endoderm

Summary

Summary: The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.

Top Publications

  1. Aksoy I, Jauch R, Chen J, Dyla M, Divakar U, Bogu G, et al. Oct4 switches partnering from Sox2 to Sox17 to reinterpret the enhancer code and specify endoderm. EMBO J. 2013;32:938-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This work provides insights in understanding cell fate transcriptional regulation by highlighting the direct link between the DNA sequence of an enhancer and a developmental outcome...
  2. Grabarek J, Plusa B. Live imaging of primitive endoderm precursors in the mouse blastocyst. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;916:275-85 pubmed publisher
    The separation of two populations of cells-primitive endoderm and epiblast-within the inner cell mass (ICM) of the mammalian blastocyst is a crucial event during preimplantation development...
  3. Arkell R, Tam P. Initiating head development in mouse embryos: integrating signalling and transcriptional activity. Open Biol. 2012;2:120030 pubmed publisher
    ..Beyond this, additional tissue interactions continue to support the growth, regionalization, differentiation and morphogenesis required for the elaboration of the structure recognizable as the embryonic head...
  4. Lighthouse J, Zhang L, Hsieh J, Rosenquist T, Holdener B. MESD is essential for apical localization of megalin/LRP2 in the visceral endoderm. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:577-88 pubmed publisher
    ..that MESD was essential for the apical localization of the related LRP2 (Megalin/MEG) in the visceral endoderm, resulting in impaired endocytic function...
  5. Sánchez Arrones L, Stern C, Bovolenta P, Puelles L. Sharpening of the anterior neural border in the chick by rostral endoderm signalling. Development. 2012;139:1034-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that concurrent signals from the endodermal layer are necessary to position and sharpen the neural border, and suggest that FGF8 might be a component of this signalling...
  6. Schrode N, Saiz N, Di Talia S, Hadjantonakis A. GATA6 levels modulate primitive endoderm cell fate choice and timing in the mouse blastocyst. Dev Cell. 2014;29:454-67 pubmed publisher
    ..of the inner cell mass (ICM) of the mouse blastocyst differentiate into the pluripotent epiblast or the primitive endoderm (PrE), marked by the transcription factors NANOG and GATA6, respectively...
  7. Cho L, Wamaitha S, Tsai I, Artus J, Sherwood R, Pedersen R, et al. Conversion from mouse embryonic to extra-embryonic endoderm stem cells reveals distinct differentiation capacities of pluripotent stem cell states. Development. 2012;139:2866-77 pubmed publisher
    The inner cell mass of the mouse pre-implantation blastocyst comprises epiblast progenitor and primitive endoderm cells of which cognate embryonic (mESCs) or extra-embryonic (XEN) stem cell lines can be derived...
  8. Lie K, Tuch B, Sidhu K. Suppression of NANOG induces efficient differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to pancreatic endoderm. Pancreas. 2012;41:54-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the effect of NANOG gene suppression in differentiating hESCs as a mean of increasing the efficiency with which endoderm-derived pancreatic cells could be generated.
  9. Kruithof de Julio M, Alvarez M, Galli A, Chu J, Price S, Califano A, et al. Regulation of extra-embryonic endoderm stem cell differentiation by Nodal and Cripto signaling. Development. 2011;138:3885-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Extra-embryonic endoderm stem (XEN) cells resemble the primitive endoderm of the blastocyst, which normally gives rise to the parietal and ..
  10. Christodoulou C, Longmire T, Shen S, Bourdon A, Sommer C, Gadue P, et al. Mouse ES and iPS cells can form similar definitive endoderm despite differences in imprinted genes. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:2313-25 pubmed publisher
    The directed differentiation of iPS and ES cells into definitive endoderm (DE) would allow the derivation of otherwise inaccessible progenitors for endodermal tissues...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Aksoy I, Jauch R, Chen J, Dyla M, Divakar U, Bogu G, et al. Oct4 switches partnering from Sox2 to Sox17 to reinterpret the enhancer code and specify endoderm. EMBO J. 2013;32:938-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This work provides insights in understanding cell fate transcriptional regulation by highlighting the direct link between the DNA sequence of an enhancer and a developmental outcome...
  2. Grabarek J, Plusa B. Live imaging of primitive endoderm precursors in the mouse blastocyst. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;916:275-85 pubmed publisher
    The separation of two populations of cells-primitive endoderm and epiblast-within the inner cell mass (ICM) of the mammalian blastocyst is a crucial event during preimplantation development...
  3. Arkell R, Tam P. Initiating head development in mouse embryos: integrating signalling and transcriptional activity. Open Biol. 2012;2:120030 pubmed publisher
    ..Beyond this, additional tissue interactions continue to support the growth, regionalization, differentiation and morphogenesis required for the elaboration of the structure recognizable as the embryonic head...
  4. Lighthouse J, Zhang L, Hsieh J, Rosenquist T, Holdener B. MESD is essential for apical localization of megalin/LRP2 in the visceral endoderm. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:577-88 pubmed publisher
    ..that MESD was essential for the apical localization of the related LRP2 (Megalin/MEG) in the visceral endoderm, resulting in impaired endocytic function...
  5. Sánchez Arrones L, Stern C, Bovolenta P, Puelles L. Sharpening of the anterior neural border in the chick by rostral endoderm signalling. Development. 2012;139:1034-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that concurrent signals from the endodermal layer are necessary to position and sharpen the neural border, and suggest that FGF8 might be a component of this signalling...
  6. Schrode N, Saiz N, Di Talia S, Hadjantonakis A. GATA6 levels modulate primitive endoderm cell fate choice and timing in the mouse blastocyst. Dev Cell. 2014;29:454-67 pubmed publisher
    ..of the inner cell mass (ICM) of the mouse blastocyst differentiate into the pluripotent epiblast or the primitive endoderm (PrE), marked by the transcription factors NANOG and GATA6, respectively...
  7. Cho L, Wamaitha S, Tsai I, Artus J, Sherwood R, Pedersen R, et al. Conversion from mouse embryonic to extra-embryonic endoderm stem cells reveals distinct differentiation capacities of pluripotent stem cell states. Development. 2012;139:2866-77 pubmed publisher
    The inner cell mass of the mouse pre-implantation blastocyst comprises epiblast progenitor and primitive endoderm cells of which cognate embryonic (mESCs) or extra-embryonic (XEN) stem cell lines can be derived...
  8. Lie K, Tuch B, Sidhu K. Suppression of NANOG induces efficient differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to pancreatic endoderm. Pancreas. 2012;41:54-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the effect of NANOG gene suppression in differentiating hESCs as a mean of increasing the efficiency with which endoderm-derived pancreatic cells could be generated.
  9. Kruithof de Julio M, Alvarez M, Galli A, Chu J, Price S, Califano A, et al. Regulation of extra-embryonic endoderm stem cell differentiation by Nodal and Cripto signaling. Development. 2011;138:3885-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Extra-embryonic endoderm stem (XEN) cells resemble the primitive endoderm of the blastocyst, which normally gives rise to the parietal and ..
  10. Christodoulou C, Longmire T, Shen S, Bourdon A, Sommer C, Gadue P, et al. Mouse ES and iPS cells can form similar definitive endoderm despite differences in imprinted genes. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:2313-25 pubmed publisher
    The directed differentiation of iPS and ES cells into definitive endoderm (DE) would allow the derivation of otherwise inaccessible progenitors for endodermal tissues...
  11. Stuckey D, Clements M, Di Gregorio A, Senner C, Le Tissier P, Srinivas S, et al. Coordination of cell proliferation and anterior-posterior axis establishment in the mouse embryo. Development. 2011;138:1521-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In the mouse embryo, migration of the anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) to the prospective anterior establishes the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis...
  12. Takaoka K, Yamamoto M, Hamada H. Origin and role of distal visceral endoderm, a group of cells that determines anterior-posterior polarity of the mouse embryo. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:743-52 pubmed publisher
    Anterior-posterior polarity of the mouse embryo has been thought to be established when distal visceral endoderm (DVE) at embryonic day (E) 5.5 migrates toward the future anterior side to form anterior visceral endoderm (AVE)...
  13. Nowotschin S, Costello I, Piliszek A, Kwon G, Mao C, Klein W, et al. The T-box transcription factor Eomesodermin is essential for AVE induction in the mouse embryo. Genes Dev. 2013;27:997-1002 pubmed publisher
    ..The anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) signaling center emerges at the distal tip of the embryo at embryonic day 5...
  14. Miki R, Yoshida T, Murata K, Oki S, Kume K, Kume S. Fate maps of ventral and dorsal pancreatic progenitor cells in early somite stage mouse embryos. Mech Dev. 2012;128:597-609 pubmed publisher
    ..The liver progenitors were confirmed to originate from separate domains at the lateral endoderm and the inner part of the medial AIP as previously reported (Tremblay and Zaret, 2005), which turned out to lie ..
  15. Stringer E, Duluc I, Saandi T, Davidson I, Bialecka M, Sato T, et al. Cdx2 determines the fate of postnatal intestinal endoderm. Development. 2012;139:465-74 pubmed publisher
    ....
  16. Nakanishi N, Renfer E, Technau U, Rentzsch F. Nervous systems of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis are generated by ectoderm and endoderm and shaped by distinct mechanisms. Development. 2012;139:347-57 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to bilaterians, neurons are also generated throughout the endoderm during planula stages...
  17. Katsumoto K, Kume S. Endoderm and mesoderm reciprocal signaling mediated by CXCL12 and CXCR4 regulates the migration of angioblasts and establishes the pancreatic fate. Development. 2011;138:1947-55 pubmed publisher
    ..studies revealed that Lmo2-expressing angioblasts reside in proximity to the somitic mesoderm and the gut endoderm from which pancreatic progenitors arise...
  18. Montanez E, Karaköse E, Tischner D, Villunger A, Fassler R. PINCH-1 promotes Bcl-2-dependent survival signalling and inhibits JNK-mediated apoptosis in the primitive endoderm. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:5233-40 pubmed publisher
    The focal adhesion (FA) protein PINCH-1 is required for the survival of primitive endoderm (PrE) cells. How PINCH-1 regulates this fundamental process is not known...
  19. Wang Y, Tian Y, Morley M, Lu M, DeMayo F, Olson E, et al. Development and regeneration of Sox2+ endoderm progenitors are regulated by a Hdac1/2-Bmp4/Rb1 regulatory pathway. Dev Cell. 2013;24:345-58 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that development of Sox2+ progenitors in the lung endoderm is regulated by histone deacetylases 1 and 2 (Hdac1/2)...
  20. Stern C, Downs K. The hypoblast (visceral endoderm): an evo-devo perspective. Development. 2012;139:1059-69 pubmed publisher
    ..One such tissue, the hypoblast (visceral endoderm in mouse), acquired a role in fixing the body plan: it controls epiblast cell movements leading to primitive ..
  21. Viotti M, Nowotschin S, Hadjantonakis A. Afp::mCherry, a red fluorescent transgenic reporter of the mouse visceral endoderm. Genesis. 2011;49:124-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Afp::mCherry transgenic mice expressed mCherry specifically in the visceral endoderm and its derivatives, including the visceral yolk sac, gut endoderm, fetal liver, and pancreas of the embryo...
  22. Loebel D, Studdert J, Power M, Radziewic T, Jones V, Coultas L, et al. Rhou maintains the epithelial architecture and facilitates differentiation of the foregut endoderm. Development. 2011;138:4511-22 pubmed publisher
    ..In mouse embryos at early-somite to early-organogenesis stages, Rhou is expressed in the columnar endoderm epithelium lining the lateral and ventral wall of the anterior intestinal portal...
  23. Takayama K, Inamura M, Kawabata K, Tashiro K, Katayama K, Sakurai F, et al. Efficient and directive generation of two distinct endoderm lineages from human ESCs and iPSCs by differentiation stage-specific SOX17 transduction. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21780 pubmed publisher
    ..HMG box 17 (SOX17) overexpression in ESCs leads to differentiation of either extraembryonic or definitive endoderm cells, respectively, the mechanism of these distinct results remains unknown...
  24. Li N, Wei C, Olena A, Patton J. Regulation of endoderm formation and left-right asymmetry by miR-92 during early zebrafish development. Development. 2011;138:1817-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression resulted in reduced endoderm formation during gastrulation with consequent cardia and viscera bifida...
  25. Krawchuk D, Honma Yamanaka N, Anani S, Yamanaka Y. FGF4 is a limiting factor controlling the proportions of primitive endoderm and epiblast in the ICM of the mouse blastocyst. Dev Biol. 2013;384:65-71 pubmed publisher
    The primitive endoderm (PE) and epiblast (EPI) are two lineages derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of the E3.5 blastocyst...
  26. Kawamura N, Sun Wada G, Aoyama M, Harada A, Takasuga S, Sasaki T, et al. Delivery of endosomes to lysosomes via microautophagy in the visceral endoderm of mouse embryos. Nat Commun. 2012;3:1071 pubmed publisher
    The differentiation and patterning of murine early embryos are sustained by the visceral endoderm, an epithelial layer of polarised cells that has critical roles in multiple signalling pathways and nutrient uptake...
  27. Brown S, Teo A, Pauklin S, Hannan N, Cho C, Lim B, et al. Activin/Nodal signaling controls divergent transcriptional networks in human embryonic stem cells and in endoderm progenitors. Stem Cells. 2011;29:1176-85 pubmed publisher
    ..to maintain pluripotency of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and to induce their differentiation toward endoderm. However, the mechanisms by which Activin/Nodal signaling achieves these opposite functions remain unclear...
  28. Krupa M, Mazur E, Szczepanska K, Filimonow K, Maleszewski M, Suwinska A. Allocation of inner cells to epiblast vs primitive endoderm in the mouse embryo is biased but not determined by the round of asymmetric divisions (8→16- and 16→32-cells). Dev Biol. 2014;385:136-48 pubmed publisher
    The epiblast (EPI) and the primitive endoderm (PE), which constitute foundations for the future embryo body and yolk sac, build respectively deep and surface layers of the inner cell mass (ICM) of the blastocyst...
  29. Cheng X, Ying L, Lu L, Galvão A, Mills J, Lin H, et al. Self-renewing endodermal progenitor lines generated from human pluripotent stem cells. Cell Stem Cell. 2012;10:371-84 pubmed publisher
    ..EP cell self-renewal in which they display a morphology and gene expression pattern characteristic of definitive endoderm. Upon manipulation of their culture conditions in vitro or transplantation into mice, clonally derived EP cells ..
  30. Tajbakhsh J, Gertych A, Fagg W, Hatada S, Fair J. Early in vitro differentiation of mouse definitive endoderm is not correlated with progressive maturation of nuclear DNA methylation patterns. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21861 pubmed publisher
    ..This concept of tracking epigenetic progression may prove useful in the selection of cell phenotypes for future regenerative medicine applications...
  31. Kubo A, Stull R, Takeuchi M, Bonham K, Gouon Evans V, Sho M, et al. Pdx1 and Ngn3 overexpression enhances pancreatic differentiation of mouse ES cell-derived endoderm population. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24058 pubmed publisher
    ..the differentiation of the β-islet-like cells from murine embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived activin induced-endoderm. Induced overexpression of Pdx1 resulted in a significant upregulation of insulin (Ins1 and Ins2), and other ..
  32. Hiramatsu R, Matsuoka T, Kimura Yoshida C, Han S, Mochida K, Adachi T, et al. External mechanical cues trigger the establishment of the anterior-posterior axis in early mouse embryos. Dev Cell. 2013;27:131-144 pubmed publisher
    Mouse anterior-posterior axis polarization is preceded by formation of the distal visceral endoderm (DVE) by unknown mechanisms...
  33. Trichas G, Smith A, White N, Wilkins V, Watanabe T, Moore A, et al. Multi-cellular rosettes in the mouse visceral endoderm facilitate the ordered migration of anterior visceral endoderm cells. PLoS Biol. 2012;10:e1001256 pubmed publisher
    The visceral endoderm (VE) is a simple epithelium that forms the outer layer of the egg-cylinder stage mouse embryo. The anterior visceral endoderm (AVE), a specialised subset of VE cells, is responsible for specifying anterior pattern...
  34. Xu C, Fan Z, Muller P, Fogley R, DiBiase A, Trompouki E, et al. Nanog-like regulates endoderm formation through the Mxtx2-Nodal pathway. Dev Cell. 2012;22:625-38 pubmed publisher
    ..the role of Nanog in vivo, we identified a zebrafish Nanog ortholog and found that its knockdown impaired endoderm formation...
  35. Sui L, Bouwens L, Mfopou J. Signaling pathways during maintenance and definitive endoderm differentiation of embryonic stem cells. Int J Dev Biol. 2013;57:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we discuss and compare the role of the relevant signaling pathways and their crosstalk during undifferentiated growth and during the endoderm differentiation of mouse and human ESCs.
  36. Lavial F, Bessonnard S, Ohnishi Y, Tsumura A, Chandrashekran A, Fenwick M, et al. Bmi1 facilitates primitive endoderm formation by stabilizing Gata6 during early mouse development. Genes Dev. 2012;26:1445-58 pubmed publisher
    The transcription factors Nanog and Gata6 are critical to specify the epiblast versus primitive endoderm (PrE) lineages...
  37. Tahamtani Y, Azarnia M, Farrokhi A, Sharifi Zarchi A, Aghdami N, Baharvand H. Treatment of human embryonic stem cells with different combinations of priming and inducing factors toward definitive endoderm. Stem Cells Dev. 2013;22:1419-32 pubmed publisher
    Despite the enormous progress in studying definitive endoderm (DE) differentiation from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), none of the reported protocols have produced a universal, cost-effective, and competent DE with the capability to ..
  38. Sethi A, Wikramanayake R, Angerer R, Range R, Angerer L. Sequential signaling crosstalk regulates endomesoderm segregation in sea urchin embryos. Science. 2012;335:590-3 pubmed publisher
    The segregation of embryonic endomesoderm into separate endoderm and mesoderm fates is not well understood in deuterostomes...
  39. Jiang Z, Yu N, Kuang P, Chen M, Shao F, Martin G, et al. Trinucleotide repeat containing 6a (Tnrc6a)-mediated microRNA function is required for development of yolk sac endoderm. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:5979-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that Tnrc6a, also known as GW182, is selectively expressed in the yolk sac endoderm and that gene trap disruption of GW182 leads to growth arrest and apoptosis...
  40. El Hagrasy M, Shimizu E, Saito M, Yamaguchi Y, Tamiya E. Discrimination of primitive endoderm in embryoid bodies by Raman microspectroscopy. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2012;402:1073-81 pubmed publisher
    ..aggregated embryonic stem (ES) cells, are capable of differentiating into all three germ layers, including the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm...
  41. Artus J, Douvaras P, Piliszek A, Isern J, Baron M, Hadjantonakis A. BMP4 signaling directs primitive endoderm-derived XEN cells to an extraembryonic visceral endoderm identity. Dev Biol. 2012;361:245-62 pubmed publisher
    The visceral endoderm (VE) is an epithelial tissue in the early postimplantation mouse embryo that encapsulates the pluripotent epiblast distally and the extraembryonic ectoderm proximally...
  42. Uosaki H, Andersen P, Shenje L, Fernandez L, Christiansen S, Kwon C. Direct contact with endoderm-like cells efficiently induces cardiac progenitors from mouse and human pluripotent stem cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46413 pubmed publisher
    ..However, available methods to induce CPCs are not efficient or require high-cost cytokines with extensive optimization due to cell line variations...
  43. Okegbe T, Dinardo S. The endoderm specifies the mesodermal niche for the germline in Drosophila via Delta-Notch signaling. Development. 2011;138:1259-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, our results indicate that adjacent endoderm is the source of the Notch-activating ligand Delta...
  44. Saiz N, Grabarek J, Sabherwal N, Papalopulu N, Plusa B. Atypical protein kinase C couples cell sorting with primitive endoderm maturation in the mouse blastocyst. Development. 2013;140:4311-22 pubmed publisher
    During mouse pre-implantation development, extra-embryonic primitive endoderm (PrE) and pluripotent epiblast precursors are specified in the inner cell mass (ICM) of the early blastocyst in a 'salt and pepper' manner, and are subsequently ..
  45. Raikwar S, Zavazava N. Spontaneous in vivo differentiation of embryonic stem cell-derived pancreatic endoderm-like cells corrects hyperglycemia in diabetic mice. Transplantation. 2011;91:11-20 pubmed
    ..Here, we investigated whether embryonic stem (ES) cells can be exploited for the derivation of IPCs, and whether their transplantation can correct hyperglycemia in diabetic mice...
  46. Peter I, Davidson E. A gene regulatory network controlling the embryonic specification of endoderm. Nature. 2011;474:635-9 pubmed publisher
    Specification of endoderm is the prerequisite for gut formation in the embryogenesis of bilaterian organisms...
  47. Teo A, Ali Y, Wong K, Chipperfield H, Sadasivam A, Poobalan Y, et al. Activin and BMP4 synergistically promote formation of definitive endoderm in human embryonic stem cells. Stem Cells. 2012;30:631-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Numerous reports demonstrate their differentiation into definitive endoderm (DE) cells, the germ layer from which pancreatic β cells and hepatocytes arise, solely from exposure to a high ..
  48. Wang P, Rodriguez R, Wang J, Ghodasara A, Kim S. Targeting SOX17 in human embryonic stem cells creates unique strategies for isolating and analyzing developing endoderm. Cell Stem Cell. 2011;8:335-46 pubmed publisher
    ..stem cells (hESCs) can provide insights into development of inaccessible human tissues such as embryonic endoderm. Progress in this area has been hindered by a lack of methods for isolating endodermal cells and tracing fates of ..
  49. Li F, He Z, Li Y, Liu P, Chen F, Wang M, et al. Combined activin A/LiCl/Noggin treatment improves production of mouse embryonic stem cell-derived definitive endoderm cells. J Cell Biochem. 2011;112:1022-34 pubmed publisher
    Induction of definitive endoderm (DE) cells is a prerequisite for the whole process of embryonic stem (ES) cells differentiating into hepatic or pancreatic progenitor cells...
  50. Jiang W, Wang J, Zhang Y. Histone H3K27me3 demethylases KDM6A and KDM6B modulate definitive endoderm differentiation from human ESCs by regulating WNT signaling pathway. Cell Res. 2013;23:122-30 pubmed publisher
    Definitive endoderm differentiation is crucial for generating respiratory and gastrointestinal organs including pancreas and liver. However, whether epigenetic regulation contributes to this process is unknown...
  51. Xu X, Browning V, Odorico J. Activin, BMP and FGF pathways cooperate to promote endoderm and pancreatic lineage cell differentiation from human embryonic stem cells. Mech Dev. 2011;128:412-27 pubmed publisher
    ..out in serum-free chemically-defined media (CDM) and results in reliable and robust induction of pancreatic endoderm cells, marked by PDX1, and cell clusters co-expressing markers characteristic of beta cells, including PDX1 and ..
  52. Dalgin G, Ward A, Hao L, Beattie C, Nechiporuk A, Prince V. Zebrafish mnx1 controls cell fate choice in the developing endocrine pancreas. Development. 2011;138:4597-608 pubmed publisher
    ..In all vertebrate models studied, an initial precursor population of Pdx1-expressing endoderm cells gives rise to separate endocrine and exocrine cell lineages...
  53. Genikhovich G, Technau U. Complex functions of Mef2 splice variants in the differentiation of endoderm and of a neuronal cell type in a sea anemone. Development. 2011;138:4911-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that the involvement of alternative splice variants of Mef2 in endomesoderm and neuron differentiation predates the cnidarian-bilaterian split...
  54. Sharivkin R, Walker M, Soen Y. Proteomics-based dissection of human endoderm progenitors by differential cell capture on antibody array. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2012;11:586-95 pubmed publisher
    ..alleviates these difficulties and demonstrate its effectiveness in fractionating heterogeneous cultures of early endoderm derived from human embryonic stem cells...
  55. Nguyen G, Gokhan S, Molero A, Mehler M. Selective roles of normal and mutant huntingtin in neural induction and early neurogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64368 pubmed publisher
    ..These cumulative observations indicate that Htt is required for multiple stages of neural induction, whereas mHtt enhances this process and promotes precocious neurogenesis and oligodendrocyte progenitor cell elaboration...
  56. Saund R, Kanai Azuma M, Kanai Y, Kim I, Lucero M, Saijoh Y. Gut endoderm is involved in the transfer of left-right asymmetry from the node to the lateral plate mesoderm in the mouse embryo. Development. 2012;139:2426-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that endoderm might play a role in this process because it is tightly apposed to the node and covers the outer surface of the ..
  57. Swartz M, Nguyen V, McCarthy N, Eberhart J. Hh signaling regulates patterning and morphogenesis of the pharyngeal arch-derived skeleton. Dev Biol. 2012;369:65-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Through transplant analyses, we find two additional requirements for Hh signaling. The endoderm requires the reception of Hh signals for proper morphogenetic movements of the pharyngeal arches and the neural ..
  58. Price F, Yin H, Jones A, van Ijcken W, Grosveld F, Rudnicki M. Canonical Wnt signaling induces a primitive endoderm metastable state in mouse embryonic stem cells. Stem Cells. 2013;31:752-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that activated canonical Wnt signaling induced the formation of a reversible metastable primitive endoderm state in mESC...
  59. Mathew S, Jaramillo M, Zhang X, Zhang L, Soto Gutierrez A, Banerjee I. Analysis of alternative signaling pathways of endoderm induction of human embryonic stem cells identifies context specific differences. BMC Syst Biol. 2012;6:154 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a lot of interest in inducing hESCs to an endoderm fate which serves as a pathway towards more functional cell types like the pancreatic cells...
  60. Kang M, Piliszek A, Artus J, Hadjantonakis A. FGF4 is required for lineage restriction and salt-and-pepper distribution of primitive endoderm factors but not their initial expression in the mouse. Development. 2013;140:267-79 pubmed publisher
    The emergence of pluripotent epiblast (EPI) and primitive endoderm (PrE) lineages within the inner cell mass (ICM) of the mouse blastocyst involves initial co-expression of lineage-associated markers followed by mutual exclusion and salt-..
  61. Ogaki S, Harada S, Shiraki N, Kume K, Kume S. An expression profile analysis of ES cell-derived definitive endodermal cells and Pdx1-expressing cells. BMC Dev Biol. 2011;11:13 pubmed publisher
    We developed an efficient in vitro method to differentiate mouse ES cells into the definitive endoderm (DE) and then Pdx1-expressing pancreatic lineages using mesodermal-derived supporting cells, M15...
  62. Yu P, Pan G, Yu J, Thomson J. FGF2 sustains NANOG and switches the outcome of BMP4-induced human embryonic stem cell differentiation. Cell Stem Cell. 2011;8:326-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results demonstrate that FGF2 signaling switches the outcome of BMP4-induced differentiation of human ESCs by maintaining NANOG levels through the MEK-ERK pathway...