S, Yuan S, Peng D, Zhao S. HDL and ApoA-I inhibit antigen presentation-mediated T cell activation by disrupting lipid rafts in antigen presenting cells. Atherosclerosis. 2012;225:105-14 pubmed publisher
    ..of cholesterol by methyl-?-cyclodextrin (MCD) on peptide-loaded antigen presenting cells (APCs) inhibits antigen presentation and T cell activation...
  57. Igyarto B, Kaplan D. Antigen presentation by Langerhans cells. Curr Opin Immunol. 2013;25:115-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on the functional outcome of antigen presentation by Langerhans cells...
  58. Guce A, Mortimer S, Yoon T, Painter C, Jiang W, Mellins E, et al. HLA-DO acts as a substrate mimic to inhibit HLA-DM by a competitive mechanism. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2013;20:90-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that HLA-DO inhibits HLA-DM function by acting as a substrate mimic, and the findings also limit the possible functional roles for HLA-DO in antigen presentation.
  59. Steinitz K, van Helden P, Binder B, Wraith D, Unterthurner S, Hermann C, et al. CD4+ T-cell epitopes associated with antibody responses after intravenously and subcutaneously applied human FVIII in humanized hemophilic E17 HLA-DRB1*1501 mice. Blood. 2012;119:4073-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, most of the 8 peptide regions contained promiscuous epitopes that bound to several different HLA-DR proteins in in vitro binding assays. ..
  60. Bai L, Constantinides M, Thomas S, Reboulet R, Meng F, Koentgen F, et al. Distinct APCs explain the cytokine bias of ?-galactosylceramide variants in vivo. J Immunol. 2012;188:3053-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, forced presentation of the Th2 variants by DC induced high IL-12. Thus, lipid structural variations that do not alter TCR recognition can activate distinct Th1 or Th2 cellular networks by changing APC targeting in vivo. ..
  61. Lorente E, Garcia R, Mir C, Barriga A, Lemonnier F, Ramos M, et al. Role of metalloproteases in vaccinia virus epitope processing for transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP)-independent human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B7 class I antigen presentation. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:9990-10000 pubmed publisher
    ..These data may explain why TAP-deficient individuals live normal life spans without any increased susceptibility to viral infections...
  62. Zhang S, Martin E, Shimada M, Godfrey S, Fricke J, Locastro S, et al. Aminopeptidase substrate preference affects HIV epitope presentation and predicts immune escape patterns in HIV-infected individuals. J Immunol. 2012;188:5924-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These results underscore an important and widespread role of Ag processing mutations in HIV immune escape and identify molecular mechanisms underlying impaired epitope presentation. ..