trichophyton

Summary

Summary: A mitosporic fungal genus and an anamorphic form of Arthroderma. Various species attack the skin, nails, and hair.

Top Publications

  1. Moazeni M, Rashidi N, Shahverdi A, Noorbakhsh F, Rezaie S. Extracellular production of silver nanoparticles by using three common species of dermatophytes: Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis. Iran Biomed J. 2012;16:52-8 pubmed
    ..the extracellular synthesis of highly stable silver nanoparticles using three species of dermatophytes: Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis...
  2. Marconi V, Kradin R, Marty F, Hospenthal D, Kotton C. Disseminated dermatophytosis in a patient with hereditary hemochromatosis and hepatic cirrhosis: case report and review of the literature. Med Mycol. 2010;48:518-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a case of biopsy-proven, disseminated dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum in a patient with advanced cirrhosis. In addition, we provide a review of the literature.
  3. Diao Y, Zhao R, Deng X, Leng W, Peng J, Jin Q. Transcriptional profiles of Trichophyton rubrum in response to itraconazole. Med Mycol. 2009;47:237-47 pubmed publisher
    b>Trichophyton rubrum is the predominant causative agent for superficial dermatomycosis. In order to understand how triazole antifungal agents interact with dermatophytes, the gene expression response of T...
  4. Stergiopoulou T, De Lucca A, Meletiadis J, Sein T, Boue S, Schaufele R, et al. In vitro activity of CAY-1, a saponin from Capsicum frutescens, against Microsporum and Trichophyton species. Med Mycol. 2008;46:805-10 pubmed publisher
    ..activity of CAY-1 against non-germinating conidia and hyphae of clinical isolates of the dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, T. tonsurans and Microsporum canis...
  5. Li W, Metin B, White T, Heitman J. Organization and evolutionary trajectory of the mating type (MAT) locus in dermatophyte and dimorphic fungal pathogens. Eukaryot Cell. 2010;9:46-58 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified the MAT locus of five dermatophyte fungal pathogens (Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton equinum, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton tonsurans) and a dimorphic fungus, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis,..
  6. Zhang J, Chen J, Huang H, Xi L, Lai W, Xue R, et al. Comparison of a glucose consumption based method with the CLSI M38-A method for testing antifungal susceptibility of Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Chin Med J (Engl). 2010;123:1909-14 pubmed
    ..Twenty-eight dermatophyte isolates, including Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum) (n = 14) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (T. mentagrophytes) (n = 14), were tested...
  7. Almeida S. Immunology of dermatophytosis. Mycopathologia. 2008;166:277-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The immune response to Trichophyton is unusual in that this fungus can elicit both immediate hypersensitivity (IH) and delayed-type ..
  8. Concha M, Nicklas C, Balcells E, Guzman A, Poggi H, León E, et al. The first case of tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei isolated in Chile. Int J Dermatol. 2012;51:283-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei is a zoophilic dermatophyte transmitted by hedgehogs which human infections manifest as highly inflammatory and pruritic eruptions.
  9. Lillis J, Dawson E, Chang R, White C. Disseminated dermal Trichophyton rubrum infection - an expression of dermatophyte dimorphism?. J Cutan Pathol. 2010;37:1168-9 pubmed publisher
    We present a case of disseminated dermal infection caused by Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum)...
  10. Leng W, Liu T, Wang J, Li R, Jin Q. Expression dynamics of secreted protease genes in Trichophyton rubrum induced by key host's proteinaceous components. Med Mycol. 2009;47:759-65 pubmed publisher
    b>Trichophyton rubrum is the most common agent of dermatophytosis, a disease that affects millions of individuals worldwide. Its molecular pathogenicity mechanisms are still not completely elucidated...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Moazeni M, Rashidi N, Shahverdi A, Noorbakhsh F, Rezaie S. Extracellular production of silver nanoparticles by using three common species of dermatophytes: Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis. Iran Biomed J. 2012;16:52-8 pubmed
    ..the extracellular synthesis of highly stable silver nanoparticles using three species of dermatophytes: Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis...
  2. Marconi V, Kradin R, Marty F, Hospenthal D, Kotton C. Disseminated dermatophytosis in a patient with hereditary hemochromatosis and hepatic cirrhosis: case report and review of the literature. Med Mycol. 2010;48:518-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a case of biopsy-proven, disseminated dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum in a patient with advanced cirrhosis. In addition, we provide a review of the literature.
  3. Diao Y, Zhao R, Deng X, Leng W, Peng J, Jin Q. Transcriptional profiles of Trichophyton rubrum in response to itraconazole. Med Mycol. 2009;47:237-47 pubmed publisher
    b>Trichophyton rubrum is the predominant causative agent for superficial dermatomycosis. In order to understand how triazole antifungal agents interact with dermatophytes, the gene expression response of T...
  4. Stergiopoulou T, De Lucca A, Meletiadis J, Sein T, Boue S, Schaufele R, et al. In vitro activity of CAY-1, a saponin from Capsicum frutescens, against Microsporum and Trichophyton species. Med Mycol. 2008;46:805-10 pubmed publisher
    ..activity of CAY-1 against non-germinating conidia and hyphae of clinical isolates of the dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, T. tonsurans and Microsporum canis...
  5. Li W, Metin B, White T, Heitman J. Organization and evolutionary trajectory of the mating type (MAT) locus in dermatophyte and dimorphic fungal pathogens. Eukaryot Cell. 2010;9:46-58 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified the MAT locus of five dermatophyte fungal pathogens (Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton equinum, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton tonsurans) and a dimorphic fungus, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis,..
  6. Zhang J, Chen J, Huang H, Xi L, Lai W, Xue R, et al. Comparison of a glucose consumption based method with the CLSI M38-A method for testing antifungal susceptibility of Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Chin Med J (Engl). 2010;123:1909-14 pubmed
    ..Twenty-eight dermatophyte isolates, including Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum) (n = 14) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (T. mentagrophytes) (n = 14), were tested...
  7. Almeida S. Immunology of dermatophytosis. Mycopathologia. 2008;166:277-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The immune response to Trichophyton is unusual in that this fungus can elicit both immediate hypersensitivity (IH) and delayed-type ..
  8. Concha M, Nicklas C, Balcells E, Guzman A, Poggi H, León E, et al. The first case of tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei isolated in Chile. Int J Dermatol. 2012;51:283-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei is a zoophilic dermatophyte transmitted by hedgehogs which human infections manifest as highly inflammatory and pruritic eruptions.
  9. Lillis J, Dawson E, Chang R, White C. Disseminated dermal Trichophyton rubrum infection - an expression of dermatophyte dimorphism?. J Cutan Pathol. 2010;37:1168-9 pubmed publisher
    We present a case of disseminated dermal infection caused by Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum)...
  10. Leng W, Liu T, Wang J, Li R, Jin Q. Expression dynamics of secreted protease genes in Trichophyton rubrum induced by key host's proteinaceous components. Med Mycol. 2009;47:759-65 pubmed publisher
    b>Trichophyton rubrum is the most common agent of dermatophytosis, a disease that affects millions of individuals worldwide. Its molecular pathogenicity mechanisms are still not completely elucidated...
  11. Park M, Gwak K, Yang I, Kim K, Jeung E, Chang J, et al. Effect of citral, eugenol, nerolidol and alpha-terpineol on the ultrastructural changes of Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Fitoterapia. 2009;80:290-6 pubmed publisher
    The antifungal effects of citral, eugenol, nerolidol and alpha-terpineol on Trichophyton mentagrophytes were investigated. Citral over 0.1 mg/ml strongly inhibited the hyphal growth of T...
  12. Monod M. Secreted proteases from dermatophytes. Mycopathologia. 2008;166:285-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Sulphitolysis is likely to be an essential step in the digestion of compact keratinized tissues which precedes the action of all proteases. ..
  13. Ansar A, Farshchian M, Nazeri H, Ghiasian S. Clinico-epidemiological and mycological aspects of tinea incognito in Iran: A 16-year study. Med Mycol J. 2011;52:25-32 pubmed
    ..Tinea incognito is a dermatophytic infection in which topical or systemic steroids have modified the clinical appearance of the mycosis and mimicking other skin diseases...
  14. Raccurt C, Dorsainvil D, Boncy M, BONCY J, Auguste G. The emergence of Trichophyton tonsurans in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Med Mycol. 2009;47:197-200 pubmed publisher
    The occurrence of the anthropophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton tonsurans as a frequent causative agent of tinea capitis in several developed countries has been associated with a global rise in its isolation during recent years. While T...
  15. Symoens F, Jousson O, Planard C, Fratti M, Staib P, Mignon B, et al. Molecular analysis and mating behaviour of the Trichophyton mentagrophytes species complex. Int J Med Microbiol. 2011;301:260-6 pubmed publisher
    Isolates of the Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex vary phenotypically...
  16. Anzawa K, Kawasaki M, Mochizuki T, Ishizaki H. Successful mating of Trichophyton rubrum with Arthroderma simii. Med Mycol. 2010;48:629-34 pubmed publisher
    Crossing of Trichophyton rubrum with Arthroderma simii yielded many ascomata around the fluffy T. rubrum colonies. One of the 35 supposed ascospores isolated from matured ascoma was shown to be a hybrid of the two species...
  17. Khan M, Ahmad I. Antifungal activity of essential oils and their synergy with fluconazole against drug-resistant strains of Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichophyton rubrum. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;90:1083-94 pubmed publisher
    ..showed the most promising antifungal activity and killing potency against Aspergillus fumigatus MTCC2550 and Trichophyton rubrum IOA-9. Cinnamaldehyde showed strongest synergy with fluconazole against A. fumigatus and T...
  18. Sproul A, Whitehall J, Engler C. Trichophyton tonsurans-Ringworm in an NICU. Neonatal Netw. 2009;28:305-8 pubmed
    ..We report an infection with the dermatophyte Trichophyton tonsurans, the most common cause of tinea capitis in children but not yet described in a premature baby who has ..
  19. Maranhão F, Paião F, Fachin A, Martinez Rossi N. Membrane transporter proteins are involved in Trichophyton rubrum pathogenesis. J Med Microbiol. 2009;58:163-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Trichophyton rubrum is a dermatophyte responsible for the majority of human superficial mycoses...
  20. Schaller M, Borelli C, Berger U, Walker B, Schmidt S, Weindl G, et al. Susceptibility testing of amorolfine, bifonazole and ciclopiroxolamine against Trichophyton rubrum in an in vitro model of dermatophyte nail infection. Med Mycol. 2009;47:753-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Amorolfine showed the most effective fungistatic and fungicidal activity in vitro against seven clinical Trichophyton rubrum nail isolates, followed in descending order by ciclopiroxolamine and bifonazole...
  21. Sadeghi G, Khaksar A, Bassiri Jahromi S, Amirkhani A, Eslamifar A, Ajdary S, et al. Fungistatic effects of optical brightener 220 against Trichophyton tonsurans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans. J Dermatolog Treat. 2009;20:120-3 pubmed publisher
    ..17-1.46 mg ml(-1) for A. fumigatus, 0.58-1.17 mg ml(-1) for C. albicans and 0.29 mg ml(-1) for Trichophyton tonsurans. Electron microscopy revealed a thickening and blurred contours of the cell wall by OB-220...
  22. Shemer A, Nathansohn N, Trau H, Amichai B, Grunwald M. Ciclopirox nail lacquer for the treatment of onychomycosis: an open non-comparative study. J Dermatol. 2010;37:137-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thirty-six patients completed the 9-month regimen. Trichophyton rubrum was the most common pathogen...
  23. Li H, Wu S, Mao L, Lei G, Zhang L, Lu A, et al. Human pathogenic fungus Trichophyton schoenleinii activates the NLRP3 inflammasome. Protein Cell. 2013;4:529-38 pubmed publisher
    The fungus Trichophyton schoenleinii (T. schoenleinii) is the causative agent of Trichophytosis and Tinea favosa of the scalp in certain regions of Eurasia and Africa...
  24. Leng W, Liu T, Li R, Yang J, Wei C, Zhang W, et al. Proteomic profile of dormant Trichophyton rubrum conidia. BMC Genomics. 2008;9:303 pubmed publisher
    b>Trichophyton rubrum is the most common dermatophyte causing fungal skin infections in humans. Asexual sporulation is an important means of propagation for T...
  25. Packeu A, Hendrickx M, Beguin H, Martiny D, Vandenberg O, Detandt M. Identification of the Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex species using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Med Mycol. 2013;51:580-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) could provide a useful tool to identify dermatophytes of the Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex...
  26. Dobrowolska A, Staczek P. Development of transformation system for Trichophyton rubrum by electroporation of germinated conidia. Curr Genet. 2009;55:537-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The genetic transformation systems of dermatophytes were successfully applied to Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis...
  27. Zaugg C, Monod M, Weber J, Harshman K, Pradervand S, Thomas J, et al. Gene expression profiling in the human pathogenic dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum during growth on proteins. Eukaryot Cell. 2009;8:241-50 pubmed publisher
    ..To address this question, we constructed a cDNA microarray for the human pathogenic dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum that was based on transcripts of the fungus grown on proteins...
  28. Yamada T, Makimura K, Satoh K, Umeda Y, Ishihara Y, Abe S. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the dermatophyte, Trichophyton mentagrophytes: an efficient tool for gene transfer. Med Mycol. 2009;47:485-94 pubmed publisher
    ..transformation (ATMT) was used to facilitate gene transfer into the clinically important dermatophyte, Trichophyton mentagrophytes (teleomorph: Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii)...
  29. Bontems O, Hauser P, Monod M. Evaluation of a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay for dermatophyte and nondermatophyte identification in onychomycosis. Br J Dermatol. 2009;161:791-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The correct identification of the aetiological agent of nail infections is necessary in order to recommend appropriate treatment...
  30. Grumbt M, Monod M, Staib P. Genetic advances in dermatophytes. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2011;320:79-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, it appeared timely to review the available molecular tools and methodologies in dermatophyte research, which may provide future insights into the virulence of these clinically important pathogens. ..
  31. Santos D, Araújo R, Hamdan J, Cisalpino P. Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale: genetic diversity among species and strains by random amplified polymorphic DNA method. Mycopathologia. 2010;169:247-55 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale are the most common agents involved in this condition...
  32. Waldman A, Segal R, Berdicevsky I, Gilhar A. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells mediated direct cytotoxic effect against Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Int J Dermatol. 2010;49:149-57 pubmed publisher
    ..1) Proliferation and cytotoxic activity of lymphocytes cultured with various dermatophytes homogenate such as, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum gypseum...
  33. Farwa U, Abbasi S, Mirza I, Amjad A, Ikram A, Ikram A, et al. Non-dermatophyte moulds as pathogens of onychomycosis. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2011;21:597-600 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the role and pattern of non-dermatophyte moulds as causative agents of onychomycosis...
  34. Shemer A, Trau H, Davidovici B, Amichai B, Grunwald M. Onychomycosis: rationalization of topical treatment. Isr Med Assoc J. 2008;10:415-6 pubmed
    ..Fungal infection of the nail affects millions of people worldwide and has an estimated prevalence of more than 10% of the general population...
  35. Amichai B, Davidovici B, Trau H, Lyakhovitsky A, Grunwald M, Shemer A. A rationale for systemic treatment in onychomycosis with negative results on fungal examination. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2011;36:724-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Laboratory confirmation of fungal infection is currently accepted as a requirement before initiation of antifungal treatment in clinical practice...
  36. Heidemann S, Monod M, Graser Y. Signature polymorphisms in the internal transcribed spacer region relevant for the differentiation of zoophilic and anthropophilic strains of Trichophyton interdigitale and other species of T. mentagrophytes sensu lato. Br J Dermatol. 2010;162:282-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex consists of anthropophilic as well as zoophilic species...
  37. Ilkit M, Gumral R, Saracli M, Burgut R. Trichophyton tonsurans scalp carriage among wrestlers in a national competition in Turkey. Mycopathologia. 2011;172:215-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Trichophyton tonsurans tinea gladiatorum is an emerging epidemic among combat-sport athletes across the globe...
  38. Arenas R, Moreno Coutiño G, Vera L, Welsh O. Tinea incognito. Clin Dermatol. 2010;28:137-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Tinea incognito usually resembles neurodermatitis, atopic dermatitis, rosacea, seborrheic dermatitis, lupus erythematosus, or contact dermatitis, and the diagnosis is frequently missed or delayed...
  39. Sun P, Hsieh H, Ju Y, Jee S. Molecular characterization of dermatophytes of the Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex found in Taiwan with emphasis on their correlation with clinical observations. Br J Dermatol. 2010;163:1312-8 pubmed publisher
    Fungi of the Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex are important pathogenic dermatophytes capable of causing various human skin infections. There are many species and varieties involved in this complex...
  40. Hiruma M, Kano R, Sugita T, Mochizuki T, Hasegawa A, Hiruma M. Epidemiological aspects of Trichophyton rubrum var. raubitschekii in Japan. J Dermatol. 2012;39:1000-1 pubmed publisher
    b>Trichophyton rubrum var. raubitschekii is a rare anthropophilic dermatophyte isolated around the world from tinea corporis, tinea cruris, tinea pedis and tinea unguium. In this study, the isolation rate of T. rubrum var...
  41. Martinez D, Oliver B, Gräser Y, Goldberg J, Li W, Martinez Rossi N, et al. Comparative genome analysis of Trichophyton rubrum and related dermatophytes reveals candidate genes involved in infection. MBio. 2012;3:e00259-12 pubmed publisher
    The major cause of athlete's foot is Trichophyton rubrum, a dermatophyte or fungal pathogen of human skin. To facilitate molecular analyses of the dermatophytes, we sequenced T...
  42. Leibner Ciszak J, Dobrowolska A, Krawczyk B, Kaszuba A, Staczek P. Evaluation of a PCR melting profile method for intraspecies differentiation of Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale. J Med Microbiol. 2010;59:185-92 pubmed publisher
    ..PCR-MP and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were used to type 11 isolates of Trichophyton rubrum, 40 isolates of Trichophyton interdigitale and 14 isolates of Microsporum canis...
  43. Nasir A, Goldstein B, van Cleeff M, Swick L. Clinical evaluation of safety and efficacy of a new topical treatment for onychomycosis. J Drugs Dermatol. 2011;10:1186-91 pubmed
    ..Fifty males and 13 females, ages 24 to 65, infected with Trichophyton (n=62) or Epidermophyton (n=1) were enrolled; 53 completed six months of assessment...
  44. Chen X, Shen Y, Lu G, Liu W. [Establishing an experimental guinea pig model of dermatophytosis Using Trichophyton rubrum]. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. 2008;30:599-602 pubmed
    To construct an animal model infected by Trichophyton rubrum.
  45. Hryncewicz Gwozdz A, Jagielski T, Dobrowolska A, Szepietowski J, Baran E. Identification and differentiation of Trichophyton rubrum clinical isolates using PCR-RFLP and RAPD methods. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2011;30:727-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Trichophyton rubrum represents the most frequently isolated causative agent of superficial dermatophyte infections...
  46. Yang X, Sugita T, Takashima M, Hiruma M, Li R, Sudo H, et al. Differentiation of Trichophyton rubrum clinical isolates from Japanese and Chinese patients by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and DNA sequence analysis of the non-transcribed spacer region of the rRNA gene. J Dermatol Sci. 2009;54:38-42 pubmed publisher
    b>Trichophyton rubrum is the most common pathogen causing dermatophytosis worldwide. Recent genetic investigations showed that the microorganism originated in Africa and then spread to Europe and North America via Asia.
  47. Vermout S, Tabart J, Baldo A, Mathy A, Losson B, Mignon B. Pathogenesis of dermatophytosis. Mycopathologia. 2008;166:267-75 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, sophisticated in vitro infection models are now used and will open the way to a more comprehensive view of the interactions between these fungi and host epidermal cells, especially keratinocytes...
  48. Smijs T, Pavel S. The susceptibility of dermatophytes to photodynamic treatment with special focus on Trichophyton rubrum. Photochem Photobiol. 2011;87:2-13 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on the susceptibility of dermatophytic fungi, in particular Trichophyton rubrum, to PDT and shows its potential usefulness in treatment of clinical dermatophytoses...
  49. Miyajima Y, Satoh K, Uchida T, Yamada T, Abe M, Watanabe S, et al. Rapid real-time diagnostic PCR for Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes in patients with tinea unguium and tinea pedis using specific fluorescent probes. J Dermatol Sci. 2013;69:229-35 pubmed publisher
    b>Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes human-type (synonym, Trichophyton interdigitale (anthropophilic)) are major causative pathogens of tinea unguium...
  50. Bertrand S, Schumpp O, Bohni N, Monod M, Gindro K, Wolfender J. De novo production of metabolites by fungal co-culture of Trichophyton rubrum and Bionectria ochroleuca. J Nat Prod. 2013;76:1157-65 pubmed publisher
    ..of fungal co-cultures in solid media has identified an unusual long-distance growth inhibition between Trichophyton rubrum and Bionectria ochroleuca...
  51. Khan M, Ahmad I. In vitro antifungal, anti-elastase and anti-keratinase activity of essential oils of Cinnamomum-, Syzygium- and Cymbopogon-species against Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichophyton rubrum. Phytomedicine. 2011;19:48-55 pubmed publisher
    ..and geraniol respectively, on growth, hyphal ultrastructure and virulence factors of Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichophyton rubrum...
  52. Manevitch Z, Lev D, Hochberg M, Palhan M, Lewis A, Enk C. Direct antifungal effect of femtosecond laser on Trichophyton rubrum onychomycosis. Photochem Photobiol. 2010;86:476-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Nail cuttings obtained from patients with onychomycosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum underwent fsec laser irradiation using increasing laser intensities with the focus scanned throughout ..
  53. Grahovac M, Budimcić D. Unrecognized dermatophyte infection in ichthyosis vulgaris. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat. 2009;17:127-30 pubmed
    ..The case showed some clinical peculiarities in terms of both extent of lesions and their clinical appearance...
  54. Szepietowski J, Matusiak L. Trichophyton rubrum autoinoculation from infected nails is not such a rare phenomenon. Mycoses. 2008;51:345-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we present a rare case report - an inflammatory tinea barbae due to an anthropophilic fungus (Trichophyton rubrum), which is the main pathogen of onychomycosis and tinea pedis...
  55. Baeza L, Matsumoto M, Almeida A, Mendes Giannini M. Strain differentiation of Trichophyton rubrum by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and analysis of rDNA nontranscribed spacer. J Med Microbiol. 2006;55:429-36 pubmed
    b>Trichophyton rubrum is the most common pathogen causing dermatophytosis. Molecular strain-typing methods have recently been developed to tackle epidemiological questions and the problem of relapse following treatment...
  56. Raska M, Zemanova E, Kafkova L, Belakova J, Vudattu N, Kopecek P, et al. Isolation and characterization of an immunogenic fragment of heat shock protein 60 from Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Mycoses. 2004;47:482-90 pubmed
    ..This work focuses on the isolation of recombinant hsp60 from the dermatophyte, Trichophyton mentagrophytes as a potentially protective antigen in trichophytosis...
  57. Horn T, Johnson S, Helm R, Roberson P. Intralesional immunotherapy of warts with mumps, Candida, and Trichophyton skin test antigens: a single-blinded, randomized, and controlled trial. Arch Dermatol. 2005;141:589-94 pubmed
    ..Other treatment options include immunotherapy. Intralesional immunotherapy using mumps, Candida, or Trichophyton skin test antigens has proved efficacy in the treatment of warts...
  58. Jennings M, Weinberg J, Koestenblatt E, Lesczczynski C. Study of clinically suspected onychomycosis in a podiatric population. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2002;92:327-30 pubmed
    ..Of the 1,800 medical charts reviewed, 214 had culture results, of which 120 were positive. Trichophyton rubrum was the most prevalent pathogen, found in 67% of positive cultures...
  59. Graser Y, Kuijpers A, Presber W, de Hoog G. Molecular taxonomy of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. tonsurans. Med Mycol. 1999;37:315-30 pubmed
    Most members of the anamorph genus Trichophyton are anthropophilic and have evolved with the human host...