phytochrome a

Summary

Summary: The primary plant photoreceptor responsible for perceiving and mediating responses to far-red light. It is a PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASE that is translocated to the CELL NUCLEUS in response to light signals.

Top Publications

  1. Popov V, Eprintsev A, Fedorin D, Igamberdiev A. Succinate dehydrogenase in Arabidopsis thaliana is regulated by light via phytochrome A. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:199-202 pubmed publisher
    ..wild-type plants and in the mutant deficient in the phytochrome B gene, but not in the mutant deficient in the phytochrome A gene, while the far-red light of 730 nm reversed the red light effect...
  2. Smith H, Xu Y, Quail P. Antagonistic but complementary actions of phytochromes A and B allow seedling de-etiolation. Plant Physiol. 1997;114:637-41 pubmed
    ..The antagonistic and complementary actions of phyA and phyB, therefore, allow the optimum regulation of seedling growth after emergence from the soil. ..
  3. Weller J, Batge S, Smith J, Kerckhoffs L, Sineshchekov V, Murfet I, et al. A dominant mutation in the pea PHYA gene confers enhanced responses to light and impairs the light-dependent degradation of phytochrome A. Plant Physiol. 2004;135:2186-95 pubmed
    b>Phytochrome A (phyA) is an important photoreceptor controlling many processes throughout the plant life cycle...
  4. Mazzella M, Cerdán P, Staneloni R, Casal J. Hierarchical coupling of phytochromes and cryptochromes reconciles stability and light modulation of Arabidopsis development. Development. 2001;128:2291-9 pubmed
    ..the reproductive stage; but these effects were obvious only in the absence of cryptochrome 1 and in some cases phytochrome A and/or phytochrome B...
  5. Hoecker U, Quail P. The phytochrome A-specific signaling intermediate SPA1 interacts directly with COP1, a constitutive repressor of light signaling in Arabidopsis. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:38173-8 pubmed
    SPA1 is a phytochrome A (phyA)-specific signaling intermediate that acts as a light-dependent repressor of photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis seedlings...
  6. Riemann M, Bouyer D, Hisada A, Muller A, Yatou O, Weiler E, et al. Phytochrome A requires jasmonate for photodestruction. Planta. 2009;229:1035-45 pubmed publisher
    The plant photoreceptor phytochrome is organised in a small gene family with phytochrome A (phyA) being unique, because it is specifically degraded upon activation by light...
  7. Hsieh H, Okamoto H, Wang M, Ang L, Matsui M, Goodman H, et al. FIN219, an auxin-regulated gene, defines a link between phytochrome A and the downstream regulator COP1 in light control of Arabidopsis development. Genes Dev. 2000;14:1958-70 pubmed
    ..Further phenotypic analyses of this new mutation, named fin219, suggested that it defines a novel phytochrome A signaling component...
  8. Hudson M, Quail P. Identification of promoter motifs involved in the network of phytochrome A-regulated gene expression by combined analysis of genomic sequence and microarray data. Plant Physiol. 2003;133:1605-16 pubmed
    Several hundred Arabidopsis genes, transcriptionally regulated by phytochrome A (phyA), were previously identified using an oligonucleotide microarray...
  9. Yang S, Jang I, Henriques R, Chua N. FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL1 and FHY1-LIKE associate with the Arabidopsis transcription factors LAF1 and HFR1 to transmit phytochrome A signals for inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. Plant Cell. 2009;21:1341-59 pubmed publisher
    Among the five phytochromes in Arabidopsis thaliana, phytochrome A (phyA) plays a major role in seedling deetiolation...
  10. Warnasooriya S, Porter K, Montgomery B. Tissue- and isoform-specific phytochrome regulation of light-dependent anthocyanin accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Signal Behav. 2011;6:624-31 pubmed
    ..These results provide new insight into spatial- and isoform-specific regulation of pigmentation by phytochromes in A. thaliana. ..

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Popov V, Eprintsev A, Fedorin D, Igamberdiev A. Succinate dehydrogenase in Arabidopsis thaliana is regulated by light via phytochrome A. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:199-202 pubmed publisher
    ..wild-type plants and in the mutant deficient in the phytochrome B gene, but not in the mutant deficient in the phytochrome A gene, while the far-red light of 730 nm reversed the red light effect...
  2. Smith H, Xu Y, Quail P. Antagonistic but complementary actions of phytochromes A and B allow seedling de-etiolation. Plant Physiol. 1997;114:637-41 pubmed
    ..The antagonistic and complementary actions of phyA and phyB, therefore, allow the optimum regulation of seedling growth after emergence from the soil. ..
  3. Weller J, Batge S, Smith J, Kerckhoffs L, Sineshchekov V, Murfet I, et al. A dominant mutation in the pea PHYA gene confers enhanced responses to light and impairs the light-dependent degradation of phytochrome A. Plant Physiol. 2004;135:2186-95 pubmed
    b>Phytochrome A (phyA) is an important photoreceptor controlling many processes throughout the plant life cycle...
  4. Mazzella M, Cerdán P, Staneloni R, Casal J. Hierarchical coupling of phytochromes and cryptochromes reconciles stability and light modulation of Arabidopsis development. Development. 2001;128:2291-9 pubmed
    ..the reproductive stage; but these effects were obvious only in the absence of cryptochrome 1 and in some cases phytochrome A and/or phytochrome B...
  5. Hoecker U, Quail P. The phytochrome A-specific signaling intermediate SPA1 interacts directly with COP1, a constitutive repressor of light signaling in Arabidopsis. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:38173-8 pubmed
    SPA1 is a phytochrome A (phyA)-specific signaling intermediate that acts as a light-dependent repressor of photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis seedlings...
  6. Riemann M, Bouyer D, Hisada A, Muller A, Yatou O, Weiler E, et al. Phytochrome A requires jasmonate for photodestruction. Planta. 2009;229:1035-45 pubmed publisher
    The plant photoreceptor phytochrome is organised in a small gene family with phytochrome A (phyA) being unique, because it is specifically degraded upon activation by light...
  7. Hsieh H, Okamoto H, Wang M, Ang L, Matsui M, Goodman H, et al. FIN219, an auxin-regulated gene, defines a link between phytochrome A and the downstream regulator COP1 in light control of Arabidopsis development. Genes Dev. 2000;14:1958-70 pubmed
    ..Further phenotypic analyses of this new mutation, named fin219, suggested that it defines a novel phytochrome A signaling component...
  8. Hudson M, Quail P. Identification of promoter motifs involved in the network of phytochrome A-regulated gene expression by combined analysis of genomic sequence and microarray data. Plant Physiol. 2003;133:1605-16 pubmed
    Several hundred Arabidopsis genes, transcriptionally regulated by phytochrome A (phyA), were previously identified using an oligonucleotide microarray...
  9. Yang S, Jang I, Henriques R, Chua N. FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL1 and FHY1-LIKE associate with the Arabidopsis transcription factors LAF1 and HFR1 to transmit phytochrome A signals for inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. Plant Cell. 2009;21:1341-59 pubmed publisher
    Among the five phytochromes in Arabidopsis thaliana, phytochrome A (phyA) plays a major role in seedling deetiolation...
  10. Warnasooriya S, Porter K, Montgomery B. Tissue- and isoform-specific phytochrome regulation of light-dependent anthocyanin accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Signal Behav. 2011;6:624-31 pubmed
    ..These results provide new insight into spatial- and isoform-specific regulation of pigmentation by phytochromes in A. thaliana. ..
  11. Kircher S, Terecskei K, Wolf I, Sipos M, Adam E. Phytochrome A-specific signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Signal Behav. 2011;6:1714-9 pubmed publisher
    Among the five phytochromes in Arabidopsis thaliana, phytochrome A (phyA) plays a major role in seedling de-etiolation. Until now more then ten positive and some negative components acting downstream of phyA have been identified...
  12. Yanovsky M, Luppi J, Kirchbauer D, Ogorodnikova O, Sineshchekov V, Adam E, et al. Missense mutation in the PAS2 domain of phytochrome A impairs subnuclear localization and a subset of responses. Plant Cell. 2002;14:1591-603 pubmed
    b>Phytochrome A signaling shows two photobiologically discrete outputs: so-called very-low-fluence responses (VLFR) and high-irradiance responses (HIR)...
  13. Lin R, Teng Y, Park H, Ding L, Black C, Fang P, et al. Discrete and essential roles of the multiple domains of Arabidopsis FHY3 in mediating phytochrome A signal transduction. Plant Physiol. 2008;148:981-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Phytochrome A is the primary photoreceptor for mediating various far-red light-induced responses in higher plants...
  14. Genoud T, Schweizer F, Tscheuschler A, Debrieux D, Casal J, Schafer E, et al. FHY1 mediates nuclear import of the light-activated phytochrome A photoreceptor. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000143 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that the mechanism uncovered in Arabidopsis is conserved in higher plants. Moreover, this mechanism allows us to propose a model explaining why phyA needs a specific nuclear import pathway. ..
  15. Tepperman J, Hwang Y, Quail P. phyA dominates in transduction of red-light signals to rapidly responding genes at the initiation of Arabidopsis seedling de-etiolation. Plant J. 2006;48:728-42 pubmed
  16. Wang H, Deng X. Dissecting the phytochrome A-dependent signaling network in higher plants. Trends Plant Sci. 2003;8:172-8 pubmed
    Plants monitor their ambient light environment using a network of photoreceptors. In Arabidopsis, phytochrome A (phyA) is the primary photoreceptor responsible for perceiving and mediating various responses to far-red light...
  17. Harmon F, Kay S. The F box protein AFR is a positive regulator of phytochrome A-mediated light signaling. Curr Biol. 2003;13:2091-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, AFR is a true SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase component. SCF(AFR) is expected to mediate the turnover of a repressor of phyA signaling, possibly to prepare the plant to receive light signals at dawn. ..
  18. Garg A, Sawers R, Wang H, Kim J, Walker J, Brutnell T, et al. Light-regulated overexpression of an Arabidopsis phytochrome A gene in rice alters plant architecture and increases grain yield. Planta. 2006;223:627-36 pubmed
    ..We report here the overexpression of Arabidopsis thaliana PHYTOCHROME A (PHYA) gene in a commercially important indica rice variety (Oryza sativa L. Pusa Basmati-1)...
  19. Desai M, Hu J. Light induces peroxisome proliferation in Arabidopsis seedlings through the photoreceptor phytochrome A, the transcription factor HY5 HOMOLOG, and the peroxisomal protein PEROXIN11b. Plant Physiol. 2008;146:1117-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The far-red light receptor phytochrome A (phyA) and the bZIP transcription factor HY5 HOMOLOG (HYH) are both required for the up-regulation of PEX11b ..
  20. Saijo Y, Zhu D, Li J, Rubio V, Zhou Z, Shen Y, et al. Arabidopsis COP1/SPA1 complex and FHY1/FHY3 associate with distinct phosphorylated forms of phytochrome A in balancing light signaling. Mol Cell. 2008;31:607-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Following light-triggered nuclear translocation, the photoreceptor phytochrome A (phyA) regulates gene expression under continuous far-red light and is rapidly destabilized upon red light ..
  21. Rangani G, Khodakovskaya M, Alimohammadi M, Hoecker U, Srivastava V. Site-specific methylation in gene coding region underlies transcriptional silencing of the Phytochrome A epiallele in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Mol Biol. 2012;79:191-202 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of gene body methylation in gene expression, however, is not clear. The Arabidopsis Phytochrome A epiallele, phyA', carries hypermethylation in several CG sites resident to the coding region...
  22. Li J, Li G, Gao S, Martinez C, He G, Zhou Z, et al. Arabidopsis transcription factor ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 plays a role in the feedback regulation of phytochrome A signaling. Plant Cell. 2010;22:3634-49 pubmed publisher
    b>Phytochrome A (phyA) is the primary photoreceptor responsible for perceiving and mediating various responses to far-red light in Arabidopsis thaliana...
  23. Chen M, Galvão R, Li M, Burger B, Bugea J, Bolado J, et al. Arabidopsis HEMERA/pTAC12 initiates photomorphogenesis by phytochromes. Cell. 2010;141:1230-40 pubmed publisher
    ..hemera mutants are impaired in all phytochrome responses examined, including proteolysis of phytochrome A and phytochrome-interacting transcription factors...
  24. Zhou Y, Dieterle M, Buche C, Kretsch T. The negatively acting factors EID1 and SPA1 have distinct functions in phytochrome A-specific light signaling. Plant Physiol. 2002;128:1098-108 pubmed
    EID1 (empfindlicher im dunkelroten Licht) and SPA1 (suppressor of phytochrome A[phyA]-105) function as negatively acting components in phyA-specific light signaling...
  25. Fry R, Habashi J, Okamoto H, Deng X. Characterization of a strong dominant phytochrome A mutation unique to phytochrome A signal propagation. Plant Physiol. 2002;130:457-65 pubmed
    Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a strong dominant-negative phytochrome A (phyA) mutation (phyA-300D) in Arabidopsis...
  26. Kircher S, Gil P, Kozma Bognar L, Fejes E, Speth V, Husselstein Muller T, et al. Nucleocytoplasmic partitioning of the plant photoreceptors phytochrome A, B, C, D, and E is regulated differentially by light and exhibits a diurnal rhythm. Plant Cell. 2002;14:1541-55 pubmed
    ..We generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing phytochrome A to E:green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion proteins to assess the biological role of intracellular ..
  27. Duek P, Fankhauser C. HFR1, a putative bHLH transcription factor, mediates both phytochrome A and cryptochrome signalling. Plant J. 2003;34:827-36 pubmed
    ..basic Helix Loop Helix) transcription factor long hypocotyl in far-red (HFR1) is important for a subset of phytochrome A (phyA)-mediated light responses...
  28. Saijo Y, Sullivan J, Wang H, Yang J, Shen Y, Rubio V, et al. The COP1-SPA1 interaction defines a critical step in phytochrome A-mediated regulation of HY5 activity. Genes Dev. 2003;17:2642-7 pubmed
    ..SPA1 is a repressor of phytochrome A-mediated responses to far-red light...
  29. Robson F, Okamoto H, Patrick E, Harris S, Wasternack C, Brearley C, et al. Jasmonate and phytochrome A signaling in Arabidopsis wound and shade responses are integrated through JAZ1 stability. Plant Cell. 2010;22:1143-60 pubmed publisher
    ..display exaggerated shade responses to low, but not high, R/FR ratio light, suggesting a role for JA in phytochrome A (phyA) signaling...
  30. Ahmad M, Cashmore A. The blue-light receptor cryptochrome 1 shows functional dependence on phytochrome A or phytochrome B in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 1997;11:421-7 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that CRY1-mediated inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and anthocyanin production requires active phytochrome for full expression, and that this requirement can be supplied by low levels of either phyA or phyB. ..
  31. Kneissl J, Shinomura T, Furuya M, Bolle C. A rice phytochrome A in Arabidopsis: The Role of the N-terminus under red and far-red light. Mol Plant. 2008;1:84-102 pubmed publisher
    ..The efficacy of the rice phyA expressed in Arabidopsis was dependent upon the developmental age of the plants analyzed and on the physiological response, suggesting a stage-dependent downstream modulation of phytochrome signaling...
  32. Ballesteros M, Bolle C, Lois L, Moore J, Vielle Calzada J, Grossniklaus U, et al. LAF1, a MYB transcription activator for phytochrome A signaling. Genes Dev. 2001;15:2613-25 pubmed
    ..This accumulation in speckles is abolished by a point mutation in a lysine residue (K258R), which might serve as a modification site by a small ubiquitin-like protein (SUMO). ..
  33. Wei Q, Zhou W, Hu G, Wei J, Yang H, Huang J. Heterotrimeric G-protein is involved in phytochrome A-mediated cell death of Arabidopsis hypocotyls. Cell Res. 2008;18:949-60 pubmed publisher
    ..However, its role in phytochrome A (phyA) signaling remains elusive...
  34. Lariguet P, Fankhauser C. Hypocotyl growth orientation in blue light is determined by phytochrome A inhibition of gravitropism and phototropin promotion of phototropism. Plant J. 2004;40:826-34 pubmed
    ..In contrast, phyAphot1 double mutants grew exclusively according to gravity demonstrating that phytochrome A (phyA) is necessary to inhibit gravitropism...
  35. Ahmad M, Grancher N, Heil M, Black R, Giovani B, Galland P, et al. Action spectrum for cryptochrome-dependent hypocotyl growth inhibition in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2002;129:774-85 pubmed
    ..The possible role of additional photoreceptors (in particular phytochrome A) in cryptochrome responses is discussed.
  36. Chawla R, Nicholson S, Folta K, Srivastava V. Transgene-induced silencing of Arabidopsis phytochrome A gene via exonic methylation. Plant J. 2007;52:1105-18 pubmed
    ..Here, we report the isolation of a transcriptionally suppressed epi-allele of the Arabidopsis thaliana phytochrome A gene (PHYA) termed phyA' that shows methylation only in symmetric CG sites resident in exonic regions...
  37. Su Y, Lagarias J. Light-independent phytochrome signaling mediated by dominant GAF domain tyrosine mutants of Arabidopsis phytochromes in transgenic plants. Plant Cell. 2007;19:2124-39 pubmed
    ..photoinsensitive Tyr-to-His mutant alleles of Arabidopsis thaliana phytochrome B (PHYB(Y276H)) and Arabidopsis phytochrome A (PHYA(Y242H)) in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, we demonstrate that photoconversion is not a prerequisite for ..
  38. Torres Galea P, Huang L, Chua N, Bolle C. The GRAS protein SCL13 is a positive regulator of phytochrome-dependent red light signaling, but can also modulate phytochrome A responses. Mol Genet Genomics. 2006;276:13-30 pubmed
    ..Genetic evidence suggests that SCL13 is also needed to modulate phytochrome A (phyA) signal transduction in a phyB-independent way...
  39. Soh M, Kim Y, Han S, Song P. REP1, a basic helix-loop-helix protein, is required for a branch pathway of phytochrome A signaling in arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2000;12:2061-74 pubmed
    ..Physiological characterization showed that rep1 mutations greatly reduced a subset of phytochrome A-regulated responses, including the inhibition of hypocotyl elongation, cotyledon expansion, modulation of ..
  40. Franklin K, Allen T, Whitelam G. Phytochrome A is an irradiance-dependent red light sensor. Plant J. 2007;50:108-17 pubmed
  41. Fankhauser C, Chory J. RSF1, an Arabidopsis locus implicated in phytochrome A signaling. Plant Physiol. 2000;124:39-45 pubmed
    In Arabidopsis, phytochrome A (phyA) is the major photoreceptor both for high irradiance responses to far-red light and broad spectrum very low fluence responses, but little is known of its signaling pathway(s)...
  42. Bolle C, Koncz C, Chua N. PAT1, a new member of the GRAS family, is involved in phytochrome A signal transduction. Genes Dev. 2000;14:1269-78 pubmed
    Light signaling via the phytochrome A (phyA) photoreceptor controls basic plant developmental processes including de-etiolation and hypocotyl elongation...
  43. Rösler J, Klein I, Zeidler M. Arabidopsis fhl/fhy1 double mutant reveals a distinct cytoplasmic action of phytochrome A. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:10737-42 pubmed
    b>Phytochrome A (phyA) plays an important role during germination and early seedling development...
  44. Fairchild C, Schumaker M, Quail P. HFR1 encodes an atypical bHLH protein that acts in phytochrome A signal transduction. Genes Dev. 2000;14:2377-91 pubmed
    ..specifically to continuous far-red light (FRc), thereby suggesting a locus likely to be involved in phytochrome A (phyA) signal transduction...
  45. Shichijo C, Katada K, Tanaka O, Hashimoto T. Phytochrome A-mediated inhibition of seed germination in tomato. Planta. 2001;213:764-9 pubmed
    ..This is the first indication of phyA being involved in the HIR of seed germination inhibition. ..
  46. Jang I, Chung P, Hemmes H, Jung C, Chua N. Rapid and reversible light-mediated chromatin modifications of Arabidopsis phytochrome A locus. Plant Cell. 2011;23:459-70 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Phytochrome A (phyA) is the major photoreceptor of deetiolation, and phyA expression is reversibly repressed by light...
  47. Torres Galea P, Hirtreiter B, Bolle C. Two GRAS proteins, SCARECROW-LIKE21 and PHYTOCHROME A SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION1, function cooperatively in phytochrome A signal transduction. Plant Physiol. 2013;161:291-304 pubmed publisher
    Photoreceptors, especially the far-red light-absorbing phytochrome A, play a crucial role in early seedling development, triggering the transition from etiolated to photomorphogenic growth...
  48. Morishige D, Childs K, Moore L, Mullet J. Targeted analysis of orthologous phytochrome A regions of the sorghum, maize, and rice genomes using comparative gene-island sequencing. Plant Physiol. 2002;130:1614-25 pubmed
    ..A 152-kb bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) encoding phytochrome A (PHYA) was fully sequenced, revealing 16 open reading frames with a gene density similar to many regions of ..
  49. Sharrock R, Clack T. Patterns of expression and normalized levels of the five Arabidopsis phytochromes. Plant Physiol. 2002;130:442-56 pubmed
    ..One phytochrome, phytochrome A, is highly light labile...
  50. Mathews S, Burleigh J, Donoghue M. Adaptive evolution in the photosensory domain of phytochrome A in early angiosperms. Mol Biol Evol. 2003;20:1087-97 pubmed
    ..If so, evolution in light-sensing mechanisms may have been crucial to their success. The photoreceptor phytochrome A is unique among angiosperm phytochromes in its capacity to serve a transient role under conditions where an ..
  51. Hiltbrunner A, Viczian A, Bury E, Tscheuschler A, Kircher S, Toth R, et al. Nuclear accumulation of the phytochrome A photoreceptor requires FHY1. Curr Biol. 2005;15:2125-30 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, FHY1 and phyA colocalize in planta. We therefore identify the first component required for light-regulated phytochrome nuclear accumulation. ..
  52. Weller J, Beauchamp N, Kerckhoffs L, Platten J, Reid J. Interaction of phytochromes A and B in the control of de-etiolation and flowering in pea. Plant J. 2001;26:283-94 pubmed
    The interactions of phytochrome A (phyA) and phytochrome B (phyB) in the photocontrol of vegetative and reproductive development in pea have been investigated using null mutants for each phytochrome...
  53. Correll M, Kiss J. The roles of phytochromes in elongation and gravitropism of roots. Plant Cell Physiol. 2005;46:317-23 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate roles for phytochromes in regulating both the elongation and gravitropic curvature of roots. ..
  54. Zeidler M, Zhou Q, Sarda X, Yau C, Chua N. The nuclear localization signal and the C-terminal region of FHY1 are required for transmission of phytochrome A signals. Plant J. 2004;40:355-65 pubmed
    ..b>Phytochrome A (phyA) is the primary photoreceptor that regulates germination and early seedling development...
  55. Hare P, Moller S, Huang L, Chua N. LAF3, a novel factor required for normal phytochrome A signaling. Plant Physiol. 2003;133:1592-604 pubmed
    b>Phytochrome A (phyA) is the photolabile plant light receptor that mediates broad spectrum very low-fluence responses and high irradiance responses to continuous far-red light (FRc)...
  56. Monte E, Alonso J, Ecker J, Zhang Y, Li X, Young J, et al. Isolation and characterization of phyC mutants in Arabidopsis reveals complex crosstalk between phytochrome signaling pathways. Plant Cell. 2003;15:1962-80 pubmed
  57. Casal J, Mazzella M. Conditional synergism between cryptochrome 1 and phytochrome B is shown by the analysis of phyA, phyB, and hy4 simple, double, and triple mutants in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 1998;118:19-25 pubmed
    Wild-type or phyA, phyB, or hy4 mutant Arabidopsis seedlings lacking phytochrome A (phyA), phytochrome B (phyB), or cryptochrome 1 (cry1), respectively, and the double and triple mutants were used in combination with blue-light ..
  58. Hoecker U, Xu Y, Quail P. SPA1: a new genetic locus involved in phytochrome A-specific signal transduction. Plant Cell. 1998;10:19-33 pubmed
    To identify mutants potentially defective in signaling intermediates specific to phytochrome A (phyA), we screened for extragenic mutations that suppress the morphological phenotype exhibited by a weak phyA mutant (phyA-105) of ..
  59. Yanovsky M, Casal J, Luppi J. The VLF loci, polymorphic between ecotypes Landsberg erecta and Columbia, dissect two branches of phytochrome A signal transduction that correspond to very-low-fluence and high-irradiance responses. Plant J. 1997;12:659-67 pubmed
    ..HIR), were genetically dissected using phyA and phyB mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana (respectively lacking phytochrome A or phytochrome B) and a polymorphism between ecotypes Landsberg erecta and Columbia...
  60. Genoud T, Buchala A, Chua N, Metraux J. Phytochrome signalling modulates the SA-perceptive pathway in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2002;31:87-95 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data demonstrate that the light-induced signalling pathway interacts with the pathogen/SA-mediated signal transduction route. These results are summarized in a formalism that allows qualitative computer simulation. ..
  61. Hudson M, Lisch D, Quail P. The FHY3 and FAR1 genes encode transposase-related proteins involved in regulation of gene expression by the phytochrome A-signaling pathway. Plant J. 2003;34:453-71 pubmed
    ..reduced inhibition of hypocotyl elongation, which is specific to far-red light and therefore specific to the phytochrome A (phyA)-signaling pathway...
  62. Baumgardt R, Oliverio K, Casal J, Hoecker U. SPA1, a component of phytochrome A signal transduction, regulates the light signaling current. Planta. 2002;215:745-53 pubmed
    Mutations in a component of phytochrome A (phyA)-specific light signal transduction, SPA1, result in enhanced responsiveness of Arabidopsis seedlings to red and far-red light...