alanine dehydrogenase

Summary

Summary: An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible DEAMINATION of L-ALANINE to PYRUVATE and AMMONIA. The enzyme is needed for growth when ALANINE is the sole CARBON or NITROGEN source. It may also play a role in CELL WALL synthesis because L-ALANINE is an important constituent of the PEPTIDOGLYCAN layer.

Top Publications

  1. Allaway D, Lodwig E, Crompton L, Wood M, Parsons R, Wheeler T, et al. Identification of alanine dehydrogenase and its role in mixed secretion of ammonium and alanine by pea bacteroids. Mol Microbiol. 2000;36:508-15 pubmed
    ..To overcome these limitations we identified and mutated the gene for alanine dehydrogenase (aldA) and demonstrate that AldA is the primary route for alanine synthesis in isolated bacteroids...
  2. Bardaweel S, Ghosh B, Chou T, Sadowsky M, Wagner C. E. coli histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 (ecHinT) is a catalytic regulator of D-alanine dehydrogenase (DadA) activity in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20897 pubmed publisher
    ..that the expression of catalytically active ecHinT is essential for the activity of the enzyme D-alanine dehydrogenase (DadA) (equivalent to D-amino acid oxidase in eukaryotes), a necessary component of the D-alanine ..
  3. Deutch C. Oxidation of 3,4-dehydro-D-proline and other D-amino acid analogues by D-alanine dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004;238:383-9 pubmed
    ..An E. coli strain with no D-alanine dehydrogenase activity due to the dadA237 mutation was unable to oxidize either 3,4-dehydro-D-proline or D-alanine, as ..
  4. Gallagher D, Monbouquette H, Schr der I, Robinson H, Holden M, Smith N. Structure of alanine dehydrogenase from Archaeoglobus: active site analysis and relation to bacterial cyclodeaminases and mammalian mu crystallin. J Mol Biol. 2004;342:119-30 pubmed publisher
  5. Baker P, Sawa Y, Shibata H, Sedelnikova S, Rice D. Analysis of the structure and substrate binding of Phormidium lapideum alanine dehydrogenase. Nat Struct Biol. 1998;5:561-7 pubmed
    The structure of the hexameric L-alanine dehydrogenase from Phormidium lapideum reveals that the subunit is constructed from two domains, each having the common dinucleotide binding fold...
  6. Feng Z, C ceres N, Sarath G, Barletta R. Mycobacterium smegmatis L-alanine dehydrogenase (Ald) is required for proficient utilization of alanine as a sole nitrogen source and sustained anaerobic growth. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:5001-10 pubmed
    NAD(H)-dependent L-alanine dehydrogenase (EC 1.4.1.1) (Ald) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-alanine and the reductive amination of pyruvate...
  7. Usha V, Jayaraman R, Toro J, Hoffner S, Das K. Glycine and alanine dehydrogenase activities are catalyzed by the same protein in Mycobacterium smegmatis: upregulation of both activities under microaerophilic adaptation. Can J Microbiol. 2002;48:7-13 pubmed
    ..Absence of glycine deamination activity strongly suggested that alanine dehydrogenase of M. smegmatis was responsible for glyoxylate amination in the cell lysate...
  8. Pernil R, Herrero A, Flores E. Catabolic function of compartmentalized alanine dehydrogenase in the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:5165-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Open reading frame alr2355 of the genome of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is the ald gene encoding alanine dehydrogenase. A strain carrying a green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion to the N terminus of Ald (Ald-N-GFP) showed ..
  9. Moore B, Leigh J. Markerless mutagenesis in Methanococcus maripaludis demonstrates roles for alanine dehydrogenase, alanine racemase, and alanine permease. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:972-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To understand how this occurs, we tested the roles of three adjacent genes encoding homologs of alanine dehydrogenase, alanine racemase, and alanine permease...
  10. Dong Y, Demaria S, Sun X, Santori F, Jesdale B, De Groot A, et al. HLA-A2-restricted CD8+-cytotoxic-T-cell responses to novel epitopes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis superoxide dismutase, alanine dehydrogenase, and glutamine synthetase. Infect Immun. 2004;72:2412-5 pubmed
    ..We report the identification of three novel HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL epitopes within mycobacterial superoxide dismutase (SodA), L-alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH), and L-glutamine synthetase (GlnS) proteins.

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Allaway D, Lodwig E, Crompton L, Wood M, Parsons R, Wheeler T, et al. Identification of alanine dehydrogenase and its role in mixed secretion of ammonium and alanine by pea bacteroids. Mol Microbiol. 2000;36:508-15 pubmed
    ..To overcome these limitations we identified and mutated the gene for alanine dehydrogenase (aldA) and demonstrate that AldA is the primary route for alanine synthesis in isolated bacteroids...
  2. Bardaweel S, Ghosh B, Chou T, Sadowsky M, Wagner C. E. coli histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 (ecHinT) is a catalytic regulator of D-alanine dehydrogenase (DadA) activity in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20897 pubmed publisher
    ..that the expression of catalytically active ecHinT is essential for the activity of the enzyme D-alanine dehydrogenase (DadA) (equivalent to D-amino acid oxidase in eukaryotes), a necessary component of the D-alanine ..
  3. Deutch C. Oxidation of 3,4-dehydro-D-proline and other D-amino acid analogues by D-alanine dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004;238:383-9 pubmed
    ..An E. coli strain with no D-alanine dehydrogenase activity due to the dadA237 mutation was unable to oxidize either 3,4-dehydro-D-proline or D-alanine, as ..
  4. Gallagher D, Monbouquette H, Schr der I, Robinson H, Holden M, Smith N. Structure of alanine dehydrogenase from Archaeoglobus: active site analysis and relation to bacterial cyclodeaminases and mammalian mu crystallin. J Mol Biol. 2004;342:119-30 pubmed publisher
  5. Baker P, Sawa Y, Shibata H, Sedelnikova S, Rice D. Analysis of the structure and substrate binding of Phormidium lapideum alanine dehydrogenase. Nat Struct Biol. 1998;5:561-7 pubmed
    The structure of the hexameric L-alanine dehydrogenase from Phormidium lapideum reveals that the subunit is constructed from two domains, each having the common dinucleotide binding fold...
  6. Feng Z, C ceres N, Sarath G, Barletta R. Mycobacterium smegmatis L-alanine dehydrogenase (Ald) is required for proficient utilization of alanine as a sole nitrogen source and sustained anaerobic growth. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:5001-10 pubmed
    NAD(H)-dependent L-alanine dehydrogenase (EC 1.4.1.1) (Ald) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-alanine and the reductive amination of pyruvate...
  7. Usha V, Jayaraman R, Toro J, Hoffner S, Das K. Glycine and alanine dehydrogenase activities are catalyzed by the same protein in Mycobacterium smegmatis: upregulation of both activities under microaerophilic adaptation. Can J Microbiol. 2002;48:7-13 pubmed
    ..Absence of glycine deamination activity strongly suggested that alanine dehydrogenase of M. smegmatis was responsible for glyoxylate amination in the cell lysate...
  8. Pernil R, Herrero A, Flores E. Catabolic function of compartmentalized alanine dehydrogenase in the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:5165-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Open reading frame alr2355 of the genome of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is the ald gene encoding alanine dehydrogenase. A strain carrying a green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion to the N terminus of Ald (Ald-N-GFP) showed ..
  9. Moore B, Leigh J. Markerless mutagenesis in Methanococcus maripaludis demonstrates roles for alanine dehydrogenase, alanine racemase, and alanine permease. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:972-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To understand how this occurs, we tested the roles of three adjacent genes encoding homologs of alanine dehydrogenase, alanine racemase, and alanine permease...
  10. Dong Y, Demaria S, Sun X, Santori F, Jesdale B, De Groot A, et al. HLA-A2-restricted CD8+-cytotoxic-T-cell responses to novel epitopes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis superoxide dismutase, alanine dehydrogenase, and glutamine synthetase. Infect Immun. 2004;72:2412-5 pubmed
    ..We report the identification of three novel HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL epitopes within mycobacterial superoxide dismutase (SodA), L-alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH), and L-glutamine synthetase (GlnS) proteins.
  11. Lodwig E, Kumar S, Allaway D, Bourdes A, Prell J, Priefer U, et al. Regulation of L-alanine dehydrogenase in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae and its role in pea nodules. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:842-9 pubmed
    b>Alanine dehydrogenase (AldA) is the principal enzyme with which pea bacteroids synthesize alanine de novo...
  12. Irwin J, Lynch S, Coughlan S, Baker P, Gudmundsson H, Alfredsson G, et al. Alanine dehydrogenase from the psychrophilic bacterium strain PA-43: overexpression, molecular characterization, and sequence analysis. Extremophiles. 2003;7:135-43 pubmed
    The gene encoding alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH; EC 1.4.1.1) from the marine psychrophilic bacterium strain PA-43 was cloned, sequenced, and overexpressed in Escherichia coli...
  13. Giffin M, Modesti L, Raab R, Wayne L, Sohaskey C. ald of Mycobacterium tuberculosis encodes both the alanine dehydrogenase and the putative glycine dehydrogenase. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:1045-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The enzyme was purified and identified as the previously characterized alanine dehydrogenase. The Ald enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli and had both pyruvate and glyoxylate aminating ..
  14. Agren D, Stehr M, Berthold C, Kapoor S, Oehlmann W, Singh M, et al. Three-dimensional structures of apo- and holo-L-alanine dehydrogenase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis reveal conformational changes upon coenzyme binding. J Mol Biol. 2008;377:1161-73 pubmed publisher
    L-alanine dehydrogenase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis catalyzes the NADH-dependent reversible conversion of pyruvate and ammonia to L-alanine...
  15. Ling B, Sun M, Bi S, Jing Z, Liu Y. Molecular dynamics simulations of the coenzyme induced conformational changes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis L-alanine dehydrogenase. J Mol Graph Model. 2012;35:1-10 pubmed publisher
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis L-alanine dehydrogenase (L-MtAlaDH) catalyzes the NADH-dependent reversible oxidative deamination of L-alanine to pyruvate and ammonia...
  16. Lahmi R, Sendersky E, Perelman A, Hagemann M, Forchhammer K, Schwarz R. Alanine dehydrogenase activity is required for adequate progression of phycobilisome degradation during nitrogen starvation in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:5258-65 pubmed
    ..The phenotype of the new mutant, AldOmega, results from inactivation of ald (encoding alanine dehydrogenase). AldOmega is deficient in transcription induction of a number of genes during nitrogen starvation...
  17. Schr der I, Vadas A, Johnson E, Lim S, Monbouquette H. A novel archaeal alanine dehydrogenase homologous to ornithine cyclodeaminase and mu-crystallin. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:7680-9 pubmed publisher
    A novel alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH) showing no significant amino acid sequence homology with previously known bacterial AlaDHs was purified to homogeneity from the soluble fraction of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Archaeoglobus ..
  18. Tan L, Musa A, Lee Y. Determination of ammonium ion using a reagentless amperometric biosensor based on immobilized alanine dehydrogenase. Sensors (Basel). 2011;11:9344-60 pubmed publisher
    The use of the enzyme alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH) for the determination of ammonium ion (NH(4)(+)) usually requires the addition of pyruvate substrate and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) simultaneously to effect the ..
  19. Jeong J, Baek E, Kim S, Choi J, Oh J. Regulation of the ald gene encoding alanine dehydrogenase by AldR in Mycobacterium smegmatis. J Bacteriol. 2013;195:3610-20 pubmed publisher
    The regulatory gene aldR was identified 95 bp upstream of the ald gene encoding L-alanine dehydrogenase in Mycobacterium smegmatis. The AldR protein shows sequence similarity to the regulatory proteins of the Lrp/AsnC family...
  20. Siranosian K, Ireton K, Grossman A. Alanine dehydrogenase (ald) is required for normal sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:6789-96 pubmed
    ..The ski22::Tn917lac insertion mutation was in ald, the gene encoding alanine dehydrogenase. Alanine dehydrogenase catalyzes the deamination of alanine to pyruvate and ammonia and is needed for ..
  21. Denger K, Smits T, Cook A. Genome-enabled analysis of the utilization of taurine as sole source of carbon or of nitrogen by Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1. Microbiology. 2006;152:3197-206 pubmed
    ..No evidence for a significant role of this pathway, or of the corresponding alanine dehydrogenase (Ald), was obtained for R. sphaeroides 2.4.1. The anaplerotic pathway needed under these conditions in R...
  22. Li Y, Parsons R, Day D, Bergersen F. Reassessment of major products of N2 fixation by bacteroids from soybean root nodules. Microbiology. 2002;148:1959-66 pubmed
    ..Cell-free extracts of the bacteroids as used in the 15N experiments contained alanine dehydrogenase and were able to produce alanine from pyruvate and...
  23. Hols P, Kleerebezem M, Schanck A, Ferain T, Hugenholtz J, Delcour J, et al. Conversion of Lactococcus lactis from homolactic to homoalanine fermentation through metabolic engineering. Nat Biotechnol. 1999;17:588-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We rerouted the carbon flux toward alanine by expressing the Bacillus sphaericus alanine dehydrogenase (L-AlaDH; pyruvate + NADH + NH4+ -->L-alanine + NAD+ + H2O)...
  24. Smith N, Mayhew M, Robinson H, Heroux A, Charlton D, Holden M, et al. Crystallization and phasing of alanine dehydrogenase from Archaeoglobus fulgidus. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2003;59:2328-31 pubmed
    b>Alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH) from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus is a dimer of 35 kDa chains...
  25. ANTHONY K, Strych U, Yeung K, Shoen C, Perez O, Krause K, et al. New classes of alanine racemase inhibitors identified by high-throughput screening show antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20374 pubmed publisher
    ..tuberculosis and minimally cytotoxic against mammalian cells. This study highlights the feasibility of obtaining novel alanine racemase inhibitor lead compounds by high-throughput screening for development of new anti-TB agents. ..
  26. Ye W, Huo G, Chen J, Liu F, Yin J, Yang L, et al. Heterologous expression of the Bacillus subtilis (natto) alanine dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis. Microbiol Res. 2010;165:268-75 pubmed publisher
    ..is to change the alanine production of Lactic acid bacteria by expression of Bacillus subtilis (natto) alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH), the gene that is not present in Lactic acid. B...
  27. Andersen A, Andersen P, Ljungqvist L. Structure and function of a 40,000-molecular-weight protein antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infect Immun. 1992;60:2317-23 pubmed
    ..On the basis of sequence homology and functional analyses, we demonstrated that the protein is an L-alanine dehydrogenase (EC 1.4.1.1). The enzyme was demonstrated in M...
  28. Tripathi S, Ramachandran R. Crystal structures of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis secretory antigen alanine dehydrogenase (Rv2780) in apo and ternary complex forms captures "open" and "closed" enzyme conformations. Proteins. 2008;72:1089-95 pubmed publisher
  29. Kumar S, Bourdès A, Poole P. De novo alanine synthesis by bacteroids of Mesorhizobium loti is not required for nitrogen transfer in the determinate nodules of Lotus corniculatus. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:5493-5 pubmed
    Deletion of both alanine dehydrogenase genes (aldA) in Mesorhizobium loti resulted in the loss of AldA enzyme activity from cultured bacteria and bacteroids but had no effect on the symbiotic performance of Lotus corniculatus plants...
  30. Burk D, Hwang J, Kwok E, Marrone L, Goodfellow V, Dmitrienko G, et al. Structural studies of the final enzyme in the alpha-aminoadipate pathway-saccharopine dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Mol Biol. 2007;373:745-54 pubmed
    ..The structure reveals homology to alanine dehydrogenase, despite low primary sequence similarity...
  31. Dey A, Shree S, Pandey S, Tripathi R, Ramachandran R. Crystal Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv AldR (Rv2779c), a Regulator of the ald Gene: DNA BINDING AND IDENTIFICATION OF SMALL MOLECULE INHIBITORS. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:11967-80 pubmed publisher
    ..to the ald gene that is highly up-regulated in nutrient-starved tuberculosis models and codes for l-alanine dehydrogenase (MtbAld; Rv2780)...
  32. Straussberg R, Strauss A. A novel mutation of late-onset very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Pediatr Neurol. 2002;27:136-7 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that this missense substitution caused a mild change of enzyme function correlating with the mild clinical features and, thus, favoring a genotype-phenotype correlation. ..
  33. Hutter B, Singh M. Host vector system for high-level expression and purification of recombinant, enzymatically active alanine dehydrogenase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Gene. 1998;212:21-9 pubmed
    The 40-kDa antigen of M. tuberculosis, which is an alanine dehydrogenase, is a species-specific antigen that is potentially useful for strain identification...
  34. Cerqueda García D, Martínez Castilla L, Falcón L, Delaye L. Metabolic analysis of Chlorobium chlorochromatii CaD3 reveals clues of the symbiosis in 'Chlorochromatium aggregatum'. ISME J. 2014;8:991-8 pubmed publisher
    ..chlorochromatii CaD3 is in a condition of nitrogen excess and ammonia is assimilated by the alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH) pathway...
  35. Jackson J, Peake S, White S. Structure and mechanism of proton-translocating transhydrogenase. FEBS Lett. 1999;464:1-8 pubmed
  36. Lu X, Yi Q, Zhang G, Zhu X, Zhou H, Dong H. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of an alanine dehydrogenase from Bacillus megaterium WSH-002. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2013;69:934-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Alanine dehydrogenase (L-AlaDH) from Bacillus megaterium WSH-002 catalyses the NAD?-dependent interconversion of L-alanine and pyruvate...
  37. Chavadi S, Wooff E, Coldham N, Sritharan M, Hewinson R, Gordon S, et al. Global effects of inactivation of the pyruvate kinase gene in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:7545-53 pubmed publisher
    ..tuberculosis DeltapykA Deltaald double mutant showed little additional phenotypic effect. Overall, these data show that the loss of the pykA gene has powerful, global effects on proteins associated with central metabolism. ..
  38. Diggle C, Cotton N, Grimley R, Quirk P, Thomas C, Jackson J. Conformational dynamics of a mobile loop in the NAD(H)-binding subunit of proton-translocating transhydrogenases from Rhodospirillum rubrum and Escherichia coli. Eur J Biochem. 1995;232:315-26 pubmed
    ..b>Alanine dehydrogenase, which is very similar in sequence to the NAD(H)-binding subunit of transhydrogenase, lacks this segment...
  39. Lerchner A, Jarasch A, Skerra A. Engineering of alanine dehydrogenase from Bacillus subtilis for novel cofactor specificity. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2016;63:616-624 pubmed publisher
    The l-alanine dehydrogenase of Bacillus subtilis (BasAlaDH), which is strictly dependent on NADH as redox cofactor, efficiently catalyzes the reductive amination of pyruvate to l-alanine using ammonia as amino group donor...
  40. Baysal S, Uslan A, Pala H, Tunçoku O. Encapsulation of PEG-urease/PEG-AlaDH within sheep erythrocytes and determination of the system's activity in lowering blood levels of urea in animal models. Artif Cells Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol. 2007;35:391-403 pubmed
    ..7-61.6 mg/L in the blood urea level, and created no significant increase in the blood ammonia levels. No antigenic effect was observed for the PEG-enzyme preparations in the immunological test carried out. ..
  41. Hamarat Baysal S, Uslan A. Encapsulation of PEG-urease/PEG-AlaDH enzyme system in erythrocyte. Artif Cells Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol. 2001;29:405-12 pubmed
    ..PEG-urease/PEG-AlaDH were encapsulated in erythrocyte (1/1)(v/v) by using slow dialysis methods. The activity of enzyme system, encapsulation yield and hemogram analysis were determined for each sample. ..
  42. Starck J, Kallenius G, Marklund B, Andersson D, Akerlund T. Comparative proteome analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis grown under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Microbiology. 2004;150:3821-9 pubmed
    ..ScoB), mycolic acid synthase (CmaA2), thioredoxin (TrxB2), beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase (KasB), l-alanine dehydrogenase (Ald), Rv2005c, Rv2629, Rv0560c, Rv2185c and Rv3866...
  43. Saxena S, Devi P, Soni V, Yogeeswari P, Sriram D. Identification of novel inhibitors against Mycobacterium tuberculosis L-alanine dehydrogenase (MTB-AlaDH) through structure-based virtual screening. J Mol Graph Model. 2014;47:37-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The Rv2780 (ald) gene that codes for L-alanine dehydrogenase (L-AlaDH) enzyme catalyzes reversible oxidative deamination of L-alanine to pyruvate and is overexpressed ..
  44. Scandurra G, Ryan A, Pinto R, Britton W, Triccas J. Contribution of L-alanine dehydrogenase to in vivo persistence and protective efficacy of the BCG vaccine. Microbiol Immunol. 2006;50:805-10 pubmed
    ..we demonstrate that L-alanine catabolism can be conferred on BCG by introduction of the gene encoding L-alanine dehydrogenase (Ald) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
  45. Rosenkrands I, Slayden R, Crawford J, Aagaard C, Barry C, Andersen P. Hypoxic response of Mycobacterium tuberculosis studied by metabolic labeling and proteome analysis of cellular and extracellular proteins. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:3485-91 pubmed
    ..These results extend our understanding of the hypoxic response in M. tuberculosis and potentially provide important insights into the physiology of the latent bacilli. ..
  46. Wen J, Li Z, He G, Xu S, Zhao B, Zhu X, et al. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray study of alanine dehydrogenase from Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2013;69:1227-30 pubmed publisher
    b>Alanine dehydrogenase (OF4Ald) from the alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 was expressed and purified with a His6 tag in a form suitable for X-ray crystallographic analysis...
  47. Baker P. From hyperthermophiles to psychrophiles: the structural basis of temperature stability of the amino acid dehydrogenases. Biochem Soc Trans. 2004;32:264-8 pubmed
  48. Jojima T, Fujii M, Mori E, Inui M, Yukawa H. Engineering of sugar metabolism of Corynebacterium glutamicum for production of amino acid L-alanine under oxygen deprivation. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;87:159-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The genes associated with production of organic acids in C. glutamicum were inactivated and the alanine dehydrogenase gene (alaD) from Lysinibacillus sphaericus was overexpressed to direct carbon flux from organic acids to ..
  49. Zhou L, Deng C, Cui W, Liu Z, Zhou Z. Efficient L-Alanine Production by a Thermo-Regulated Switch in Escherichia coli. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2016;178:324-37 pubmed publisher
    ..production, a thermo-regulated genetic switch was designed to dynamically control the expression of L-alanine dehydrogenase (alaD) from Geobacillus stearothermophilus on the Escherichia coli B0016-060BC chromosome...
  50. Roberts E, Clark A, Friedman R. Bacterial luciferase is naturally destabilized in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and can be used to monitor changes in gene expression. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2005;243:243-9 pubmed
    ..The inducible/repressible alanine dehydrogenase promoter of M...
  51. Cheng Z, Sun L, He J, Gong W. Crystal structure of human micro-crystallin complexed with NADPH. Protein Sci. 2007;16:329-35 pubmed
    ..of human CRYM's bacterial homolog Pseudomonas putida ornithine cyclodeaminase and Archaeoglobus fulgidus alanine dehydrogenase have been available, but no CRYM structure has been reported...
  52. Chen J, Alexander D, Behr M, Liu J. Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccines exhibit defects in alanine and serine catabolism. Infect Immun. 2003;71:708-16 pubmed
    ..All BCG strains are unable to catabolize L-alanine or D-alanine due to a frameshift mutation in the L-alanine dehydrogenase gene (ald)...
  53. Hamarat Baysal S, Uslan A. In vitro study of urease/AlaDH enzyme system encapsulated into human erythrocytes and research into its medical applications. Artif Cells Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol. 2002;30:71-7 pubmed
    ..Investigated results suggest that loaded enzyme systems can be used as potential carrier systems for the removal of high levels of urea from blood. ..
  54. Galkin A, Kulakova L, Ashida H, Sawa Y, Esaki N. Cold-adapted alanine dehydrogenases from two antarctic bacterial strains: gene cloning, protein characterization, and comparison with mesophilic and thermophilic counterparts. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1999;65:4014-20 pubmed
    ..Homology-based structural models of various AlaDHs, including the two psychotropic AlaDHs, were constructed. The thermal instability of SheAlaDH and CarAlaDH may result from relatively low numbers of salt bridges in these proteins...
  55. Oudega B, Vandenbol M, Koningstein G. A 12 kb nucleotide sequence containing the alanine dehydrogenase gene at 279 degrees on the Bacillus subtilis chromosome. Microbiology. 1997;143 ( Pt 5):1489-91 pubmed
    ..The products of two other genes (yukK and yukL) showed significant similarity to known proteins present in databases, e.g. pyoverdin synthase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and pristinamycin synthase D of Streptomyces pristinaespiralis. ..
  56. Kuroda S, Tanizawa K, Sakamoto Y, Tanaka H, Soda K. Alanine dehydrogenases from two Bacillus species with distinct thermostabilities: molecular cloning, DNA and protein sequence determination, and structural comparison with other NAD(P)(+)-dependent dehydrogenases. Biochemistry. 1990;29:1009-15 pubmed
    The gene encoding alanine dehydrogenase (EC 1.4.1.1) from a mesophile, Bacillus sphaericus, was cloned, and its complete DNA sequence was determined. In addition, the same gene from a moderate thermophile, B...
  57. Chiriac M, Lupan I, Popa F, Palibroda N, Popescu O. Enzymatic synthesis of some (15)N-labelled L-amino acids. Isotopes Environ Health Stud. 2010;46:249-54 pubmed publisher
    ..15)N. All reactions are inexpensive and easy to perform on a synthetically useful scale (1-10g) giving high yields of l-amino acids. The (15)N isotope content was determined by mass spectrometry. ..
  58. Tripathi S, Ramachandran R. Overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Rv2780 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2008;64:367-70 pubmed publisher
    Rv2780, an alanine dehydrogenase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtAlaDH), catalyzes the NAD-dependent interconversion of alanine and pyruvate...
  59. Smith G, Lee S, Reilly K, Eiteman M, Altman E. Fed-batch two-phase production of alanine by a metabolically engineered Escherichia coli. Biotechnol Lett. 2006;28:1695-700 pubmed
    ..pyruvate oxidase, lactate dehydogenase, components of the pyruvate dehydogenase complex and over-produced alanine dehydrogenase (ALD)...
  60. Forde J, Oakey L, Jennings L, Mulcahy P. Fundamental differences in bioaffinity of amino acid dehydrogenases for N6- and S6-linked immobilized cofactors using kinetic-based enzyme-capture strategies. Anal Biochem. 2005;338:102-12 pubmed
    ..The molecular basis for this is discussed together with the implications for future development and application of KBECS. ..
  61. Acosta H, Dubourdieu M, Quiñones W, Caceres A, Bringaud F, Concepcion J. Pyruvate phosphate dikinase and pyrophosphate metabolism in the glycosome of Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2004;138:347-56 pubmed
    ..Several pyruvate-consuming activities, in particular alanine dehydrogenase (ADH) and pyruvate carboxylase (PC), were detected in the glycosomal fraction...
  62. Franklin F, Venables W, Wijsman H. Genetic studies of D-alanine-dehydrogenase-less mutants of Escherichia coli K12. Genet Res. 1981;38:197-208 pubmed