exophthalmos

Summary

Summary: Abnormal protrusion of both eyes; may be caused by endocrine gland malfunction, malignancy, injury, or paralysis of the extrinsic muscles of the eye.

Top Publications

  1. Bonavolonta G, Iuliano A, Bonavolonta P, Strianese D. Unilateral exophthalmos associated with ipsilateral mucosal turbinate hypertrophy: benign exophthalmos syndrome (BES). A description of a new clinical condition. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2005;15:800-3 pubmed
    To report the clinical and radiologic characteristics of a group of patients who experienced unilateral exophthalmos associated with ipsilateral mucosal turbinate hypertrophy...
  2. Ulivieri S, Toninelli S, Giorgio A, Fruschelli M, Miracco C, Oliveri G. Orbital glomangioma. Orbit. 2012;31:216-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our case adds to the very few cases of orbital glomangioma reported in the literature and demonstrates that this tumor can be safely removed...
  3. Tagliabracci V, Engel J, Wen J, Wiley S, Worby C, Kinch L, et al. Secreted kinase phosphorylates extracellular proteins that regulate biomineralization. Science. 2012;336:1150-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, mutations in Fam20C cause an osteosclerotic bone dysplasia in humans known as Raine syndrome. Fam20C is thus a protein kinase dedicated to the phosphorylation of extracellular proteins...
  4. Scarone P, Leclerq D, Heran F, Robert G. Long-term results with exophthalmos in a surgical series of 30 sphenoorbital meningiomas. Clinical article. J Neurosurg. 2009;111:1069-77 pubmed publisher
    The authors analyzed the long-term results and radiological aspects of sphenoorbital meningioma (with emphasis on exophthalmos) in a series of 30 patients who underwent resection.
  5. Mömke S, Fink S, Wohlke A, Drogemuller C, Distl O. Linkage of bilateral convergent strabismus with exophthalmus (BCSE) to BTA5 and BTA18 in German Brown cattle. Anim Genet. 2008;39:544-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, it is possible that two genes are involved in the development of BCSE. Alternatively, one of these loci could be the cause for the development of BCSE and the other locus could affect the progression and severity of the defect...
  6. Gupta S, Thakur A, Bhardwaj N, Singh H. Carotid cavernous sinus fistula presenting with pulsating exophthalmos and secondary glaucoma. J Indian Med Assoc. 2008;106:312, 346 pubmed
    ..A case of spontaneous carotid cavernous sinus fistula in a young adult male who presented with pulsating exophthalmos and secondary glaucoma is presented...
  7. Fink S, Mömke S, Wohlke A, Distl O. Genes on bovine chromosome 18 associated with bilateral convergent strabismus with exophthalmos in German Brown cattle. Mol Vis. 2008;14:1737-51 pubmed
    Bilateral convergent strabismus with exophthalmos (BCSE) is a widespread inherited eye defect in several cattle populations...
  8. Fradin M, Stoetzel C, Muller J, Koob M, Christmann D, Debry C, et al. Osteosclerotic bone dysplasia in siblings with a Fam20C mutation. Clin Genet. 2011;80:177-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This case report also prompted us to revisit the FAM20 gene classification and allowed us to highlight the ancestral status of Fam20C...
  9. Lindholm J, Laurberg P. Hyperthyroidism, exophthalmos, and goiter: historical notes on the orbitopathy. Thyroid. 2010;20:291-300 pubmed publisher
    b>Exophthalmos associated with goiter and/or symptoms of hyperthyroidism have been known since antiquity. It was not until around 1800 that a number of studies described this disorder in more detail.
  10. Kamminga N, Jansonius N, Pott J, Links T. Unilateral proptosis: the role of medical history. Br J Ophthalmol. 2003;87:370-1 pubmed

Detail Information

Publications90

  1. Bonavolonta G, Iuliano A, Bonavolonta P, Strianese D. Unilateral exophthalmos associated with ipsilateral mucosal turbinate hypertrophy: benign exophthalmos syndrome (BES). A description of a new clinical condition. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2005;15:800-3 pubmed
    To report the clinical and radiologic characteristics of a group of patients who experienced unilateral exophthalmos associated with ipsilateral mucosal turbinate hypertrophy...
  2. Ulivieri S, Toninelli S, Giorgio A, Fruschelli M, Miracco C, Oliveri G. Orbital glomangioma. Orbit. 2012;31:216-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our case adds to the very few cases of orbital glomangioma reported in the literature and demonstrates that this tumor can be safely removed...
  3. Tagliabracci V, Engel J, Wen J, Wiley S, Worby C, Kinch L, et al. Secreted kinase phosphorylates extracellular proteins that regulate biomineralization. Science. 2012;336:1150-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, mutations in Fam20C cause an osteosclerotic bone dysplasia in humans known as Raine syndrome. Fam20C is thus a protein kinase dedicated to the phosphorylation of extracellular proteins...
  4. Scarone P, Leclerq D, Heran F, Robert G. Long-term results with exophthalmos in a surgical series of 30 sphenoorbital meningiomas. Clinical article. J Neurosurg. 2009;111:1069-77 pubmed publisher
    The authors analyzed the long-term results and radiological aspects of sphenoorbital meningioma (with emphasis on exophthalmos) in a series of 30 patients who underwent resection.
  5. Mömke S, Fink S, Wohlke A, Drogemuller C, Distl O. Linkage of bilateral convergent strabismus with exophthalmus (BCSE) to BTA5 and BTA18 in German Brown cattle. Anim Genet. 2008;39:544-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, it is possible that two genes are involved in the development of BCSE. Alternatively, one of these loci could be the cause for the development of BCSE and the other locus could affect the progression and severity of the defect...
  6. Gupta S, Thakur A, Bhardwaj N, Singh H. Carotid cavernous sinus fistula presenting with pulsating exophthalmos and secondary glaucoma. J Indian Med Assoc. 2008;106:312, 346 pubmed
    ..A case of spontaneous carotid cavernous sinus fistula in a young adult male who presented with pulsating exophthalmos and secondary glaucoma is presented...
  7. Fink S, Mömke S, Wohlke A, Distl O. Genes on bovine chromosome 18 associated with bilateral convergent strabismus with exophthalmos in German Brown cattle. Mol Vis. 2008;14:1737-51 pubmed
    Bilateral convergent strabismus with exophthalmos (BCSE) is a widespread inherited eye defect in several cattle populations...
  8. Fradin M, Stoetzel C, Muller J, Koob M, Christmann D, Debry C, et al. Osteosclerotic bone dysplasia in siblings with a Fam20C mutation. Clin Genet. 2011;80:177-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This case report also prompted us to revisit the FAM20 gene classification and allowed us to highlight the ancestral status of Fam20C...
  9. Lindholm J, Laurberg P. Hyperthyroidism, exophthalmos, and goiter: historical notes on the orbitopathy. Thyroid. 2010;20:291-300 pubmed publisher
    b>Exophthalmos associated with goiter and/or symptoms of hyperthyroidism have been known since antiquity. It was not until around 1800 that a number of studies described this disorder in more detail.
  10. Kamminga N, Jansonius N, Pott J, Links T. Unilateral proptosis: the role of medical history. Br J Ophthalmol. 2003;87:370-1 pubmed
  11. Mateos E, Arruabarrena C, Veiga C, Ruiz Zarate B, Valdes J, Rojo P. Massive exophthalmos after traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula embolization. Orbit. 2007;26:121-4 pubmed
    ..In young patients, local factors are more frequently identified than systemic vascular diseases. Early detection of central retinal vein obstruction may prevent deterioration of visual acuity...
  12. Selva D, Chen C, King G. Late reactivation of thyroid orbitopathy. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2004;32:46-50 pubmed
    ..The aim of the present study was to assess the incidence and characteristics of late reactivation of thyroid orbitopathy within a tertiary referral orbital clinic...
  13. Grothe C, Urbach H, Bos M, Ko Y, Schroder R. [Cerebellar syndrome, exophthalmos and secondary hypogonadism in Erdheim-Chester disease]. Nervenarzt. 2001;72:449-52 pubmed
    We present a 50-year-old patient with a slowly progressive cerebellar syndrome, left-sided exophthalmos, secondary hypogonadism, and multiple pleomorphous skin alterations...
  14. Ganesan K, Fabbroni G, Loukota R, Craggs L. Traumatic subperiosteal hematoma of the orbit: a report of 2 cases. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;66:1266-9 pubmed publisher
  15. Kuehn P, Newell R, Reed J. Exophthalmos in a woman with lingual, subhyoid and lateral-lobe thyroid glands. N Engl J Med. 1966;274:652-4 pubmed
    A case of exophthalmos, and ectopic hyperplastic thyroid tissue occurring at the base of the tongue, in the subhyoid area and in the lateral thyroid lobe is presented...
  16. Baldeschi L, MacAndie K, Hintschich C, Wakelkamp I, Prummel M, Wiersinga W. The removal of the deep lateral wall in orbital decompression: its contribution to exophthalmos reduction and influence on consecutive diplopia. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;140:642-7 pubmed
    To evaluate the contribution of maximal removal of the deep lateral wall of the orbit to exophthalmos reduction in Graves' orbitopathy and its influence on the onset of consecutive diplopia.
  17. Tse D. A simple maneuver to reposit a subluxed globe. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000;118:410-1 pubmed
    ..The lack of concise patient instruction for a quick and safe method of self-administered globe reposition is the main impetus for the design of current technique...
  18. Dorkhan M, Lantz M, Frid A, Groop L, Hallengren B. Treatment with a thiazolidinedione increases eye protrusion in a subgroup of patients with type 2 diabetes. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2006;65:35-9 pubmed
    ..Changes in eye protrusion in patients treated with pioglitazone...
  19. Kahaly G, Moncayo R, Bemetz U, Krause U, Beyer J, Pfeiffer E. Eye muscle antibodies in endocrine exophthalmos. Clinical and serological observations. Horm Metab Res. 1989;21:137-41 pubmed
    Serum samples were obtained from 65 patients with endocrine exophthalmos class I-V. In 33/65 patients who were treated either with prednisone or with ciclosporin, blood was sampled before, during and after therapy...
  20. Brucoli M, Stecco A, Iaquinta C, Carriero A, Benech A. Diagnosis and treatment of orbit posttraumatic subperiosteal hemorrhage in a child, associated with a subdural intracranial hemorrhage. J Craniofac Surg. 2005;16:407-10 pubmed
    ..MRI was more sensitive and specific in the evaluation of the intracranial and intraorbital complication...
  21. Mömke S, Distl O. Bilateral convergent strabismus with exophthalmus (BCSE) in cattle: an overview of clinical signs and genetic traits. Vet J. 2007;173:272-7 pubmed
    ..Comparative molecular genetic approaches could help to characterize the responsible genes for this ocular disease in cattle...
  22. Levin F, Kazim M, Smith T, Marcovici E. Rosiglitazone-induced proptosis. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005;123:119-21 pubmed
  23. Mourits M, Lombardo S, van der Sluijs F, Fenton S. Reliability of exophthalmos measurement and the exophthalmometry value distribution in a healthy Dutch population and in Graves' patients. An exploratory study. Orbit. 2004;23:161-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, to assess the effects of gender and age on exophthalmometry readings in this group and in a group of Graves' patients by comparing healthy, adult, Caucasian, Dutch individuals with adult, Caucasian, Dutch Graves' patients...
  24. Smolders M, Graniewski Wijnands H, Meinders A, Fogteloo A, Pijl H, de Keizer R. Exophthalmos in obesity. Ophthalmic Res. 2004;36:78-81 pubmed
    To establish the relationship between exophthalmos and obesity.
  25. Yazgan C, Fitoz S, Atasoy P, Akyar S. [Case report: Cemento-ossifying fibroma of the ethmoidal sinus presenting with exophthalmos]. Tani Girisim Radyol. 2003;9:192-4 pubmed
    ..The tumor is frequently seen in the mandibula and maxilla, but it may rarely affect the ethmoidal sinus. In this report, CT findings of cemento-ossifying fibroma located in the ethmoidal sinus are presented...
  26. Kim I, Choi J. Normal range of exophthalmos values on orbit computerized tomography in Koreans. Ophthalmologica. 2001;215:156-62 pubmed
    ..30-0.31) could be used as the index of protrusion. The normal values of exophthalmometry parameters measured by orbit CT could also be helpful to evaluate the exact protrusion in orbital diseases...
  27. Kunesh J, Katz S. Spontaneous globe luxation associated with contact lens placement. CLAO J. 2002;28:2-4 pubmed
    ..It is an uncommon event and can produce anxiety in both the patient and the physician. The purpose of this article is to present a case of spontaneous globe luxation which occurred with attempted contact lens placement...
  28. Raine J, Winter R, Davey A, Tucker S. Unknown syndrome: microcephaly, hypoplastic nose, exophthalmos, gum hyperplasia, cleft palate, low set ears, and osteosclerosis. J Med Genet. 1989;26:786-8 pubmed
    We report a neonate, born at term, with microcephaly, a hypoplastic nose, exophthalmos, gum hyperplasia, cleft palate, and low set ears, who died at 86 minutes of age. Radiographs showed diffuse sclerosis of the bones.
  29. Wu C, Chang T, Liao S. Results and predictability of fat-removal orbital decompression for disfiguring graves exophthalmos in an Asian patient population. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008;145:755-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate proptosis reduction by fat-removal orbital decompression (FROD), to determine the incidence of postoperative diplopia, and to assess predictability of proptosis reduction per volume of resected orbital fat...
  30. Wray J, Doust R, Fraser McConnell -, Dennis R, Blunden A. Retrobulbar teratoma causing exophthalmos in a cat. J Feline Med Surg. 2008;10:175-80 pubmed
    A 3-year female-neutered domestic shorthair cat presenting with exophthalmos and an ipsilateral subzygomatic soft tissue mass lesion is described. Magnetic resonance imaging of the mass was performed followed by complete surgical excision...
  31. Sethi A, Ghose S, Gujral S, Jain P, Kumar R. Childhood proptosis: the invaluable but overlooked peripheral blood smear. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2001;49:121-3 pubmed
    ..Two cases of granulocytic sarcoma presenting as childhood proptosis are described. This highlights the significance of peripheral blood smear examination in establishing the diagnosis of Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML)...
  32. Dickinson A, Perros P. Controversies in the clinical evaluation of active thyroid-associated orbitopathy: use of a detailed protocol with comparative photographs for objective assessment. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2001;55:283-303 pubmed
    ..Unless a reproducible system of assessment is devised and widely adopted, it will remain difficult to interpret research meaningfully, particularly if results appear to contradict...
  33. Macchia P, Bagattini M, Lupoli G, Vitale M, Vitale G, Fenzi G. High-dose intravenous corticosteroid therapy for Graves' ophthalmopathy. J Endocrinol Invest. 2001;24:152-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, in addition to a lower incidence of side-effects compared to the classic oral therapy, the high-dose iv steroid therapy provides efficient and stable improvement in Graves' ophthalmopathy...
  34. Toumi A, Larbi Ammari F, Loussaief C, Hadhri R, Ben Brahim H, Harrathi K, et al. Rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis: five cases. Med Mal Infect. 2012;42:591-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Early diagnosis should be based on imaging data and histology. Amphotericin B must be rapidly initiated and associated with aggressive surgical debridement to reduce mortality. ..
  35. Sagiv O, Satchi K, Kinori M, Fabian I, Rosen N, Ben Simon G, et al. Comparison of lateral orbital decompression with and without rim repositioning in thyroid eye disease. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2016;254:791-6 pubmed publisher
  36. Jankauskienė J, Jakstaite V, Smalinskas V. Changes of vision and refraction in patients with thyroid pathology. Medicina (Kaunas). 2009;45:378-81 pubmed
    ..The data of visual acuity, refraction, and exophthalmos were analyzed, which were obtained from 105 patients with thyroid pathology...
  37. Oishi A, Miyamoto K, Yoshimura N. Etiology of carotid cavernous fistula in Japanese. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2009;53:40-43 pubmed publisher
    ..4%), diplopia (81.1%), bruit (59.5%), and headaches/orbital pain (62.2%). Exophthalmos (67.6%) and elevated intraocular pressure (40.5%) were also frequently noted...
  38. Poloschek C, Lagrèze W, Ridder G, Hader C. [Clinical and neuroradiological diagnostics of orbital tumors]. Ophthalmologe. 2011;108:510-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This article illustrates the approach to a detailed clinical and neuroradiological assessment which is mandatory for the care of orbital tumor patients...
  39. Kim Y, Kwak A, Lee S, Yoon J, Jang S. Meibomian gland dysfunction in Graves' orbitopathy. Can J Ophthalmol. 2015;50:278-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The tear film break-up time (BUT) was measured. The palpebral fissure height, exophthalmos, and eyelid retraction were also assessed...
  40. Roshdy N, Shahin M, Kishk H, Ghanem A, El Khouly S, Mousa A, et al. MRI in diagnosis of orbital masses. Curr Eye Res. 2010;35:986-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Diffusion-weighted MRI and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy increased the accuracy of diagnosis of orbital masses through giving in vivo tissue characterization; with magnetic resonance spectroscopy being more accurate. ..
  41. Bousquet O, El Ouahabi A, Le Reste P, Sacko O, Joud A, Hayek G, et al. [Orbital tumors. Neurosurgical activity]. Neurochirurgie. 2010;56:213-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These departments' activity is quite low, treating mainly sphenoorbital meningiomas. Other tumor groups are unequally and sporadically managed...
  42. Hüske C, Sander S, Hamann M, Kershaw O, Richter F, Richter A. Towards optimized anesthesia protocols for stereotactic surgery in rats: Analgesic, stress and general health effects of injectable anesthetics. A comparison of a recommended complete reversal anesthesia with traditional chloral hydrate monoanesthesi. Brain Res. 2016;1642:364-375 pubmed publisher
    ..MMF caused transient exophthalmos, myositis at the injection site and increased early postoperative pain scores...
  43. Jin P, Janjua M, Zhang Q, Dong C, Yang Y, Mo Z. Extensive ARMC5 genetic variance in primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia that started with exophthalmos: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2018;12:13 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Exophthalmos is an underappreciated sign of Cushing's syndrome...
  44. Kang Y, Park E, Kim Y, Kim J, Kim D, Thomale U, et al. Altered cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in neurofibromatosis type l: severe arachnoid thickening in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 may cause abnormal CSF dynamic. Childs Nerv Syst. 2017;33:767-775 pubmed publisher
    ..They presented with a similar craniofacial deformity, which consisted of pulsatile exophthalmos, an enlarged bony orbit, dysplasia of the sphenoid wing with the presence of a herniation of the temporal lobe ..
  45. Zafar S, Zafar S, Khan A, Zafar S. Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation masquerading as carotid cavernous fistula in a child with proptosis. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2009;19:894-6 pubmed
    ..An infant with proptosis and dilated episcleral vessels was diagnosed with vein of Galen malformation, which is a rare condition presenting initially to an ophthalmologist...
  46. Warburton R, Brookes C, Golden B, Turvey T. Orbital apex disorders: a case series. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2016;45:497-506 pubmed publisher
    ..The cases described represent a rare but important group of conditions seen by the maxillofacial surgeon. A review of the clinical presentation, etiology, and management of these conditions may prompt timely recognition and treatment. ..
  47. Rittenbach T. Proptosis from a Baerveldt tube shunt implant. Optom Vis Sci. 2014;91:e145-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the incidence of proptosis resulting from glaucoma drainage devices is rare, radiologists and ophthalmic clinicians must be aware of this possibility as well as the appearance of these devices in orbital imaging...
  48. Santaolalla F, Sanchez J, Ereno C, Lecumberri G, Valdes C. Severe exophthalmos in trigeminal plexiform neurofibroma involving the orbit and the infratemporal fossa. J Clin Neurosci. 2009;16:970-2 pubmed publisher
    ..The clinical findings, neuroradiographic features, surgical management, postoperative results and follow-up of trigeminal plexiform neurofibromas are reviewed...
  49. Das J, Sharma A, Deka A, Das D. Solitary fibrous tumor of the orbit presenting in pregnancy. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2009;57:238-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Histological examination and immunohistochemistry revealed a solitary fibrous tumor, which showed a rapid progression in pregnancy...
  50. Oriá A, Pinna M, Estrela Lima A, Junior D, Libório F, de Assis Dórea Neto F, et al. Exophthalmos due to odontogenic intraorbital abscess in Cebus apella. J Med Primatol. 2013;42:101-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The accumulation of pus in the orbit originating from an infected dental root is classified as odontogenic intraorbital abscess...
  51. Alio J, Sales Sanz M, Vaz M, Barrancos C, Reguero M, Diamantopoulus J, et al. Primary extraosseous Ewing sarcoma of the orbit. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2013;29:e91-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and an orbital exenteration with preservation of eyelids and conjunctiva. He also received adjuvant chemotherapy and local radiotherapy, and he has remained disease-free for almost 3 years...
  52. Heufelder M, Sterker I, Trantakis C, Schneider J, Meixensberger J, Hemprich A, et al. Reconstructive and ophthalmologic outcomes following resection of spheno-orbital meningiomas. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009;25:223-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess long-term stability and aesthetic and functional outcomes of orbital reconstruction after resection of spheno-orbital meningiomas using calvarial bone grafts...
  53. Leovic D, Zubcic V, Kopić M, Matijevic M, Danic D. Posttraumatic subperiosteal orbital hematoma. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2011;39:131-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Subperiosteal orbital hematoma (SOH) is a rare finding after midface trauma, causing compartment syndrome within the orbit. It should be consideration in the differential diagnosis of any case of proptosis and vertical globe displacement...
  54. Lesin M, Bojić L, Romac R, Lesin J, Ivanisevic M, Galetović D, et al. Afect of botulinum toxin-A injection on intraocular pressure and proptosis in thyroid associated orbitopathy. Coll Antropol. 2009;33:1155-7 pubmed
    ..5 +/- 2.7 mm vs. 22.0 +/- 2.6 mm; (p = 0.678). In conclusion, BTX-A injection has a secondary lowering effect on IOP in TAO due to relaxation of extraocular muscles, but with no influence on proptosis...
  55. Clauser L, Tieghi R, Galiè M, Franco F, Carinci F. Surgical decompression in endocrine orbitopathy. Visual evoked potential evaluation and effect on the optic nerve. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2012;40:621-5 pubmed publisher
    ..surgical treatment of EO, based on fat and/or orbital wall expansion, is possible and effective in improving exophthalmos and diplopia...
  56. Nicolotti M, Grivetto F, Brucoli M, Benech A. Direct access to a frontal sinus osteoma and reconstruction of the orbital roof displaced by the lesion by titanium mesh. J Craniofac Surg. 2012;23:e364-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, we report the surgical treatment of an unknown frontal sinus osteoma discovered after an acute exophthalmos. We have chosen an external approach to obtain a radical excision of the tumor, but we prefer a direct frontal ..
  57. Erdei A, Steiber Z, Molnar C, Berenyi E, Nagy E. Exophthalmos in a young woman with no graves' disease - a case report of IgG4-related orbitopathy. BMC Ophthalmol. 2018;18:5 pubmed publisher
    ..Once IgG4-related orbitopathy is proven, other manifestations of IgG4-related disease have to be searched for; lifelong follow-up is warranted. ..
  58. Choi S, Lee J, Lew H. Customized Orbital Decompression Surgery Combined with Eyelid Surgery or Strabismus Surgery in Mild to Moderate Thyroid-associated Ophthalmopathy. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2016;30:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the efficacy and safety of customized orbital decompression surgery combined with eyelid surgery or strabismus surgery for mild to moderate thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO)...
  59. Park H, Lee B, Chung Y. Orbital subperiosteal hematoma associated with sinus infection. Rhinology. 2010;48:117-22 pubmed publisher
    ..There are few reports of orbital subperiosteal hematomas as a result of sinusitis complications. The present study reports on 2 such cases and presents a literature review regarding this condition...
  60. Stéphan S, Blanc R, Zmuda M, Vignal C, Barral M, Pistocchi S, et al. Endovascular treatment of carotid-cavernous fistulae: Long-term efficacy and prognostic factors. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2016;39:74-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Fistula embolization is a safe and effective treatment. The presence of diplopia on initial examination may be associated with a poorer outcome (P=0.044). ..
  61. Kahveci R, Sanli A, Gürer B, Sekerci Z. Orbital hydatid cyst. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2012;9:42-4 pubmed publisher
    ..To avoid complications that might occur during surgery, the cyst can be easily removed using the combination technique detailed in this report...
  62. Valentine B, Stieger Vanegas S, Brown S, Tornquist S, Young K. Exophthalmos due to multicentric B-cell lymphoma in a goat. Can Vet J. 2011;52:1350-2 pubmed
    ..involvement was diagnosed in a 6-year-old Nubian goat that was presented with conjunctival swelling and exophthalmos. Serologic testing for bovine leukemia virus (BLV) was negative...
  63. Traber G, Kordic H, Knecht P, Chaloupka K. [Hypoglobus--illusive or real? Etiologies of vertical globe displacement in a tertiary referral centre]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2013;230:376-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of our study was to describe etiologies of hypoglobus and to analyze the ratio of malignant diseases...
  64. Knezevic M, Stanković B, Rasić D, Zarkovic M, Ciric J, Beleslin B. [Orbital decompression in Graves' orbitopathy]. Med Pregl. 2012;65:206-9 pubmed
    ..This paper was aimed at presenting our experience and results in the surgical management for proptosis in patients with Graves' orbitopathy...
  65. Font R, Ray R, Mazow M, Del Valle M. Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the orbit: a unique radiologic-pathologic correlation. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009;25:219-22 pubmed publisher
    ..To report a unique radiologic-histopathologic correlation of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the orbit in a 24-year-old Asian woman...
  66. Ekinci B, Koktekir E, Kal A, Karalezli A. Proptosis, congestion, and secondary glaucoma due to carotid-cavernous fistula after embolization. J Craniofac Surg. 2011;22:1963-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a case with right low-flow dural CCF, which has worsened after angiography and recovered totally soon after endovascular embolization process...
  67. Key S, Ryba F, Holmes S, Manisali M. Orbital emphysema - the need for surgical intervention. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2008;36:473-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Orbital emphysema is a recognised complication of fractures of the orbit and only rarely poses a threat to vision...
  68. Marcus H, Schwindack C, Santarius T, Mannion R, Kirollos R. Image-guided resection of spheno-orbital skull-base meningiomas with predominant intraosseous component. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2013;155:981-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we assess the value of image guidance during surgery for intraosseous spheno-orbital skull-base meningiomas in achieving safe and maximal abnormal bone resection...
  69. Tavakoli M, Bagheri A, Faraz M, Salehirad S, Roghaee S. Orbital cellulitis as a complication of mandibular odontogenic infection. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2013;29:e5-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the patient underwent combined dental and orbital surgery to drain the abscess. Following the surgery, the patient's clinical signs and symptoms resolved completely...
  70. Zerilli T, Burke C. Orbital pseudotumor after an upper respiratory infection: a comprehensive review. Optometry. 2010;81:638-46 pubmed publisher
    ..In many cases, however, IOI presents as a clinical and therapeutic challenge, and conclusive diagnosis is only confirmed after all other etiologies have been ruled out...
  71. Markiewicz M, Dierks E, Bell R. Does intraoperative navigation restore orbital dimensions in traumatic and post-ablative defects?. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2012;40:142-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to assess whether intraoperative navigation-guided orbital reconstruction re-establishes orbital volume and globe projection in subjects with post-ablative and post-traumatic orbital defects...
  72. Morihara H, Zenke K, Shoda D, Fujiwara S, Suehiro S, Hatakeyama T. Intraorbital encephalocele in an adult patient presenting with pulsatile exophthalmos. Case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2010;50:1126-8 pubmed
    A 25-year-old man presented with an intraorbital encephalocele manifesting as progressive left pulsatile exophthalmos. He had a history of frontal lobe contusion from a motorbike accident 10 years before the onset of the symptom...
  73. Kiyohara H, Sawatsubashi M, Matsumoto N, Komune S. Benign osteoblastoma of the ethmoid sinus. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2013;40:338-41 pubmed publisher
    ..in the nasal cavity and ethmoid sinus in a 14-year-old girl whose chief symptom was nasal obstruction and exophthalmos on the right side...
  74. Allen M, Perry M, Burns F. When is a retrobulbar haemorrhage not a retrobulbar haemorrhage?. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010;39:1045-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In the authors' experience RBH is not a common cause of acute proptosis following trauma and other causes need to be considered if patients are to be managed appropriately...