aesculus

Summary

Summary: A plant genus of the family HIPPOCASTANACEAE (or SAPINDACEAE by some) that contains antimicrobial protein 1 and escin. A. hippocastanum is used in folk medicine for treating chronic venous insufficiency.

Top Publications

  1. Leach M. Barriers to conducting randomised controlled trials: lessons learnt from the Horsechestnut & Venous Leg Ulcer Trial (HAVLUT). Contemp Nurse. 2003;15:37-47 pubmed
    ..These obstacles, together with strategies to prevent and overcome them, are detailed throughout this article, and are aimed at ameliorating the future design and conduct of RCTs...
  2. Leach M. The clinical feasibility of natural medicine, venotonic therapy and horsechestnut seed extract in the treatment of venous leg ulceration: a descriptive survey. Complement Ther Nurs Midwifery. 2004;10:97-109 pubmed
    ..Positive findings from well-designed trials may ameliorate the integration of natural medicine into mainstream practice. ..
  3. Dickson S, Gallagher J, McIntyre L, Suter A, Tan J. An open study to assess the safety and efficacy of Aesculus hippocastanum tablets (Aesculaforce 50mg) in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency. J Herb Pharmacother. 2004;4:19-32 pubmed
    An open study was carried out to assess, primarily, the safety and tolerability of Aesculus hippocastanum in the treatment of CVI...
  4. Wei F, Ma S, Ma L, But P, Lin R, Khan I. Antiviral flavonoids from the seeds of Aesculus chinensis. J Nat Prod. 2004;67:650-3 pubmed
    A bioassay-guided fractionation of an ethanol extract of the seeds of Aesculus chinensis led to the isolation of two new flavanoids (1 and 2), along with eight known ones (3-10)...
  5. Kimura H, Ogawa S, Jisaka M, Kimura Y, Katsube T, Yokota K. Identification of novel saponins from edible seeds of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata Blume) after treatment with wooden ashes and their nutraceutical activity. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2006;41:1657-65 pubmed
    Natural seeds of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata Blume) contain large amounts of mixed triterpenoidal saponins called escins...
  6. Solymosi K, Bóka K, Böddi B. Transient etiolation: protochlorophyll(ide) and chlorophyll forms in differentiating plastids of closed and breaking leaf buds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum). Tree Physiol. 2006;26:1087-96 pubmed
    ..changes in pigment concentrations and spectral properties of bud scales and leaf primordia of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) from January until the end of bud break in April...
  7. Kucukkurt I, Ince S, Keles H, Akkol E, Avci G, Yesilada E, et al. Beneficial effects of Aesculus hippocastanum L. seed extract on the body's own antioxidant defense system on subacute administration. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;129:18-22 pubmed publisher
    Seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum L. have long been used in European phytotherapy to treat inflammatory and vascular problems...
  8. Green S, Studholme D, Laue B, Dorati F, Lovell H, Arnold D, et al. Comparative genome analysis provides insights into the evolution and adaptation of Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi on Aesculus hippocastanum. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10224 pubmed publisher
    ..The genomic regions in Pae that are absent from other P. syringae pathovars that infect herbaceous hosts may represent candidate genetic adaptations to infection of the woody parts of the tree...
  9. Apers S, Naessens T, Pieters L, Vlietinck A. Densitometric thin-layer chromatographic determination of aescin in a herbal medicinal product containing Aesculus and Vitis dry extracts. J Chromatogr A. 2006;1112:165-70 pubmed
    ..The capsules contain 250 mg of Aesculus hippocastanum dry extract, 120 mg of Vitis vinifera dry extract and 50mg of excipients...
  10. Zhang Z, Li S. Cytotoxic triterpenoid saponins from the fruits of Aesculus pavia L. Phytochemistry. 2007;68:2075-86 pubmed
    Continued chemical investigation on the fruits of North American Aesculus pavia L...

Detail Information

Publications118 found, 100 shown here

  1. Leach M. Barriers to conducting randomised controlled trials: lessons learnt from the Horsechestnut & Venous Leg Ulcer Trial (HAVLUT). Contemp Nurse. 2003;15:37-47 pubmed
    ..These obstacles, together with strategies to prevent and overcome them, are detailed throughout this article, and are aimed at ameliorating the future design and conduct of RCTs...
  2. Leach M. The clinical feasibility of natural medicine, venotonic therapy and horsechestnut seed extract in the treatment of venous leg ulceration: a descriptive survey. Complement Ther Nurs Midwifery. 2004;10:97-109 pubmed
    ..Positive findings from well-designed trials may ameliorate the integration of natural medicine into mainstream practice. ..
  3. Dickson S, Gallagher J, McIntyre L, Suter A, Tan J. An open study to assess the safety and efficacy of Aesculus hippocastanum tablets (Aesculaforce 50mg) in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency. J Herb Pharmacother. 2004;4:19-32 pubmed
    An open study was carried out to assess, primarily, the safety and tolerability of Aesculus hippocastanum in the treatment of CVI...
  4. Wei F, Ma S, Ma L, But P, Lin R, Khan I. Antiviral flavonoids from the seeds of Aesculus chinensis. J Nat Prod. 2004;67:650-3 pubmed
    A bioassay-guided fractionation of an ethanol extract of the seeds of Aesculus chinensis led to the isolation of two new flavanoids (1 and 2), along with eight known ones (3-10)...
  5. Kimura H, Ogawa S, Jisaka M, Kimura Y, Katsube T, Yokota K. Identification of novel saponins from edible seeds of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata Blume) after treatment with wooden ashes and their nutraceutical activity. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2006;41:1657-65 pubmed
    Natural seeds of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata Blume) contain large amounts of mixed triterpenoidal saponins called escins...
  6. Solymosi K, Bóka K, Böddi B. Transient etiolation: protochlorophyll(ide) and chlorophyll forms in differentiating plastids of closed and breaking leaf buds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum). Tree Physiol. 2006;26:1087-96 pubmed
    ..changes in pigment concentrations and spectral properties of bud scales and leaf primordia of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) from January until the end of bud break in April...
  7. Kucukkurt I, Ince S, Keles H, Akkol E, Avci G, Yesilada E, et al. Beneficial effects of Aesculus hippocastanum L. seed extract on the body's own antioxidant defense system on subacute administration. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;129:18-22 pubmed publisher
    Seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum L. have long been used in European phytotherapy to treat inflammatory and vascular problems...
  8. Green S, Studholme D, Laue B, Dorati F, Lovell H, Arnold D, et al. Comparative genome analysis provides insights into the evolution and adaptation of Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi on Aesculus hippocastanum. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10224 pubmed publisher
    ..The genomic regions in Pae that are absent from other P. syringae pathovars that infect herbaceous hosts may represent candidate genetic adaptations to infection of the woody parts of the tree...
  9. Apers S, Naessens T, Pieters L, Vlietinck A. Densitometric thin-layer chromatographic determination of aescin in a herbal medicinal product containing Aesculus and Vitis dry extracts. J Chromatogr A. 2006;1112:165-70 pubmed
    ..The capsules contain 250 mg of Aesculus hippocastanum dry extract, 120 mg of Vitis vinifera dry extract and 50mg of excipients...
  10. Zhang Z, Li S. Cytotoxic triterpenoid saponins from the fruits of Aesculus pavia L. Phytochemistry. 2007;68:2075-86 pubmed
    Continued chemical investigation on the fruits of North American Aesculus pavia L...
  11. Hu J, Zhu X, Han L, Saito M, Sun Y, Yoshikawa M, et al. Anti-obesity effects of escins extracted from the seeds of Aesculus turbinata BLUME (Hippocastanaceae). Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2008;56:12-6 pubmed
    To investigate the anti-obesity effects of escins extracted from the seeds of Aesculus turbinata BLUME, anti-obesity models in vitro and in vivo were employed...
  12. Kimura H, Ogawa S, Katsube T, Jisaka M, Yokota K. Antiobese effects of novel saponins from edible seeds of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata BLUME) after treatment with wood ashes. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:4783-8 pubmed publisher
    Recently, we have identified novel saponins from edible seeds of Japanese horse chestnut ( Aesculus turbinata BLUME) after processing the natural seeds with wood ashes to remove bitterness...
  13. Calić Dragosavac D, Zdravković Korać S, Savikin Fodulović K, Radojević L, Vinterhalter B. Determination of escin content in androgenic embryos and hairy root culture of Aesculus hippocastanum. Pharm Biol. 2010;48:563-7 pubmed publisher
    ..cotyledons accumulate the highest amount of escin, it is currently extracted from the seeds of horse chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Hippocastanaceae), on a large scale...
  14. Yuan W, Wang P, Deng G, Li S. Cytotoxic triterpenoid saponins from Aesculus glabra Willd. Phytochemistry. 2012;75:67-77 pubmed publisher
    Twenty-four acylated polyhydroxyoleanene saponins were isolated from the seeds of Aesculus glabra. Sixteen of them, namely aesculiosides G1-G16 (1-16), were determined as compounds by spectroscopic and chemical analysis...
  15. Wei F, Ma L, Jin W, Ma S, Han G, Khan I, et al. Antiinflammatory triterpenoid saponins from the seeds of Aesculus chinensis. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2004;52:1246-8 pubmed
    Phytochemical study of the ethanol extract of the seeds of Aesculus chinensis led to the isolation of a new triterpenoid saponin (6), together with five known triterpenoid saponins (1-5)...
  16. Zhang Z, Li S, Zhang S, Gorenstein D. Triterpenoid saponins from the fruits of Aesculus pavia. Phytochemistry. 2006;67:784-94 pubmed
    ..aesculiosides Ia-Ie, IIa-IId, and IVa-IVc, were isolated from an ethanol extract of the fruits of North American Aesculus pavia, along with two known compounds...
  17. Deljanin I, Antanasijević D, Urošević M, Tomašević M, Perić Grujić A, Ristić M. The novel approach to the biomonitor survey using one- and two-dimensional Kohonen networks. Environ Monit Assess. 2015;187:618 pubmed publisher
    To compare the applicability of the leaves of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) and linden (Tilia spp...
  18. Koskella B, Thompson J, Preston G, Buckling A. Local biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. Am Nat. 2011;177:440-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These results highlight that biotic environment can play a key role in shaping the spatial scale of parasite adaptation and influencing the outcome of coevolutionary interactions. ..
  19. Günther M, Maus M, Wagner K, Schmidt P. Hydrophilic solutes in modified carbon dioxide extraction-prediction of the extractability using molecular dynamic simulation. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2005;25:321-9 pubmed
    ..by CO2 extractions of the secondary roots of Harpagophytum procumbens (harpagoside, stachyose) and the seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum (aescin)...
  20. Klug T, Meyhöfer R, Kreye M, Hommes M. Native parasitoids and their potential to control the invasive leafminer, Cameraria ohridella DESCH. & DIM. (Lep.: Gracillariidae). Bull Entomol Res. 2008;98:379-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Results are compared to other parasitoid-leafminer systems, and promotion of horse chestnut leafminer parasitoids to support natural selection and biological control of the horse chestnut leafminer is discussed. ..
  21. Niu X, Wang Y, Li W, Zhang H, Wang X, Mu Q, et al. Esculin exhibited anti-inflammatory activities in vivo and regulated TNF-α and IL-6 production in LPS-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro through MAPK pathway. Int Immunopharmacol. 2015;29:779-786 pubmed publisher
    Esculin, a coumarinic derivative found in Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Horse-chestnut), has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory properties...
  22. Truchado P, Gil Izquierdo A, Tomás Barberán F, Allende A. Inhibition by chestnut honey of N-Acyl-L-homoserine lactones and biofilm formation in Erwinia carotovora, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Aeromonas hydrophila. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:11186-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the QS inhibitory activity of chestnut honey seems to be related to the aqueous phase, suggesting that the carbohydrate fraction contains an antipathogenic substance responsible for the inhibitory activity...
  23. Kimura H, Ogawa S, Ishihara T, Maruoka M, Tokuyama Nakai S, Jisaka M, et al. Antioxidant activities and structural characterization of flavonol O-glycosides from seeds of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata BLUME). Food Chem. 2017;228:348-355 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that the peeled seeds are a good source of flavonol O-glycosides serving as antioxidants to be used for food additives and dietary supplements. ..
  24. Bryner S, Rigling D. Hypovirus virulence and vegetative incompatibility in populations of the chestnut blight fungus. Phytopathology. 2012;102:1161-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the findings of this study are promising for the sustainability of Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 as a biocontrol agent for chestnut blight in Europe. ..
  25. Cheong D, Arfuso F, Sethi G, Wang L, Hui K, Kumar A, et al. Molecular targets and anti-cancer potential of escin. Cancer Lett. 2018;422:1-8 pubmed publisher
    Escin is a mixture of triterpenoid saponins extracted from the horse chestnut tree, Aesculus hippocastanum...
  26. Hu X, Zhang Y, Zeng F. Effects of sodium beta-aescin on expression of adhesion molecules and migration of neutrophils after middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2004;25:869-75 pubmed
    ..05 or P<0.01). Sodium beta-aescin can attenuate brain injury, down-regulate the protein expressions of ICAM-1 and E-selectin, and reduce the migration of neutrophils after cerebral I/R. ..
  27. Felixsson E, Persson I, Eriksson A, Persson K. Horse chestnut extract contracts bovine vessels and affects human platelet aggregation through 5-HT(2A) receptors: an in vitro study. Phytother Res. 2010;24:1297-301 pubmed publisher
    Extract from seeds and bark of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L) is used as an herbal medicine against chronic venous insufficiency. The effect and mechanism of action on veins, arteries, and platelets are not fully understood...
  28. Parlayıcı Å, Pehlivan E. Natural biosorbents (garlic stem and horse chesnut shell) for removal of chromium(VI) from aqueous solutions. Environ Monit Assess. 2015;187:763 pubmed publisher
    The biosorption of Cr(VI) by the garlic stem (GS)-Allium sativum L. and horse chesnut shell (HCS)-Aesculus hippocastanum plant residues in a batch type reactor was studied in detail for the purpose of wastewater treatment...
  29. Fang Y, Zhao L, Yan F, Xia X, Xu D, Cui X. Escin improves sperm quality in male patients with varicocele-associated infertility. Phytomedicine. 2010;17:192-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the efficacy of escin to improve sperm quality in Chinese male patients with varicocele-associated infertility...
  30. Bogdanets L, Arakelian V, Sapelkin S, Kalinina E. [Drug therapy of chronic venous insufficiency with Venza]. Angiol Sosud Khir. 2005;11:55-9 pubmed
    ..Its clinical effectiveness was estimated as "very good" and "good" in 27.5% and 57.5%, respectively. The study proved the Venza's effectiveness in treatment of patients with lower limb chronic venous insufficiency. ..
  31. Meusinger R. Solution to spectroscopy challenge 10. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2006;384:1027-8 pubmed
  32. Sćiban M, Klasnja M, Antov M, Skrbic B. Removal of water turbidity by natural coagulants obtained from chestnut and acorn. Bioresour Technol. 2009;100:6639-43 pubmed publisher
    ..5 ml/l. ..
  33. Gurel E, Ustunova S, Ergin B, Tan N, Caner M, Tortum O, et al. Herbal haemorrhoidal cream for haemorrhoids. Chin J Physiol. 2013;56:253-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, croton oil causes inflammation in the anal area and results in hemorrhoids. Treatment with our herbal hemorrhoid creams demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects in this model. ..
  34. Robichaud R, Lessard V, Merkle S. Treatments affecting maturation and germination of American chestnut somatic embryos. J Plant Physiol. 2004;161:957-69 pubmed
    ..Six plants survived the transfer to potting mix, acclimatization to greenhouse conditions and field planting. ..
  35. Johne A, Weissbecker B, Schutz S. Volatile emissions from Aesculus hippocastanum induced by mining of larval stages of Cameraria ohridella influence oviposition by conspecific females. J Chem Ecol. 2006;32:2303-19 pubmed
    ..of the horse chestnut leafminer Cameraria ohridella can completely destroy the surface of horse chestnut leaves, Aesculus hippocastanum...
  36. Nardini A, Raimondo F, Lo Gullo M, Salleo S. Leafminers help us understand leaf hydraulic design. Plant Cell Environ. 2010;33:1091-100 pubmed publisher
    Leaf hydraulics of Aesculus hippocastanum L. were measured over the growing season and during extensive leaf mining by the larvae of an invasive moth (Cameraria ohridella Deschka et Dimic) that specifically destroy the palisade tissue...
  37. Pietak A. Endogenous electromagnetic fields in plant leaves: a new hypothesis for vascular pattern formation. Electromagn Biol Med. 2011;30:93-107 pubmed publisher
    ..Significantly, this hypothesis is not limited to leaf vascular patterning, but may be applicable to a variety of morphogenetic phenomena in a number of living systems. ..
  38. Lopez C, Torrado A, Guerra N, Pastrana L. Optimization of solid-state enzymatic hydrolysis of chestnut using mixtures of alpha-amylase and glucoamylase. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:989-95 pubmed
  39. Ramírez Durón R, Ceniceros Almaguer L, Salazar Aranda R, Salazar Cavazos M, Waksman de Torres N. Evaluation of thin-layer chromatography methods for quality control of commercial products containing Aesculus hippocastanum, Turnera diffusa, Matricaria recutita, Passiflora incarnata, and Tilia occidentalis. J AOAC Int. 2007;90:920-4 pubmed
    ..b>Aesculus hippocastanum, Turnera diffusa, Matricaria recutita, Passiflora incarnata, and Tilia occidentalis are some of the ..
  40. Ferracini C, Alma A. Sequential sampling plan for Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) on horse chestnut tree. J Econ Entomol. 2007;100:1910-5 pubmed
    A fixed precision sequential sampling plan for estimating the density of the horse chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum L., leafminer Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) was developed...
  41. Anderson R, Vodovnik M, Min B, Pinchak W, Krueger N, Harvey R, et al. Bactericidal effect of hydrolysable and condensed tannin extracts on Campylobacter jejuni in vitro. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2012;57:253-8 pubmed publisher
    ..jejuni and reveal that condensed tannins may be less efficient than hydrolysable tannins in controlling C. jejuni in gut environments containing high concentrations of amino acids and soluble proteins. ..
  42. Toyama J, Murata H, SEFUJI T. [Varix of vaginal wall]. Showa Igakkai Zasshi. 1963;22:477-8 pubmed
  43. Yang X, Zhao J, Hattori M. Three new triterpenoid saponins from the seeds of Aesculus turbinata. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2008;10:259-65 pubmed publisher
    Three new triterpenoid saponins, named isoescins VIIa (1), VIa (2), and VIIIa (3), were isolated from the seeds of Aesculus turbinata and identified by spectroscopic analysis and chemical hydrolysis...
  44. Sun Q, Choi G, Nuss D. Hypovirus-responsive transcription factor gene pro1 of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica is required for female fertility, asexual spore development, and stable maintenance of hypovirus infection. Eukaryot Cell. 2009;8:262-70 pubmed publisher
    ..parasitica female fertility and virulence. ..
  45. de Simón B, Esteruelas E, Muñoz A, Cadahía E, Sanz M. Volatile compounds in acacia, chestnut, cherry, ash, and oak woods, with a view to their use in cooperage. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:3217-27 pubmed publisher
  46. Ming Z, Hu Y, Qiu Y, Cao L, Zhang X. Synergistic effects of beta-aescin and 5-fluorouracil in human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells. Phytomedicine. 2010;17:575-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that mixtures of these two agents had a synergistic inhibitory effect on SMMC-7721 cells, an observation which might be useful for the further development of anti-cancer drugs. ..
  47. Liu H, Li K, Mingbin L, Zhao J, Xiong B. Effects of chestnut tannins on the meat quality, welfare, and antioxidant status of heat-stressed lambs. Meat Sci. 2016;116:236-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the addition of CT improved meat quality, certain stress parameters, and the antioxidant status of heat-stressed lambs. ..
  48. Edem E, Kahyaoğlu B, Cakar M. Acute Effusive Pericarditis due to Horse Chestnut Consumption. Am J Case Rep. 2016;17:305-8 pubmed
    ..The patient's medical history was unremarkable; however, he had consumed 3 boxes of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L) paste over the previous 1.5 months...
  49. Gamal Z, Abuldahab F. Combined effect of biopesticides on the digestive enzymatic profiles of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2012;42:51-62 pubmed
    ..A synergistic effect of botanical insecticides and bacterial toxins was found when combined in low doses. These effects are most pronounced in early instars. ..
  50. Morling J, Yeoh S, Kolbach D. Rutosides for prevention of post-thrombotic syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;:CD005626 pubmed publisher
    ..Rutosides are a group of compounds derived from horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), a traditional herbal remedy for treating oedema formation in chronic venous insufficiency (CVI)...
  51. Yu Z, Su P. Effect of beta-aescin extract from Chinese buckeye seed on chronic venous insufficiency. Pharmazie. 2013;68:428-30 pubmed
  52. Yao Z, Qi J. Comparison of Antioxidant Activities of Melanin Fractions from Chestnut Shell. Molecules. 2016;21:487 pubmed publisher
    ..However, BHT is a synthetic antioxidant and cannot play the colorant role. The melanin fractions might be used as effective biological antioxidant colorants. ..
  53. Zlinszky A, Molnár B, Barfod A. Not All Trees Sleep the Same-High Temporal Resolution Terrestrial Laser Scanning Shows Differences in Nocturnal Plant Movement. Front Plant Sci. 2017;8:1814 pubmed publisher
    ..The highest movement amplitudes, for periodic circadian movement around 2 cm were observed for Aesculus and Acer, compared to non-periodic continuous change in shape of 5 cm for Gleditschia and 2 cm ..
  54. Groh B, Hübner C, Lendzian K. Water and oxygen permeance of phellems isolated from trees: the role of waxes and lenticels. Planta. 2002;215:794-801 pubmed
    The outermost phellems of Abies alba Mill., Acer pseudoplatanus L., Aesculus hippocastanum L., Betula potaninii L.C. Hue and Sambucus nigra L...
  55. Bässler D, Okpanyi S, Schrodter A, Loew D, Schürer M, Schulz H. Bioavailability of beta-aescin from horse chestnut seed extract: comparative clinical studies of two Galenic formulations. Adv Ther. 2003;20:295-304 pubmed
    ..90-1.21). Bioequivalence of the test and reference drug preparations was thus established according to the Note for Guidance on the Investigation of Bioavailability and Bioequivalence. Both treatments were equally well tolerated. ..
  56. Obroucheva N, Antipova O, Azarkovich M, Gumilevskaya N. Analysis of the growth capacity of embryo axes during seed dormancy and dormancy release. Dokl Biol Sci. 2004;396:218-20 pubmed
  57. Grabenweger G, Koch T, Balder H, Hopp H, Jäckel B, Schmolling S. Possibilities to control the horse chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ohridella) in urban environments. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2005;70:633-40 pubmed
    ..The complex of parasitoids attacking C. ohridella is comparable to that of other leafminers. Nevertheless, parasitism rates are very low at present and far away from having any controlling effect on the pest insect. ..
  58. Kimura H, Ogawa S, Akihiro T, Yokota K. Structural analysis of A-type or B-type highly polymeric proanthocyanidins by thiolytic degradation and the implication in their inhibitory effects on pancreatic lipase. J Chromatogr A. 2011;1218:7704-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that higher molecular sizes and more abundance of A-type bonds in polymeric proanthocyanidins are promising key factors for the attenuation of lipid digestion as dietary supplements. ..
  59. Artini M, Papa R, Barbato G, Scoarughi G, Cellini A, Morazzoni P, et al. Bacterial biofilm formation inhibitory activity revealed for plant derived natural compounds. Bioorg Med Chem. 2012;20:920-6 pubmed publisher
    ..on microbiological screening tests of crude plant extracts we identified four compounds derived from Krameria, Aesculus hippocastanum and Chelidonium majus that showed a potentially interesting antimicrobial activity...
  60. Dang H, Jiang M, Tian Y, Huang H, Jin X. [Population structure and distribution pattern of rare plant communities in Houhe Nature Reserve]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2004;15:2206-10 pubmed
    ..The results showed that 7 populations of the 26 species, i.e., Dipteronia sinensi, Aesculus wilsonii, Pterostyrax psilophyllus, Davidia involucrate, Euptelea pleiosperma, Tetracentron sinense and ..
  61. Sato I, Kofujita H, Suzuki T, Kobayashi H, Tsuda S. Antiinflammatory effect of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata) seeds. J Vet Med Sci. 2006;68:487-9 pubmed
    The antiinflammatory effects of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata) seeds were examined in vivo and in vitro. The extract of this seed (HCSE) inhibited croton oil-induced swelling of the mouse concha...
  62. Schaber J, Badeck F. Physiology-based phenology models for forest tree species in Germany. Int J Biometeorol. 2003;47:193-201 pubmed
    ..robur), the photoperiod played a more dominant role than for early spring phases (bud burst of Betula pendula and Aesculus hippocastanum)...
  63. Tomasevic M, Vukmirović Z, Rajsic S, Tasic M, Stevanovic B. Characterization of trace metal particles deposited on some deciduous tree leaves in an urban area. Chemosphere. 2005;61:753-60 pubmed
    In 1996 and 1997 horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) and Turkish hazel (Corulys colurna L.) leaves were sampled at 2 m height in the Belgrade Botanic Garden, located in an urban area with heavy traffic...
  64. Zhou Y, Hui X, Li N, Zhuang W, Liu G, Wu T, et al. Saponins from Chinese Buckeye Seed reduce cerebral edema: metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials. Planta Med. 2005;71:993-8 pubmed
    ..However, the evidence is not sufficient due to the generally low methodological quality of the studies. Further trials are needed with sufficiently numerous group size and rigorous design...
  65. Sugiyama A, Kimura H, Ogawa S, Yokota K, Takeuchi T. Effects of polyphenols from seed shells of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata BLUME) on methotrexate-induced intestinal injury in rats. J Vet Med Sci. 2011;73:673-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our results indicated that oral administration of JHP alleviated MTX-induced intestinal injury through its antioxidant properties...
  66. Shen D, Kang J, Song W, Zhang W, Li W, Zhao Y, et al. Apoptosis of human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines induced by ?-escin through mitochondrial caspase-dependent pathway. Phytother Res. 2011;25:1519-26 pubmed publisher
  67. Lanzotti V, Termolino P, Dolci M, Curir P. Paviosides A-H, eight new oleane type saponins from Aesculus pavia with cytotoxic activity. Bioorg Med Chem. 2012;20:3280-6 pubmed publisher
    A phytochemical analysis of Aesculus pavia has led to the isolation of eight novel triterpenoid saponins, based on oleane type skeleton and named paviosides A-H (1a, 1b-4a, 4b)...
  68. Cavazza A, Corradini C, Musci M, Salvadeo P. High-performance liquid chromatographic phenolic compound fingerprint for authenticity assessment of honey. J Sci Food Agric. 2013;93:1169-75 pubmed publisher
  69. León Ruiz V, González Porto A, Al Habsi N, Vera S, San Andrés M, Jauregi P. Antioxidant, antibacterial and ACE-inhibitory activity of four monofloral honeys in relation to their chemical composition. Food Funct. 2013;4:1617-24 pubmed publisher
    ..All the types of honey showed some activity but chestnut honey had the highest ACE inhibitory activity. ..
  70. Zhao J, Yang X. Four new triterpene saponins from the seeds of Aesculus chinensis. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2003;5:197-203 pubmed
    Two pairs of new geometrically isomeric triterpenoid saponins were isolated from the seeds of Aesculus chinensis and characterized as 28-acetyl-21-tigloylprotoaescigenin 3-O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1 --> 2)] [beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --&..
  71. Sato I, Kofujita H, Tsuda S. Identification of COX inhibitors in the hexane extract of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata) seeds. J Vet Med Sci. 2007;69:709-12 pubmed
    Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata) seed extract inhibits the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX), but its active constituents have not been identified...
  72. Curir P, Galeotti F, Dolci M, Barile E, Lanzotti V. Pavietin, a coumarin from Aesculus pavia with antifungal activity. J Nat Prod. 2007;70:1668-71 pubmed
    ..H-chromen-2-one ( 1), named pavietin, has been isolated from the leaves of an Aesculus pavia genotype along with three known flavonol glycosides, quercetin 3- O-alpha-rhamnoside (quercitrin, 2), ..
  73. Xin W, Zhang L, Sun F, Jiang N, Fan H, Wang T, et al. Escin exerts synergistic anti-inflammatory effects with low doses of glucocorticoids in vivo and in vitro. Phytomedicine. 2011;18:272-7 pubmed publisher
    Escin, a natural mixture of triterpenoid saponins isolated from the seed of the horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), had been demonstrated to possess anti-edematous and anti-inflammatory effects...
  74. Tanaka T, Sun L, Tsutani K, Suzuki N. Rearrangements of mycoreovirus 1 S1, S2 and S3 induced by the multifunctional protein p29 encoded by the prototypic hypovirus Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 strain EP713. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:1949-59 pubmed publisher
    ..This study has provided additional examples of MyRV1 intragenic rearrangements induced by p29, and suggests that normal S1, S2 and S3 are required for the symptoms caused by MyRV1...
  75. Dudek Makuch M, Matławska I. Flavonoids from the flowers of Aesculus hippocastanum. Acta Pol Pharm. 2011;68:403-8 pubmed
    ..3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 6)-O-beta-glucopyranoside, were isolated from the flowers of Aesculus hippocastanum and identified...
  76. Hijová E, Bomba A, Bertková I, Strojný L, Szabadosová V, Soltésová A. Prebiotics and bioactive natural substances induce changes of composition and metabolic activities of the colonic microflora in cancerous rats. Acta Biochim Pol. 2012;59:271-4 pubmed
    ..05). Prebiotic alone significantly increased the count of lactobacilli (P<0.05). These results show that prebiotics have a protective effect and may be the useful for colon cancer prevention and treatment...
  77. Güney G, Kutlu H, Iscan A. The apoptotic effects of escin in the H-Ras transformed 5RP7 cell line. Phytother Res. 2013;27:900-5 pubmed publisher
    Extracts of Aesculus hippocastanum L. (horse chestnut) seed have been used in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency, edema and hemorrhoids...
  78. Morling J, Yeoh S, Kolbach D. Rutosides for treatment of post-thrombotic syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;:CD005625 pubmed publisher
    ..Rutosides are a group of compounds derived from horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), a traditional herbal remedy for treating oedema formation in chronic venous insufficiency (CVI)...
  79. Augspurger C, Bartlett E. Differences in leaf phenology between juvenile and adult trees in a temperate deciduous forest. Tree Physiol. 2003;23:517-25 pubmed
    ..and conspecific adult trees; and (2) to determine the extent of phenological differences between juvenile Aesculus glabra Willd. and Acer saccharum Marsh. trees in understory and gap microhabitats...
  80. Vecchio S, Luciano G, Franceschi E. Explorative kinetic study on the thermal degradation of five wood species for applications in the archaeological field. Ann Chim. 2006;96:715-25 pubmed
    ..The comparison of DSC curves performed in air with those in oxygen enables to consider the role of the partial pressure of oxygen in the mechanisms of both decompositions...
  81. Montopoli M, Froldi G, Comelli M, Prosdocimi M, Caparrotta L. Aescin protection of human vascular endothelial cells exposed to cobalt chloride mimicked hypoxia and inflammatory stimuli. Planta Med. 2007;73:285-8 pubmed
    ..1-1 microM), the action of CoCl2 on VCAM-1 and PECAM-1, also preserving endothelial cell morphology. Furthermore, aescin pre-treatment reduced IL-6 release from LPS-activated vascular endothelium...
  82. Kapusta I, Janda B, Szajwaj B, Stochmal A, Piacente S, Pizza C, et al. Flavonoids in horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) seeds and powdered waste water byproducts. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:8485-90 pubmed
    ..Industrial horse chestnut wastewater can be used to obtain quercetine and kaempferol glycosides for cosmetic, nutraceutical, and food supplement industries...
  83. Girardoz S, Tomov R, Eschen R, Quicke D, Kenis M. Two methods of assessing the mortality factors affecting the larvae and pupae of Cameraria ohridella in the leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum in Switzerland and Bulgaria. Bull Entomol Res. 2007;97:445-53 pubmed
    ..In particular, mortality by plant defence reaction and leaf senescence were better assessed using the cohort method, which is, therefore, recommended for life table studies on leaf miners...
  84. Rostagno L, Prodi A, Turina M. Cpkk1, MAPKK of Cryphonectria parasitica, is necessary for virulence on chestnut. Phytopathology. 2010;100:1100-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Silencing of Cpkk1 and the overexpression of a defective Cpkk1 correlated with a marked reduction in virulence on 3-year-old chestnut trees, with no statistically significant effect on fungal growth in the various conditions tested...
  85. Stygar D, Dolezych B, Nakonieczny M, Migula P, Michalczyk K, Zaak M. Digestive enzymes activity in larvae of Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). C R Biol. 2010;333:725-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Probably this phenomenon in hydrolases activity in Cameraria is a nonspecific mechanism present at this stage of co-evolution of the horse chestnut and its pest...
  86. Tsujita T, Yamada M, Takaku T, Shintani T, Teramoto K, Sato T. Purification and characterization of polyphenols from chestnut astringent skin. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:8646-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest CAS contains polyphenols with strong ?-amylase inhibitory activity. The data also suggest CAS polyphenols might be oligomeric proanthocyanidins with gallic acid and ellagic acid...
  87. Milgroom M, Cortesi P. Biological control of chestnut blight with hypovirulence: a critical analysis. Annu Rev Phytopathol. 2004;42:311-38 pubmed
    ..Overall, however, not enough is understood about the epidemiological dynamics of this system to determine the crucial factors regulating the establishment of hypovirulence in chestnut forests...
  88. Lambardi M, De Carlo A, Capuana M. Cryopreservation of embryogenic callus of Aesculus hippocastanum L. by vitrification or one-step freezing. Cryo Letters. 2005;26:185-92 pubmed
    An effective procedure for the cryopreservation of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) embryogenic callus by vitrification/one-step freezing is described here...
  89. Zhu C, Peng W, Li Y, Han X, Yu B. Synthesis of 3-O-(beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-3'-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)tamarixetin, the putative structure of aescuflavoside A from the seeds of Aesculus chinensis. Carbohydr Res. 2006;341:1047-51 pubmed
    ..the putative flavonal glycoside named aescuflavoside A, isolated from the seeds of Aesculus chinensis, is synthesized via regioselective glycosylation of 7-O-benzyltamarixetin with glycosyl bromides under ..