microbodies

Summary

Summary: Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.

Top Publications

  1. Faber K, Heyman J, Subramani S. Two AAA family peroxins, PpPex1p and PpPex6p, interact with each other in an ATP-dependent manner and are associated with different subcellular membranous structures distinct from peroxisomes. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:936-43 pubmed
    ..We discuss the possible role of the ATP-dependent interaction between PpPex1p and PpPex6p in regulating peroxisome biogenesis events...
  2. Al Ani G, Patel N, Pirani K, Zhu T, Dhalladoo S, Zufferey R. The N-terminal domain and glycosomal localization of Leishmania initial acyltransferase LmDAT are important for lipophosphoglycan synthesis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27802 pubmed publisher
    ..These results emphasize the importance of this enzyme's compartmentalization in the glycosome for the generation of lipophosphoglycan and parasite's biology...
  3. Hayashi Y, Shinozaki A. Visualization of microbodies in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. J Plant Res. 2012;125:579-86 pubmed publisher
    In Chlorophycean algal cells, these organelles are generally called microbodies because they lack the enzymes found in the peroxisomes of higher plants...
  4. Michels P, Bringaud F, Herman M, Hannaert V. Metabolic functions of glycosomes in trypanosomatids. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1763:1463-77 pubmed
    ..The compartmentation of environment-sensitive parts of the metabolic network within glycosomes would, through this way of organelle renewal, enable the parasites to adapt rapidly and efficiently to the new conditions...
  5. Zufferey R, Ben Mamoun C. Leishmania major expresses a single dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase localized in the glycosome, important for rapid growth and survival at high cell density and essential for virulence. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:7952-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results demonstrate that LmDAT is the only dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase of the L. major localized in the peroxisome, important for growth and survival and essential for virulence...
  6. Distel B, Erdmann R, Gould S, Blobel G, Crane D, Cregg J, et al. A unified nomenclature for peroxisome biogenesis factors. J Cell Biol. 1996;135:1-3 pubmed
  7. Schrader M, Reuber B, Morrell J, Jimenez Sanchez G, Obie C, Stroh T, et al. Expression of PEX11beta mediates peroxisome proliferation in the absence of extracellular stimuli. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:29607-14 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data implicate PEX11beta in the constitutive control of peroxisome abundance and suggest that PEX11alpha may regulate peroxisome abundance in response to extracellular stimuli...
  8. Marshall P, Dyer J, Quick M, Goodman J. Redox-sensitive homodimerization of Pex11p: a proposed mechanism to regulate peroxisomal division. J Cell Biol. 1996;135:123-37 pubmed
    ..We propose that the active species is the "monomeric" form, and that the increasing oxidative metabolism within maturing peroxisomes causes dimer formation and inhibition of further organelle division...
  9. Elgersma Y, Kwast L, Van den Berg M, Snyder W, Distel B, Subramani S, et al. Overexpression of Pex15p, a phosphorylated peroxisomal integral membrane protein required for peroxisome assembly in S.cerevisiae, causes proliferation of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. EMBO J. 1997;16:7326-41 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the peroxisomal membrane targeting signal of Pex15p overlaps with an ER targeting signal on this protein. These results indicate that Pex15p may be targeted to peroxisomes via the ER, or to both organelles...
  10. Jansen G, Ofman R, Ferdinandusse S, Ijlst L, Muijsers A, Skjeldal O, et al. Refsum disease is caused by mutations in the phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase gene. Nat Genet. 1997;17:190-3 pubmed
    ..This analysis confirms our finding that Refsum disease is caused by a deficiency of PhyH...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Faber K, Heyman J, Subramani S. Two AAA family peroxins, PpPex1p and PpPex6p, interact with each other in an ATP-dependent manner and are associated with different subcellular membranous structures distinct from peroxisomes. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:936-43 pubmed
    ..We discuss the possible role of the ATP-dependent interaction between PpPex1p and PpPex6p in regulating peroxisome biogenesis events...
  2. Al Ani G, Patel N, Pirani K, Zhu T, Dhalladoo S, Zufferey R. The N-terminal domain and glycosomal localization of Leishmania initial acyltransferase LmDAT are important for lipophosphoglycan synthesis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27802 pubmed publisher
    ..These results emphasize the importance of this enzyme's compartmentalization in the glycosome for the generation of lipophosphoglycan and parasite's biology...
  3. Hayashi Y, Shinozaki A. Visualization of microbodies in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. J Plant Res. 2012;125:579-86 pubmed publisher
    In Chlorophycean algal cells, these organelles are generally called microbodies because they lack the enzymes found in the peroxisomes of higher plants...
  4. Michels P, Bringaud F, Herman M, Hannaert V. Metabolic functions of glycosomes in trypanosomatids. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1763:1463-77 pubmed
    ..The compartmentation of environment-sensitive parts of the metabolic network within glycosomes would, through this way of organelle renewal, enable the parasites to adapt rapidly and efficiently to the new conditions...
  5. Zufferey R, Ben Mamoun C. Leishmania major expresses a single dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase localized in the glycosome, important for rapid growth and survival at high cell density and essential for virulence. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:7952-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results demonstrate that LmDAT is the only dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase of the L. major localized in the peroxisome, important for growth and survival and essential for virulence...
  6. Distel B, Erdmann R, Gould S, Blobel G, Crane D, Cregg J, et al. A unified nomenclature for peroxisome biogenesis factors. J Cell Biol. 1996;135:1-3 pubmed
  7. Schrader M, Reuber B, Morrell J, Jimenez Sanchez G, Obie C, Stroh T, et al. Expression of PEX11beta mediates peroxisome proliferation in the absence of extracellular stimuli. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:29607-14 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data implicate PEX11beta in the constitutive control of peroxisome abundance and suggest that PEX11alpha may regulate peroxisome abundance in response to extracellular stimuli...
  8. Marshall P, Dyer J, Quick M, Goodman J. Redox-sensitive homodimerization of Pex11p: a proposed mechanism to regulate peroxisomal division. J Cell Biol. 1996;135:123-37 pubmed
    ..We propose that the active species is the "monomeric" form, and that the increasing oxidative metabolism within maturing peroxisomes causes dimer formation and inhibition of further organelle division...
  9. Elgersma Y, Kwast L, Van den Berg M, Snyder W, Distel B, Subramani S, et al. Overexpression of Pex15p, a phosphorylated peroxisomal integral membrane protein required for peroxisome assembly in S.cerevisiae, causes proliferation of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. EMBO J. 1997;16:7326-41 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the peroxisomal membrane targeting signal of Pex15p overlaps with an ER targeting signal on this protein. These results indicate that Pex15p may be targeted to peroxisomes via the ER, or to both organelles...
  10. Jansen G, Ofman R, Ferdinandusse S, Ijlst L, Muijsers A, Skjeldal O, et al. Refsum disease is caused by mutations in the phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase gene. Nat Genet. 1997;17:190-3 pubmed
    ..This analysis confirms our finding that Refsum disease is caused by a deficiency of PhyH...
  11. Chang C, Lee W, Moser H, Valle D, Gould S. Isolation of the human PEX12 gene, mutated in group 3 of the peroxisome biogenesis disorders. Nat Genet. 1997;15:385-8 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that mutations in PEX12 are responsible for CG3 of the PBD and that PEX12 plays an essential role in peroxisomal matrix protein import...
  12. Kalish J, Keller G, Morrell J, Mihalik S, Smith B, Cregg J, et al. Characterization of a novel component of the peroxisomal protein import apparatus using fluorescent peroxisomal proteins. EMBO J. 1996;15:3275-85 pubmed
    ..Consistent with this hypothesis, we find that Pas10p is an integral protein of the peroxisome membrane. In addition, Pas10p contains a cytoplasmically-oriented C3HC4 zinc binding domain that is essential for its biological activity...
  13. Galland N, De Walque S, Voncken F, Verlinde C, Michels P. An internal sequence targets Trypanosoma brucei triosephosphate isomerase to glycosomes. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2010;171:45-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In yeasts, as in most other organisms, TPI is indeed exclusively present in the cytosol. These results suggest that it may be possible to develop new trypanocidal drugs by targeting specifically the glycosome import mechanism of TPI...
  14. Titorenko V, Rachubinski R. Mutants of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica defective in protein exit from the endoplasmic reticulum are also defective in peroxisome biogenesis. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:2789-803 pubmed
  15. Brocard C, Lametschwandtner G, Koudelka R, Hartig A. Pex14p is a member of the protein linkage map of Pex5p. EMBO J. 1997;16:5491-500 pubmed
  16. Rehling P, Marzioch M, Niesen F, Wittke E, Veenhuis M, Kunau W. The import receptor for the peroxisomal targeting signal 2 (PTS2) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is encoded by the PAS7 gene. EMBO J. 1996;15:2901-13 pubmed
  17. Gould S, Kalish J, Morrell J, Bjorkman J, Urquhart A, Crane D. Pex13p is an SH3 protein of the peroxisome membrane and a docking factor for the predominantly cytoplasmic PTs1 receptor. J Cell Biol. 1996;135:85-95 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Pex13p functions as a docking factor for the predominantly cytoplasmic PTS1 receptor...
  18. Erdmann R, Blobel G. Identification of Pex13p a peroxisomal membrane receptor for the PTS1 recognition factor. J Cell Biol. 1996;135:111-21 pubmed
  19. Hettema E, Ruigrok C, Koerkamp M, Van den Berg M, Tabak H, Distel B, et al. The cytosolic DnaJ-like protein djp1p is involved specifically in peroxisomal protein import. J Cell Biol. 1998;142:421-34 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the metabolic adaptation to a change in carbon source, a complex multistep process, was unaffected in a DJP1 gene deletion mutant. We conclude that Djp1p is specifically required for peroxisomal protein import...
  20. Roper J, Guther M, Macrae J, Prescott A, Hallyburton I, Acosta Serrano A, et al. The suppression of galactose metabolism in procylic form Trypanosoma brucei causes cessation of cell growth and alters procyclin glycoprotein structure and copy number. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:19728-36 pubmed
    ..The parasites compensated, ultimately unsuccessfully, by expressing 10-fold more procyclin. The implications of these data with respect to the relative roles of procyclin polypeptide and carbohydrate are discussed...
  21. Girzalsky W, Rehling P, Stein K, Kipper J, Blank L, Kunau W, et al. Involvement of Pex13p in Pex14p localization and peroxisomal targeting signal 2-dependent protein import into peroxisomes. J Cell Biol. 1999;144:1151-62 pubmed
    ..We also found Pex13p to be required for peroxisomal association of Pex14p, yet the SH3 domain of Pex13p may not provide the only binding site for Pex14p at the peroxisomal membrane...
  22. Warren D, Morrell J, Moser H, Valle D, Gould S. Identification of PEX10, the gene defective in complementation group 7 of the peroxisome-biogenesis disorders. Am J Hum Genet. 1998;63:347-59 pubmed
  23. Albertini M, Rehling P, Erdmann R, Girzalsky W, Kiel J, Veenhuis M, et al. Pex14p, a peroxisomal membrane protein binding both receptors of the two PTS-dependent import pathways. Cell. 1997;89:83-92 pubmed
    ..The data presented here are consistent with the idea of a common translocation machinery for both PTS-dependent protein import pathways in the peroxisomal membrane...
  24. Kunau W, Erdmann R. Peroxisome biogenesis: back to the endoplasmic reticulum?. Curr Biol. 1998;8:R299-302 pubmed
    ..Recent observations suggest a further route: a subset of peroxisomal membrane proteins might be targeted first to the endoplasmic reticulum, and from there to peroxisomes by vesicle-mediated transport...
  25. Baerends R, Salomons F, Faber K, Kiel J, van Der Klei I, Veenhuis M. Deviant Pex3p levels affect normal peroxisome formation in Hansenula polymorpha: high steady-state levels of the protein fully abolish matrix protein import. Yeast. 1997;13:1437-48 pubmed
    ..The implications of our results on PEX3 gene regulation and functioning of the peroxisomal matrix protein import machinery in H. polymorpha are discussed...
  26. Huhse B, Rehling P, Albertini M, Blank L, Meller K, Kunau W. Pex17p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a novel peroxin and component of the peroxisomal protein translocation machinery. J Cell Biol. 1998;140:49-60 pubmed
    ..From these and other studies we conclude that Pex17p, in addition to Pex13p and Pex14p, is the third identified component of the peroxisomal translocation machinery...
  27. Smith J, Szilard R, Marelli M, Rachubinski R. The peroxin Pex17p of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is associated peripherally with the peroxisomal membrane and is required for the import of a subset of matrix proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:2511-20 pubmed
    ..This selective import is not a function of the nature of the peroxisomal targeting signal. We suggest a regulatory role for Pex17p in the import of a subset of matrix proteins into peroxisomes...
  28. Otera H, Okumoto K, Tateishi K, Ikoma Y, Matsuda E, Nishimura M, et al. Peroxisome targeting signal type 1 (PTS1) receptor is involved in import of both PTS1 and PTS2: studies with PEX5-defective CHO cell mutants. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:388-99 pubmed
    ..Both mutations were in the TPR domains (TPR1 and TPR6), suggesting the functional consequence of these domains in protein translocation. The implications of these mutations are discussed...
  29. Penha L, Sant Anna C, Mendonça Previato L, Cunha e Silva N, Previato J, Lima A. Sorting of phosphoglucomutase to glycosomes in Trypanosoma cruzi is mediated by an internal domain. Glycobiology. 2009;19:1462-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that, in T. cruzi, PGM import into glycosomes is mediated by a novel non-PTS domain that is located internally in the protein...
  30. Schliebs W, W rtz C, Kunau W, Veenhuis M, Rottensteiner H. A eukaryote without catalase-containing microbodies: Neurospora crassa exhibits a unique cellular distribution of its four catalases. Eukaryot Cell. 2006;5:1490-502 pubmed publisher
    b>Microbodies usually house catalase to decompose hydrogen peroxide generated within the organelle by the action of various oxidases. Here we have analyzed whether peroxisomes (i.e...
  31. Colasante C, Ellis M, Ruppert T, Voncken F. Comparative proteomics of glycosomes from bloodstream form and procyclic culture form Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Proteomics. 2006;6:3275-93 pubmed
    ..Comparative (non-quantitative) analysis of BSF and PCF glycosomes by nano LC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS resulted in the validation of known functional aspects of glycosomes and the identification of novel glycosomal constituents...
  32. Opperdoes F, Szikora J. In silico prediction of the glycosomal enzymes of Leishmania major and trypanosomes. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2006;147:193-206 pubmed
    ..In addition, they seem to catalyze several reactions of isoprenoid synthesis and are involved in oxidant stress protection...
  33. Kiel J, van den Berg M, Bovenberg R, van der Klei I, Veenhuis M. Penicillium chrysogenum Pex5p mediates differential sorting of PTS1 proteins to microbodies of the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha. Fungal Genet Biol. 2004;41:708-20 pubmed
    ..demonstrated that the PTS1 proteins dihydroxyacetone synthase and catalase were almost fully imported into microbodies. Surprisingly, alcohol oxidase, which also depends on Pex5p for import into microbodies, remained mainly in the ..
  34. Eitzen G, Szilard R, Rachubinski R. Enlarged peroxisomes are present in oleic acid-grown Yarrowia lipolytica overexpressing the PEX16 gene encoding an intraperoxisomal peripheral membrane peroxin. J Cell Biol. 1997;137:1265-78 pubmed
    ..lipolytica leads to the appearance of a small number of enlarged peroxisomes, which contain the normal complement of peroxisomal proteins at levels approaching those of wild-type peroxisomes...
  35. Titorenko V, Smith J, Szilard R, Rachubinski R. Pex20p of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is required for the oligomerization of thiolase in the cytosol and for its targeting to the peroxisome. J Cell Biol. 1998;142:403-20 pubmed
    ..Translocation of the thiolase homodimer into the peroxisomal matrix would release Pex20p monomers back to the cytosol, thereby permitting a new cycle of binding-oligomerization-targeting-release for Pex20p and thiolase...
  36. Mariño K, Güther M, Wernimont A, Qiu W, Hui R, Ferguson M. Characterization, localization, essentiality, and high-resolution crystal structure of glucosamine 6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase from Trypanosoma brucei. Eukaryot Cell. 2011;10:985-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The significance of results and the potential of TbGNA1 as a novel drug target for African sleeping sickness are discussed...
  37. Fransen M, Terlecky S, Subramani S. Identification of a human PTS1 receptor docking protein directly required for peroxisomal protein import. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:8087-92 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate that the ab-MF3-immunoreactive, 57-kDa peroxisomal membrane protein is Pex14p. Furthermore, this peroxin interacts with Pex5p and Pex13p(SH3) and is directly required for peroxisomal protein import...
  38. Gualdrón López M, Brennand A, Hannaert V, Quiñones W, Cáceres A, Bringaud F, et al. When, how and why glycolysis became compartmentalised in the Kinetoplastea. A new look at an ancient organelle. Int J Parasitol. 2012;42:1-20 pubmed publisher
  39. Reuber B, Germain Lee E, Collins C, Morrell J, Ameritunga R, Moser H, et al. Mutations in PEX1 are the most common cause of peroxisome biogenesis disorders. Nat Genet. 1997;17:445-8 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate an important role for PEX1 in peroxisome biogenesis and suggest that mutations in this gene are the most common cause of the PBDs...
  40. Gietl C, Wimmer B, Adamec J, Kalousek F. A cysteine endopeptidase isolated from castor bean endosperm microbodies processes the glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase precursor protein. Plant Physiol. 1997;113:863-71 pubmed
    A plant cysteine endopeptidase with a molecular mass of 35 kD was purified from microbodies of germinating castor bean (Ricinus communis) endosperm by virtue of its capacity to specifically process the glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase ..
  41. Shani N, Jimenez Sanchez G, Steel G, Dean M, Valle D. Identification of a fourth half ABC transporter in the human peroxisomal membrane. Hum Mol Genet. 1997;6:1925-31 pubmed
  42. Elgersma Y, Vos A, Van den Berg M, van Roermund C, van der Sluijs P, Distel B, et al. Analysis of the carboxyl-terminal peroxisomal targeting signal 1 in a homologous context in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:26375-82 pubmed
    ..Because we show that dimerization of MDH3 precedes import into the organelle, these domains are most likely conformational domains...
  43. Passreiter M, Anton M, Lay D, Frank R, Harter C, Wieland F, et al. Peroxisome biogenesis: involvement of ARF and coatomer. J Cell Biol. 1998;141:373-83 pubmed
  44. Moyersoen J, Choe J, Fan E, Hol W, Michels P. Biogenesis of peroxisomes and glycosomes: trypanosomatid glycosome assembly is a promising new drug target. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2004;28:603-43 pubmed
    ..Such compounds would be suitable as lead drugs against trypanosomatid-borne diseases...
  45. Blobel F, Erdmann R. Identification of a yeast peroxisomal member of the family of AMP-binding proteins. Eur J Biochem. 1996;240:468-76 pubmed
    ..Pcs60p belongs to the family of proteins which act via an ATP-dependent covalent binding of AMP to their substrates and shows the highest degree of similarity to the Escherichia coli long chain acyl-CoA synthetase...
  46. Komori M, Rasmussen S, Kiel J, Baerends R, Cregg J, van Der Klei I, et al. The Hansenula polymorpha PEX14 gene encodes a novel peroxisomal membrane protein essential for peroxisome biogenesis. EMBO J. 1997;16:44-53 pubmed
    ..Apparently, the stoichiometry of Pex14p relative to one or more other components of the peroxisome biogenesis machinery appears to be critical for protein import...
  47. Elgersma Y, Kwast L, Klein A, Voorn Brouwer T, Van den Berg M, Metzig B, et al. The SH3 domain of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae peroxisomal membrane protein Pex13p functions as a docking site for Pex5p, a mobile receptor for the import PTS1-containing proteins. J Cell Biol. 1996;135:97-109 pubmed
    ..We therefore propose that Pex13p is a component of the peroxisomal protein import machinery onto which the mobile Pex5p receptor docks for the delivery of the selected PTS1 protein...
  48. Haanstra J, van Tuijl A, Kessler P, Reijnders W, Michels P, Westerhoff H, et al. Compartmentation prevents a lethal turbo-explosion of glycolysis in trypanosomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:17718-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This provides the first experimental support for our hypothesis that pathway compartmentation is an alternative to allosteric regulation...
  49. da Silva E, da Silva M, Fischer H, Mortara R, Mayer M, Framesqui K, et al. Biochemical and biophysical properties of a highly active recombinant arginase from Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and subcellular localization of native enzyme. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2008;159:104-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The determined structural parameters provide substantial data to facilitate the search for selective inhibitors of parasitic sources of arginase, which could subsequently point to a candidate for leishmaniasis therapy...
  50. Dodt G, Gould S. Multiple PEX genes are required for proper subcellular distribution and stability of Pex5p, the PTS1 receptor: evidence that PTS1 protein import is mediated by a cycling receptor. J Cell Biol. 1996;135:1763-74 pubmed
    ..Altered distribution or stability of the PTS1 receptor in all cells with a defect in PTS1 protein import implies that the genes mutated in these cell lines encode proteins with a direct role in peroxisomal protein import...
  51. Managadze D, W rtz C, Wiese S, Meyer H, Niehaus G, Erdmann R, et al. A proteomic approach towards the identification of the matrix protein content of the two types of microbodies in Neurospora crassa. Proteomics. 2010;10:3222-34 pubmed publisher
    b>Microbodies (peroxisomes) comprise a class of organelles with a similar biogenesis but remarkable biochemical heterogeneity...
  52. Guerra Giraldez C, Quijada L, Clayton C. Compartmentation of enzymes in a microbody, the glycosome, is essential in Trypanosoma brucei. J Cell Sci. 2002;115:2651-8 pubmed
    All kinetoplastids contain membrane-bound microbodies known as glycosomes, in which several metabolic pathways including part of glycolysis are compartmentalized...
  53. Purdue P, Yang X, Lazarow P. Pex18p and Pex21p, a novel pair of related peroxins essential for peroxisomal targeting by the PTS2 pathway. J Cell Biol. 1998;143:1859-69 pubmed
    ..Pex18p and Pex21p are weakly homologous to each other and display partial functional redundancy, indicating that they constitute a two-member peroxin family specifically required for Pex7p and PTS2 targeting...
  54. de Vet E, van den Broek B, van den Bosch H. Nucleotide sequence of human alkyl-dihydroxyacetonephosphate synthase cDNA reveals the presence of a peroxisomal targeting signal 2. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997;1346:25-9 pubmed
    ..An unexpected homology with D-lactate dehydrogenase (cytochrome C) precursor from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and with glycolate oxidase subunit D from Escherichia coli was also revealed...
  55. Hettema E, van Roermund C, Distel B, Van den Berg M, Vilela C, Rodrigues Pousada C, et al. The ABC transporter proteins Pat1 and Pat2 are required for import of long-chain fatty acids into peroxisomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. EMBO J. 1996;15:3813-22 pubmed
    ..Pat1p and Pat2p are the first examples of membrane proteins involved in metabolite transport across the peroxisomal membrane...
  56. Furuya T, Kessler P, Jardim A, Schnaufer A, Crudder C, Parsons M. Glucose is toxic to glycosome-deficient trypanosomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:14177-82 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, procyclic forms, which can grow in the absence of glucose, were killed by PEX14 RNA interference only when simple sugars were present. Thus, interference with glycosome protein import makes glucose toxic to trypanosomes...
  57. Wiemer E, Lüers G, Faber K, Wenzel T, Veenhuis M, Subramani S. Isolation and characterization of Pas2p, a peroxisomal membrane protein essential for peroxisome biogenesis in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:18973-80 pubmed
    ..The role of peroxisomal membrane targeting signals and transmembrane domains in anchoring PMPs to the peroxisomal membrane is discussed...
  58. Mano S, Hayashi M, Kondo M, Nishimura M. Hydroxypyruvate reductase with a carboxy-terminal targeting signal to microbodies is expressed in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Physiol. 1997;38:449-55 pubmed
    ..amino acid sequences revealed that HPR in Arabidopsis contained the carboxy-terminal targeting signal to microbodies. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that the cDNA with the longest insert contained an open reading frame of 1,..
  59. Kammerer S, Holzinger A, Welsch U, Roscher A. Cloning and characterization of the gene encoding the human peroxisomal assembly protein Pex3p. FEBS Lett. 1998;429:53-60 pubmed
    ..Since disruption of human peroxins has been shown to result in peroxisomal biogenesis disorders, PEX3 is another candidate gene being involved in this disease group...
  60. Mihalik S, Morrell J, Kim D, Sacksteder K, Watkins P, Gould S. Identification of PAHX, a Refsum disease gene. Nat Genet. 1997;17:185-9 pubmed
    ..We find that both Refsum disease patients examined are homozygous for inactivating mutations in PAHX, demonstrating that mutations in PAHX can cause Refsum disease...
  61. Elgersma Y, Elgersma Hooisma M, Wenzel T, McCaffery J, Farquhar M, Subramani S. A mobile PTS2 receptor for peroxisomal protein import in Pichia pastoris. J Cell Biol. 1998;140:807-20 pubmed
    ..The corresponding PpPex7p mutant proteins were stably expressed in P. pastoris, but they failed to complement the pex7Delta mutant and were impaired in binding to the PTS2 sequence...
  62. Gotte K, Girzalsky W, Linkert M, Baumgart E, Kammerer S, Kunau W, et al. Pex19p, a farnesylated protein essential for peroxisome biogenesis. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:616-28 pubmed
    ..Farnesylation of Pex19p was shown to be essential for the proper function of the protein in peroxisome biogenesis. Pex19p was shown to interact with Pex3p in vivo, and this interaction required farnesylation of Pex19p...