ectoderm

Summary

Summary: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.

Top Publications

  1. Patthey C, Gunhaga L. Specification and regionalisation of the neural plate border. Eur J Neurosci. 2011;34:1516-28 pubmed publisher
    During early vertebrate development, the embryonic ectoderm becomes subdivided into neural, neural plate border (border) and epidermal regions...
  2. Chen J, Luo Y, Su Y. The dynamic gene expression patterns of transcription factors constituting the sea urchin aboral ectoderm gene regulatory network. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:250-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The current ectoderm GRN model for the sea urchin embryo includes pregastrular specification functions in the oral (OE) and aboral ..
  3. Wong Y, Behringer R, Kwan K. Smad1/Smad5 signaling in limb ectoderm functions redundantly and is required for interdigital programmed cell death. Dev Biol. 2012;363:247-57 pubmed publisher
    ..in BMP-regulated AER functions in limb development, we inactivated Smad1 and Smad5 selectively in AER and ventral ectoderm of developing limb, using Smad1 or/and Smad5 floxed alleles and an En1(Cre/+) knock-in allele...
  4. Home P, Ray S, Dutta D, Bronshteyn I, Larson M, Paul S. GATA3 is selectively expressed in the trophectoderm of peri-implantation embryo and directly regulates Cdx2 gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:28729-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate a novel function of GATA3, in which it is selectively expressed in TE, regulates expression of key genes in TE lineage, and is involved in morula to blastocyst transformation...
  5. Curtin E, Hickey G, Kamel G, Davidson A, Liao E. Zebrafish wnt9a is expressed in pharyngeal ectoderm and is required for palate and lower jaw development. Mech Dev. 2011;128:104-15 pubmed publisher
    ....
  6. Hu D, Marcucio R. Neural crest cells pattern the surface cephalic ectoderm during FEZ formation. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:732-40 pubmed publisher
    Multiple fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) ligands are expressed in the forebrain and facial ectoderm, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is expressed in the facial ectoderm...
  7. Wang R, Liu X, Küster Schöck E, Fagotto F. Proteomic analysis of differences in ectoderm and mesoderm membranes by DiGE. J Proteome Res. 2012;11:4575-93 pubmed publisher
    b>Ectoderm and mesoderm can be considered as prototypes for epithelial and mesenchymal cell types...
  8. Marikawa Y, Alarcon V. Establishment of trophectoderm and inner cell mass lineages in the mouse embryo. Mol Reprod Dev. 2009;76:1019-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The unique mode of cell lineage specification in the mouse embryo is further discussed in comparison with the formation of initial cell lineages, namely the three germ layers, in non-mammalian embryos...
  9. Pieper M, Ahrens K, Rink E, Peter A, Schlosser G. Differential distribution of competence for panplacodal and neural crest induction to non-neural and neural ectoderm. Development. 2012;139:1175-87 pubmed publisher
    ..crest cells arise from a common precursor at the neural plate border or whether placodes arise from non-neural ectoderm and neural crest from neural ectoderm...
  10. Jagtap S, Meganathan K, Gaspar J, Wagh V, Winkler J, Hescheler J, et al. Cytosine arabinoside induces ectoderm and inhibits mesoderm expression in human embryonic stem cells during multilineage differentiation. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;162:1743-56 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was undertaken to explore the adverse effects of cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) on randomly differentiated hESCs...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Patthey C, Gunhaga L. Specification and regionalisation of the neural plate border. Eur J Neurosci. 2011;34:1516-28 pubmed publisher
    During early vertebrate development, the embryonic ectoderm becomes subdivided into neural, neural plate border (border) and epidermal regions...
  2. Chen J, Luo Y, Su Y. The dynamic gene expression patterns of transcription factors constituting the sea urchin aboral ectoderm gene regulatory network. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:250-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The current ectoderm GRN model for the sea urchin embryo includes pregastrular specification functions in the oral (OE) and aboral ..
  3. Wong Y, Behringer R, Kwan K. Smad1/Smad5 signaling in limb ectoderm functions redundantly and is required for interdigital programmed cell death. Dev Biol. 2012;363:247-57 pubmed publisher
    ..in BMP-regulated AER functions in limb development, we inactivated Smad1 and Smad5 selectively in AER and ventral ectoderm of developing limb, using Smad1 or/and Smad5 floxed alleles and an En1(Cre/+) knock-in allele...
  4. Home P, Ray S, Dutta D, Bronshteyn I, Larson M, Paul S. GATA3 is selectively expressed in the trophectoderm of peri-implantation embryo and directly regulates Cdx2 gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:28729-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate a novel function of GATA3, in which it is selectively expressed in TE, regulates expression of key genes in TE lineage, and is involved in morula to blastocyst transformation...
  5. Curtin E, Hickey G, Kamel G, Davidson A, Liao E. Zebrafish wnt9a is expressed in pharyngeal ectoderm and is required for palate and lower jaw development. Mech Dev. 2011;128:104-15 pubmed publisher
    ....
  6. Hu D, Marcucio R. Neural crest cells pattern the surface cephalic ectoderm during FEZ formation. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:732-40 pubmed publisher
    Multiple fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) ligands are expressed in the forebrain and facial ectoderm, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is expressed in the facial ectoderm...
  7. Wang R, Liu X, Küster Schöck E, Fagotto F. Proteomic analysis of differences in ectoderm and mesoderm membranes by DiGE. J Proteome Res. 2012;11:4575-93 pubmed publisher
    b>Ectoderm and mesoderm can be considered as prototypes for epithelial and mesenchymal cell types...
  8. Marikawa Y, Alarcon V. Establishment of trophectoderm and inner cell mass lineages in the mouse embryo. Mol Reprod Dev. 2009;76:1019-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The unique mode of cell lineage specification in the mouse embryo is further discussed in comparison with the formation of initial cell lineages, namely the three germ layers, in non-mammalian embryos...
  9. Pieper M, Ahrens K, Rink E, Peter A, Schlosser G. Differential distribution of competence for panplacodal and neural crest induction to non-neural and neural ectoderm. Development. 2012;139:1175-87 pubmed publisher
    ..crest cells arise from a common precursor at the neural plate border or whether placodes arise from non-neural ectoderm and neural crest from neural ectoderm...
  10. Jagtap S, Meganathan K, Gaspar J, Wagh V, Winkler J, Hescheler J, et al. Cytosine arabinoside induces ectoderm and inhibits mesoderm expression in human embryonic stem cells during multilineage differentiation. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;162:1743-56 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was undertaken to explore the adverse effects of cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) on randomly differentiated hESCs...
  11. Shalom Feuerstein R, Lena A, Zhou H, de la Forest Divonne S, van Bokhoven H, Candi E, et al. ΔNp63 is an ectodermal gatekeeper of epidermal morphogenesis. Cell Death Differ. 2011;18:887-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These data highlight the earliest recognized action of ΔNp63 in the induction epidermal morphogenesis at E11.5. In the absence of p63, a mesodermal program is activated while epidermal morphogenesis does not initiate...
  12. McCabe K, Bronner Fraser M. Molecular and tissue interactions governing induction of cranial ectodermal placodes. Dev Biol. 2009;332:189-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Cranial ectodermal placodes are thickenings in the ectoderm that subsequently ingress or invaginate to make important contributions to cranial ganglia, including ..
  13. Keren Politansky A, Keren A, Bengal E. Neural ectoderm-secreted FGF initiates the expression of Nkx2.5 in cardiac progenitors via a p38 MAPK/CREB pathway. Dev Biol. 2009;335:374-84 pubmed publisher
    ..5 without affecting GATA4. At gastrula, FGF3 is expressed in anterior neural ectoderm, and results presented here indicate that this tissue is involved in the induction of Nkx2...
  14. Lapraz F, Besnardeau L, Lepage T. Patterning of the dorsal-ventral axis in echinoderms: insights into the evolution of the BMP-chordin signaling network. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e1000248 pubmed publisher
    ..that the long-range organizing activity of Nodal is assured by a relay molecule synthesized in the ventral ectoderm, then translocated to the opposite side of the embryo...
  15. Ogino H, Ochi H, Reza H, Yasuda K. Transcription factors involved in lens development from the preplacodal ectoderm. Dev Biol. 2012;363:333-47 pubmed publisher
    ..functions: the first group comprises preplacodal genes, which are implicated in the formation of the preplacodal ectoderm that serves as a common primordium for cranial sensory tissues, including the lens...
  16. Solon J, Kaya Copur A, Colombelli J, Brunner D. Pulsed forces timed by a ratchet-like mechanism drive directed tissue movement during dorsal closure. Cell. 2009;137:1331-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work uncovers a sophisticated mechanism of cooperative force generation between two major forces driving morphogenesis...
  17. Berg D, Smith C, Pearton D, Wells D, Broadhurst R, Donnison M, et al. Trophectoderm lineage determination in cattle. Dev Cell. 2011;20:244-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings thus emphasize ways in which mice may not be representative of the earliest stages of mammalian development and stem cell biology...
  18. Yankura K, Martik M, Jennings C, Hinman V. Uncoupling of complex regulatory patterning during evolution of larval development in echinoderms. BMC Biol. 2010;8:143 pubmed publisher
    ..The embryos of these animals are microscopic, feeding within the plankton until they metamorphose into their adult forms...
  19. Kwon H, Bhat N, Sweet E, Cornell R, Riley B. Identification of early requirements for preplacodal ectoderm and sensory organ development. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001133 pubmed publisher
    Preplacodal ectoderm arises near the end of gastrulation as a narrow band of cells surrounding the anterior neural plate...
  20. Machon O, Kreslova J, Ruzickova J, Vacik T, Klimova L, Fujimura N, et al. Lens morphogenesis is dependent on Pax6-mediated inhibition of the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in the lens surface ectoderm. Genesis. 2010;48:86-95 pubmed publisher
    ..dependent on proper development of the retinal neuroectoderm that is located close beneath the head surface ectoderm. Signaling from the prospective retina triggers lens-specific gene expression in the surface-ectoderm...
  21. Wakamatsu Y. Mutual repression between Pax3 and Pax6 is involved in the positioning of ophthalmic trigeminal placode in avian embryo. Dev Growth Differ. 2011;53:994-1003 pubmed publisher
    Cranial sense organs and a subset of cranial sensory neurons are generated from placodes, thickenings of the ectoderm. Pax3 has been known as a marker for ophthalmic trigeminal placode specification, and also an important regulator of ..
  22. Nakanishi N, Renfer E, Technau U, Rentzsch F. Nervous systems of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis are generated by ectoderm and endoderm and shaped by distinct mechanisms. Development. 2012;139:347-57 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the development of neurons commences in the ectoderm during gastrulation and involves interkinetic nuclear migration...
  23. Ohazama A, Haworth K, Ota M, Khonsari R, Sharpe P. Ectoderm, endoderm, and the evolution of heterodont dentitions. Genesis. 2010;48:382-9 pubmed publisher
    ..teeth develop in the pharynx from endoderm (endodermal teeth), whereas mammalian teeth develop from the oral ectoderm indicating that teeth can develop (and thus possibly evolve) via different mechanisms...
  24. Rinkevich Y, Lindau P, Ueno H, Longaker M, Weissman I. Germ-layer and lineage-restricted stem/progenitors regenerate the mouse digit tip. Nature. 2011;476:409-13 pubmed publisher
    ....
  25. Ben Tabou de Leon S, Su Y, Lin K, Li E, Davidson E. Gene regulatory control in the sea urchin aboral ectoderm: spatial initiation, signaling inputs, and cell fate lockdown. Dev Biol. 2013;374:245-54 pubmed publisher
    The regulation of oral-aboral ectoderm specification in the sea urchin embryo has been extensively studied in recent years...
  26. Plouhinec J, Zakin L, Moriyama Y, De Robertis E. Chordin forms a self-organizing morphogen gradient in the extracellular space between ectoderm and mesoderm in the Xenopus embryo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:20372-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The three germ layers--ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm--are affected coordinately by the Chordin-BMP morphogen system...
  27. Tripathi V, Ishii Y, Abu Elmagd M, Scotting P. The surface ectoderm of the chick embryo exhibits dynamic variation in its response to neurogenic signals. Int J Dev Biol. 2009;53:1023-33 pubmed publisher
    The epibranchial placodes are specialized areas of surface ectoderm that make a vital contribution to the peripheral nervous system, producing sensory neurons of the cranial ganglia...
  28. Fujii T, Moriyasu S, Hirayama H, Hashizume T, Sawai K. Aberrant expression patterns of genes involved in segregation of inner cell mass and trophectoderm lineages in bovine embryos derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer. Cell Reprogram. 2010;12:617-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These results raise the possibility that abnormalities in the cloned fetus and placenta are related to the aberrant expression of genes involved in segregation and differentiation process in the early developmental stage...
  29. Tadeu A, Horsley V. Notch signaling represses p63 expression in the developing surface ectoderm. Development. 2013;140:3777-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data reveal a role for Notch signaling in the molecular control of ectodermal progenitor cell specification to the epidermal keratinocyte lineage. ..
  30. Morales Torres C, Laugesen A, Helin K. Utx is required for proper induction of ectoderm and mesoderm during differentiation of embryonic stem cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60020 pubmed publisher
    ..we show that Utx is not required for the proliferation of ESCs, however, Utx contributes to the establishment of ectoderm and mesoderm in vitro. Interestingly, this contribution is independent of the catalytic activity of Utx...
  31. Morita H, Kajiura Kobayashi H, Takagi C, Yamamoto T, Nonaka S, Ueno N. Cell movements of the deep layer of non-neural ectoderm underlie complete neural tube closure in Xenopus. Development. 2012;139:1417-26 pubmed publisher
    In developing vertebrates, the neural tube forms from a sheet of neural ectoderm by complex cell movements and morphogenesis...
  32. Zhang Y, Tomann P, Andl T, Gallant N, Huelsken J, Jerchow B, et al. Reciprocal requirements for EDA/EDAR/NF-kappaB and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathways in hair follicle induction. Dev Cell. 2009;17:49-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal a complex interplay and interdependence of Wnt/beta-catenin and EDA/EDAR/NF-kappaB signaling pathways in initiation and maintenance of primary hair follicle placodes...
  33. Gasperowicz M, Natale D. Establishing three blastocyst lineages--then what?. Biol Reprod. 2011;84:621-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In this context, we discuss the establishment of extraembryonic ectoderm and the contributions of parietal and visceral endoderm to yolk sac formation.
  34. Sato S, Ikeda K, Shioi G, Ochi H, Ogino H, Yajima H, et al. Conserved expression of mouse Six1 in the pre-placodal region (PPR) and identification of an enhancer for the rostral PPR. Dev Biol. 2010;344:158-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report the expression of Six1 in the horseshoe-shaped mouse ectoderm surrounding the anterior neural plate in a pattern broadly similar to that of non-mammalian vertebrates...
  35. Hosoya A, Kwak S, Kim E, Lunny D, Lane E, Cho S, et al. Immunohistochemical localization of cytokeratins in the junctional region of ectoderm and endoderm. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2010;293:1864-72 pubmed publisher
    Although tridermic species have two junctional regions of ectoderm and endoderm between their epidermis and digestive tract, we actually know little about these particular boundaries...
  36. Yardley N, GARCIA CASTRO M. FGF signaling transforms non-neural ectoderm into neural crest. Dev Biol. 2012;372:166-77 pubmed publisher
    The neural crest arises at the border between the neural plate and the adjacent non-neural ectoderm. It has been suggested that both neural and non-neural ectoderm can contribute to the neural crest...
  37. Steinfeld J, Steinfeld I, Coronato N, Hampel M, Layer P, Araki M, et al. RPE specification in the chick is mediated by surface ectoderm-derived BMP and Wnt signalling. Development. 2013;140:4959-69 pubmed publisher
    ..In the classical model of optic vesicle patterning, the surface ectoderm produces fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) that specify the neural retina (NR) distally, whereas TGFβ family ..
  38. Park K, Gumbiner B. Cadherin-6B stimulates an epithelial mesenchymal transition and the delamination of cells from the neural ectoderm via LIMK/cofilin mediated non-canonical BMP receptor signaling. Dev Biol. 2012;366:232-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the de-epithelialization step of the neural crest EMT by cadherin-6B/BMPRII involves regulation of actin dynamics via LIMK/cofilin...
  39. McIntyre D, Seay N, Croce J, McClay D. Short-range Wnt5 signaling initiates specification of sea urchin posterior ectoderm. Development. 2013;140:4881-9 pubmed publisher
    The border between the posterior ectoderm and the endoderm is a location where two germ layers meet and establish an enduring relationship that also later serves, in deuterostomes, as the anatomical site of the anus...
  40. Steventon B, Mayor R, Streit A. Neural crest and placode interaction during the development of the cranial sensory system. Dev Biol. 2014;389:28-38 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that a sequence of mutual interactions between the neural crest and placodes drives the coordinated morphogenesis that generates functional sensory systems within the head. ..
  41. Pearton D, Broadhurst R, Donnison M, Pfeffer P. Elf5 regulation in the trophectoderm. Dev Biol. 2011;360:343-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Two redundant enhancers drive Elf5 expression to the extraembryonic ectoderm and ectoplacental cone...
  42. Hannibal R, Price A, Patel N. The functional relationship between ectodermal and mesodermal segmentation in the crustacean, Parhyale hawaiensis. Dev Biol. 2012;361:427-38 pubmed publisher
    ..In vertebrates, trunk mesoderm segments autonomously and induces segmental arrangement of the ectoderm-derived nervous system...
  43. Zheng Z, de Iongh R, Rathjen P, Rathjen J. A requirement for FGF signalling in the formation of primitive streak-like intermediates from primitive ectoderm in culture. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12555 pubmed publisher
    ..Although FGF signalling has been suggested as essential for specification of mesoderm and endoderm in vivo and in culture, the exact role of this pathway remains unclear...
  44. Cavalieri V, Guarcello R, Spinelli G. Specific expression of a TRIM-containing factor in ectoderm cells affects the skeletal morphogenetic program of the sea urchin embryo. Development. 2011;138:4279-90 pubmed publisher
    ..the primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) acquire most of the positional and temporal information from the overlying ectoderm for skeletal initiation and growth...
  45. Calmont A, Ivins S, van Bueren K, Papangeli I, Kyriakopoulou V, Andrews W, et al. Tbx1 controls cardiac neural crest cell migration during arch artery development by regulating Gbx2 expression in the pharyngeal ectoderm. Development. 2009;136:3173-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that PAA formation requires the pharyngeal surface ectoderm as a key signalling centre from which Gbx2, in response to Tbx1, triggers essential directional cues to the ..
  46. Meyn M, Smithgall T. Chemical genetics identifies c-Src as an activator of primitive ectoderm formation in murine embryonic stem cells. Sci Signal. 2009;2:ra64 pubmed publisher
    ..block associated with inhibitor treatment, resulting in the formation of cells with properties of primitive ectoderm. These results show that distinct SFK signaling pathways regulate mES cell fate and demonstrate that the ..
  47. Saudemont A, Haillot E, Mekpoh F, Bessodes N, Quirin M, Lapraz F, et al. Ancestral regulatory circuits governing ectoderm patterning downstream of Nodal and BMP2/4 revealed by gene regulatory network analysis in an echinoderm. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001259 pubmed publisher
    ..During development of the sea urchin embryo, the ectoderm is the source of signals that pattern all three germ layers along the dorsal-ventral axis...
  48. Randall V, McCue K, Roberts C, Kyriakopoulou V, Beddow S, Barrett A, et al. Great vessel development requires biallelic expression of Chd7 and Tbx1 in pharyngeal ectoderm in mice. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:3301-10 pubmed publisher
    ..We could not rescue PAA morphogenesis by restoring neural crest Chd7 expression. Rather, biallelic expression of Chd7 and Tbx1 in the pharyngeal ectoderm was required for normal PAA development.
  49. Neilson K, Klein S, Mhaske P, Mood K, Daar I, Moody S. Specific domains of FoxD4/5 activate and repress neural transcription factor genes to control the progression of immature neural ectoderm to differentiating neural plate. Dev Biol. 2012;365:363-75 pubmed publisher
    ..a forkhead transcription factor, plays a critical role in establishing and maintaining the embryonic neural ectoderm. It both up-regulates genes that maintain a proliferative, immature neural ectoderm and down-regulates genes that ..
  50. Cox A, Jezewski P, Fang P, Payne Ferreira T. Zebrafish Wnt9a,9b paralog comparisons suggest ancestral roles for Wnt9 in neural, oral-pharyngeal ectoderm and mesendoderm. Gene Expr Patterns. 2010;10:251-8 pubmed publisher
    ..demonstrated strongest expression of zebrafish wnt9b within its heart tube, limb bud and ventral/anterior ectoderm during oral and pharyngeal arch patterning...
  51. Bessodes N, Haillot E, Duboc V, Röttinger E, Lahaye F, Lepage T. Reciprocal signaling between the ectoderm and a mesendodermal left-right organizer directs left-right determination in the sea urchin embryo. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1003121 pubmed publisher
    ..that establishment of left-right asymmetry in the sea urchin embryo relies on reciprocal signaling between the ectoderm and a left-right organizer located in the endomesoderm...
  52. Hughes J, Washington J, Zheng Z, Lau X, Yap C, Rathjen P, et al. Manipulation of cell:cell contacts and mesoderm suppressing activity direct lineage choice from pluripotent primitive ectoderm-like cells in culture. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5579 pubmed publisher
    ..mammal, the pluripotent cells of embryo differentiate and commit to either the mesoderm/endoderm lineages or the ectoderm lineage during gastrulation...
  53. Roeth J, Sawyer J, Wilner D, Peifer M. Rab11 helps maintain apical crumbs and adherens junctions in the Drosophila embryonic ectoderm. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7634 pubmed publisher
    ..Tissue morphogenesis and organogenesis require that cells retain stable cell-cell adhesion while changing shape and moving. One mechanism to accommodate this plasticity in cell adhesion involves regulated trafficking of junctional proteins...
  54. Leung A, Kent Morest D, Li J. Differential BMP signaling controls formation and differentiation of multipotent preplacodal ectoderm progenitors from human embryonic stem cells. Dev Biol. 2013;379:208-20 pubmed publisher
    ..cranial sensory ganglia, and the anterior pituitary arise from a common pool of progenitors in the preplacodal ectoderm (PPE)...
  55. Harvey N, Hughes J, Lonic A, Yap C, Long C, Rathjen P, et al. Response to BMP4 signalling during ES cell differentiation defines intermediates of the ectoderm lineage. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:1796-804 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a previously established mouse ES-cell-based system that recapitulates the development of the ectoderm lineage we have identified a transient population that is consistent with definitive ectoderm...
  56. Jedrusik A, Bruce A, Tan M, Leong D, Skamagki M, Yao M, et al. Maternally and zygotically provided Cdx2 have novel and critical roles for early development of the mouse embryo. Dev Biol. 2010;344:66-78 pubmed publisher
    ....
  57. Forni P, Taylor Burds C, Melvin V, Williams T, Williams T, Wray S. Neural crest and ectodermal cells intermix in the nasal placode to give rise to GnRH-1 neurons, sensory neurons, and olfactory ensheathing cells. J Neurosci. 2011;31:6915-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the results indicate that certain conditions that impact olfaction and sexual development, such as Kallmann syndrome, may be in part neurocristopathies...
  58. Guerrini L, Costanzo A, Merlo G. A symphony of regulations centered on p63 to control development of ectoderm-derived structures. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2011;2011:864904 pubmed publisher
    ..transcription factor p63 is critically important for basic cellular functions during development of the ectoderm and derived structure and tissues, including skin, limb, palate, and hair...
  59. Pieper M, Eagleson G, Wosniok W, Schlosser G. Origin and segregation of cranial placodes in Xenopus laevis. Dev Biol. 2011;360:257-75 pubmed publisher
    Cranial placodes are local thickenings of the vertebrate head ectoderm that contribute to the paired sense organs (olfactory epithelium, lens, inner ear, lateral line), cranial ganglia and the adenohypophysis...
  60. Cruz C, Maegawa S, Weinberg E, Wilson S, Dawid I, Kudoh T. Induction and patterning of trunk and tail neural ectoderm by the homeobox gene eve1 in zebrafish embryos. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:3564-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that eve1 is involved in establishing trunk and tail neural ectoderm by two independent mechanisms: First, eve1 posteriorizes neural ectoderm via induction of aldh1a2, which encodes ..
  61. Momose T, Kraus Y, Houliston E. A conserved function for Strabismus in establishing planar cell polarity in the ciliated ectoderm during cnidarian larval development. Development. 2012;139:4374-82 pubmed publisher
    ..and morphological planar cell polarity (PCP) oriented along the oral-aboral body axis is clearly evident in the ectoderm of torpedo-shaped planula larvae of hydrozoan cnidarians such as Clytia hemisphaerica...
  62. Ozawa M, Hansen P. A novel method for purification of inner cell mass and trophectoderm cells from blastocysts using magnetic activated cell sorting. Fertil Steril. 2011;95:799-802 pubmed publisher
    ..To develop a simple method to purify blastomeres of inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) lineage using magnetic activated cell sorting...