germ layers

Summary

Summary: The three primary germinal layers (ECTODERM; ENDODERM; and MESODERM) developed during GASTRULATION that provide tissues and body plan of a mature organism. They derive from two early layers, hypoblast and epiblast.

Top Publications

  1. Shiraki N, Higuchi Y, Harada S, Umeda K, Isagawa T, Aburatani H, et al. Differentiation and characterization of embryonic stem cells into three germ layers. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;381:694-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the M15 cell system provides a valuable tool for generating ES cell-derived lineage-specific cell types belonging to the three germ layers, namely neuroectoderm, mesoderm, and definitive endoderm.
  2. Nichols J, Smith A. Naive and primed pluripotent states. Cell Stem Cell. 2009;4:487-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that two phases of pluripotency can be defined: naive and primed. This distinction extends to pluripotent stem cells derived from embryos or by molecular reprogramming ex vivo...
  3. Nichols J, Silva J, Roode M, Smith A. Suppression of Erk signalling promotes ground state pluripotency in the mouse embryo. Development. 2009;136:3215-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that ES cells are not a tissue culture creation, but are essentially identical to pre-implantation epiblast cells. ..
  4. Han D, Tapia N, Joo J, Greber B, Arauzo Bravo M, Bernemann C, et al. Epiblast stem cell subpopulations represent mouse embryos of distinct pregastrulation stages. Cell. 2010;143:617-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that the rare ability of EpiSCs to contribute to chimeras is due to the presence of the minor EpiSC fraction representing the early epiblast. ..
  5. Faas L, Warrander F, Maguire R, Ramsbottom S, Quinn D, Genever P, et al. Lin28 proteins are required for germ layer specification in Xenopus. Development. 2013;140:976-86 pubmed publisher
  6. Leitch H, McEwen K, Turp A, Encheva V, Carroll T, Grabole N, et al. Naive pluripotency is associated with global DNA hypomethylation. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2013;20:311-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings establish that culture in 2i instills a naive pluripotent state with a distinctive epigenetic configuration that parallels molecular features observed in both the preimplantation epiblast and nascent PGCs...
  7. Hyslop L, Stojkovic M, Armstrong L, Walter T, Stojkovic P, Przyborski S, et al. Downregulation of NANOG induces differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to extraembryonic lineages. Stem Cells. 2005;23:1035-43 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our findings suggest that NANOG acts as a gatekeeper of pluripotency in human embryonic stem and carcinoma cells by preventing their differentiation to extraembryonic endoderm and trophectoderm lineages. ..
  8. Monaghan A, Kaestner K, Grau E, Schutz G. Postimplantation expression patterns indicate a role for the mouse forkhead/HNF-3 alpha, beta and gamma genes in determination of the definitive endoderm, chordamesoderm and neuroectoderm. Development. 1993;119:567-78 pubmed
    ..HNF-3 beta mRNA is expressed in the node at the anterior end of the primitive streak in all three germ layers and is the first gene of this family to be activated...
  9. Wolff C, Scholtz G. Cell lineage, axis formation, and the origin of germ layers in the amphipod crustacean Orchestia cavimana. Dev Biol. 2002;250:44-58 pubmed
  10. Kim H, Wu J, Ye S, Tai C, Zhou X, Yan H, et al. Modulation of ?-catenin function maintains mouse epiblast stem cell and human embryonic stem cell self-renewal. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2403 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results elucidate a new role for ?-catenin in stem cell self-renewal that is independent of its transcriptional activity and will have broad implications in understanding the molecular regulation of stem cell fate. ..

Detail Information

Publications85

  1. Shiraki N, Higuchi Y, Harada S, Umeda K, Isagawa T, Aburatani H, et al. Differentiation and characterization of embryonic stem cells into three germ layers. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;381:694-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the M15 cell system provides a valuable tool for generating ES cell-derived lineage-specific cell types belonging to the three germ layers, namely neuroectoderm, mesoderm, and definitive endoderm.
  2. Nichols J, Smith A. Naive and primed pluripotent states. Cell Stem Cell. 2009;4:487-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that two phases of pluripotency can be defined: naive and primed. This distinction extends to pluripotent stem cells derived from embryos or by molecular reprogramming ex vivo...
  3. Nichols J, Silva J, Roode M, Smith A. Suppression of Erk signalling promotes ground state pluripotency in the mouse embryo. Development. 2009;136:3215-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that ES cells are not a tissue culture creation, but are essentially identical to pre-implantation epiblast cells. ..
  4. Han D, Tapia N, Joo J, Greber B, Arauzo Bravo M, Bernemann C, et al. Epiblast stem cell subpopulations represent mouse embryos of distinct pregastrulation stages. Cell. 2010;143:617-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that the rare ability of EpiSCs to contribute to chimeras is due to the presence of the minor EpiSC fraction representing the early epiblast. ..
  5. Faas L, Warrander F, Maguire R, Ramsbottom S, Quinn D, Genever P, et al. Lin28 proteins are required for germ layer specification in Xenopus. Development. 2013;140:976-86 pubmed publisher
  6. Leitch H, McEwen K, Turp A, Encheva V, Carroll T, Grabole N, et al. Naive pluripotency is associated with global DNA hypomethylation. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2013;20:311-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings establish that culture in 2i instills a naive pluripotent state with a distinctive epigenetic configuration that parallels molecular features observed in both the preimplantation epiblast and nascent PGCs...
  7. Hyslop L, Stojkovic M, Armstrong L, Walter T, Stojkovic P, Przyborski S, et al. Downregulation of NANOG induces differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to extraembryonic lineages. Stem Cells. 2005;23:1035-43 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our findings suggest that NANOG acts as a gatekeeper of pluripotency in human embryonic stem and carcinoma cells by preventing their differentiation to extraembryonic endoderm and trophectoderm lineages. ..
  8. Monaghan A, Kaestner K, Grau E, Schutz G. Postimplantation expression patterns indicate a role for the mouse forkhead/HNF-3 alpha, beta and gamma genes in determination of the definitive endoderm, chordamesoderm and neuroectoderm. Development. 1993;119:567-78 pubmed
    ..HNF-3 beta mRNA is expressed in the node at the anterior end of the primitive streak in all three germ layers and is the first gene of this family to be activated...
  9. Wolff C, Scholtz G. Cell lineage, axis formation, and the origin of germ layers in the amphipod crustacean Orchestia cavimana. Dev Biol. 2002;250:44-58 pubmed
  10. Kim H, Wu J, Ye S, Tai C, Zhou X, Yan H, et al. Modulation of ?-catenin function maintains mouse epiblast stem cell and human embryonic stem cell self-renewal. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2403 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results elucidate a new role for ?-catenin in stem cell self-renewal that is independent of its transcriptional activity and will have broad implications in understanding the molecular regulation of stem cell fate. ..
  11. Hayashi K, de Sousa Lopes S, Tang F, Lao K, Surani M. Dynamic equilibrium and heterogeneity of mouse pluripotent stem cells with distinct functional and epigenetic states. Cell Stem Cell. 2008;3:391-401 pubmed publisher
  12. ten Berge D, Kurek D, Blauwkamp T, Koole W, Maas A, Eroglu E, et al. Embryonic stem cells require Wnt proteins to prevent differentiation to epiblast stem cells. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:1070-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results not only demonstrate that Wnt signals regulate the naive-to-primed pluripotency transition, but also identify Wnt as an essential and limiting ESC self-renewal factor. ..
  13. Shih J, Fraser S. Characterizing the zebrafish organizer: microsurgical analysis at the early-shield stage. Development. 1996;122:1313-22 pubmed
  14. Hiratani I, Ryba T, Itoh M, Rathjen J, Kulik M, Papp B, et al. Genome-wide dynamics of replication timing revealed by in vitro models of mouse embryogenesis. Genome Res. 2010;20:155-69 pubmed publisher
  15. Roode M, Blair K, Snell P, Elder K, Marchant S, Smith A, et al. Human hypoblast formation is not dependent on FGF signalling. Dev Biol. 2012;361:358-63 pubmed publisher
  16. Hayashi K, Surani M. Self-renewing epiblast stem cells exhibit continual delineation of germ cells with epigenetic reprogramming in vitro. Development. 2009;136:3549-56 pubmed publisher
  17. Borgel J, Guibert S, Li Y, Chiba H, Schübeler D, Sasaki H, et al. Targets and dynamics of promoter DNA methylation during early mouse development. Nat Genet. 2010;42:1093-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we identify nonimprinted genes that inherit promoter DNA methylation from parental gametes, suggesting that escape of post-fertilization DNA methylation reprogramming is prevalent in the mouse genome. ..
  18. Feldman B, Gates M, Egan E, Dougan S, Rennebeck G, Sirotkin H, et al. Zebrafish organizer development and germ-layer formation require nodal-related signals. Nature. 1998;395:181-5 pubmed
    ..body plan is established during gastrulation, when cells move inwards to form the mesodermal and endodermal germ layers. Signals from a region of dorsal mesoderm, which is termed the organizer, pattern the body axis by specifying ..
  19. Gillich A, Bao S, Grabole N, Hayashi K, Trotter M, Pasque V, et al. Epiblast stem cell-based system reveals reprogramming synergy of germline factors. Cell Stem Cell. 2012;10:425-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides a paradigm toward a systematic analysis of how other key genes contribute to complex and dynamic events of reprogramming in the germline...
  20. Han D, Greber B, Wu G, Tapia N, Arauzo Bravo M, Ko K, et al. Direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into epiblast stem cells. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:66-71 pubmed publisher
    ..derived from epiblast tissue of post-implantation embryos are pluripotent and can give rise to all three germ layers in teratoma assays...
  21. Ohtsuka S, Nishikawa Torikai S, Niwa H. E-cadherin promotes incorporation of mouse epiblast stem cells into normal development. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45220 pubmed publisher
  22. Bao S, Tang F, Li X, Hayashi K, Gillich A, Lao K, et al. Epigenetic reversion of post-implantation epiblast to pluripotent embryonic stem cells. Nature. 2009;461:1292-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, unlike epiblast and EpiSCs, rESCs contribute to somatic tissues and germ cells in chimaeras. Further studies may reveal how signalling-induced epigenetic reprogramming may promote reacquisition of pluripotency. ..
  23. Chenoweth J, Tesar P. Isolation and maintenance of mouse epiblast stem cells. Methods Mol Biol. 2010;636:25-44 pubmed publisher
    ..This chapter describes the methods for the isolation and maintenance of mouse EpiSCs. We also describe basic assays used to characterize new EpiSC lines...
  24. Alberio R, Croxall N, Allegrucci C. Pig epiblast stem cells depend on activin/nodal signaling for pluripotency and self-renewal. Stem Cells Dev. 2010;19:1627-36 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides further evidence that maintenance of pluripotency via Activin/Nodal signal is conserved in mammals...
  25. Lee K, Lim S, Orlov Y, Yit L, Yang H, Ang L, et al. Graded Nodal/Activin signaling titrates conversion of quantitative phospho-Smad2 levels into qualitative embryonic stem cell fate decisions. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002130 pubmed publisher
  26. Chuai M, Weijer C. Regulation of cell migration during chick gastrulation. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2009;19:343-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The timing and order of ingression of epiblast cells appears to be controlled by temporal and spatial colinearity of Hox gene expression in the epiblast. The mechanisms by which Hox genes control these properties remain to be resolved...
  27. Williams M, Burdsal C, Periasamy A, Lewandoski M, Sutherland A. Mouse primitive streak forms in situ by initiation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition without migration of a cell population. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:270-83 pubmed publisher
    During gastrulation, an embryo acquires the three primordial germ layers that will give rise to all of the tissues in the body...
  28. Kuijk E, van Tol L, Van De Velde H, Wubbolts R, Welling M, Geijsen N, et al. The roles of FGF and MAP kinase signaling in the segregation of the epiblast and hypoblast cell lineages in bovine and human embryos. Development. 2012;139:871-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate intrinsic differences in early mammalian development in the role of the FGF/MAP kinase signaling pathways in governing hypoblast versus epiblast lineage choices...
  29. Solnica Krezel L, Sepich D. Gastrulation: making and shaping germ layers. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2012;28:687-717 pubmed publisher
    Gastrulation is a fundamental phase of animal embryogenesis during which germ layers are specified, rearranged, and shaped into a body plan with organ rudiments...
  30. Taylor R, Wang H, Wilkinson S, Richards M, Britt K, Vaillant F, et al. Lineage enforcement by inductive mesenchyme on adult epithelial stem cells across developmental germ layers. Stem Cells. 2009;27:3032-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to use adult epithelial SCs in regenerative medicine, we must additionally regulate their intrinsic properties to prevent (or enable) transdifferentiation in specified SC niches...
  31. Liu H, Zhu F, Yong J, Zhang P, Hou P, Li H, et al. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from adult rhesus monkey fibroblasts. Cell Stem Cell. 2008;3:587-90 pubmed publisher
    ..However, direct reprogramming in other species has not been reported. Here, we generated monkey iPS cells by retrovirus-mediated introduction of monkey transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC...
  32. Wernet P, Trapp T, Zweigerdt R, Mann J, Trompeter H. Lentiviral labeling reveals three germ layer differentiation potential of a single unrestricted somatic stem cell from human cord blood. Exp Hematol. 2010;38:1099-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Generation and expression of unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSC) from human cord blood as well as their in vitro functional characterization at the clonal level...
  33. Niwa H. Mouse ES cell culture system as a model of development. Dev Growth Differ. 2010;52:275-83 pubmed publisher
    ..For these reasons, mES cells can be regarded as a useful tool for analyzing molecular mechanisms underlying early mouse development...
  34. Takatori N, Kumano G, Saiga H, Nishida H. Segregation of germ layer fates by nuclear migration-dependent localization of Not mRNA. Dev Cell. 2010;19:589-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that nuclear migration plays an unexpected role in asymmetric cell divisions that segregate germ layer fates in chordate embryos...
  35. Bedzhov I, Zernicka Goetz M. Self-organizing properties of mouse pluripotent cells initiate morphogenesis upon implantation. Cell. 2014;156:1032-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings lead to a completely revised model for peri-implantation morphogenesis in which ECM triggers the self-organization of the embryo's stem cells. ..
  36. Krieg M, Arboleda Estudillo Y, Puech P, Käfer J, Graner F, Muller D, et al. Tensile forces govern germ-layer organization in zebrafish. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:429-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate a previously unrecognized role for Nodal-controlled cell-cortex tension in germ-layer organization during gastrulation...
  37. Chahda J, Sousa Neves R, Mizutani C. Variation in the dorsal gradient distribution is a source for modified scaling of germ layers in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2013;23:710-6 pubmed publisher
    Specification of germ layers along the dorsoventral axis by morphogenetic gradients is an ideal model to study scaling properties of gradients and cell fate changes during evolution. Classical anatomical studies in divergent insects (e.g...
  38. Isagawa T, Nagae G, Shiraki N, Fujita T, Sato N, Ishikawa S, et al. DNA methylation profiling of embryonic stem cell differentiation into the three germ layers. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26052 pubmed publisher
    ..DNA methylation patterns at proximal promoter regions in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, ES cell-derived early germ layers (ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm) and four adult tissues (brain, liver, skeletal muscle and sperm)...
  39. Greber B, Wu G, Bernemann C, Joo J, Han D, Ko K, et al. Conserved and divergent roles of FGF signaling in mouse epiblast stem cells and human embryonic stem cells. Cell Stem Cell. 2010;6:215-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data extend the current model of cell fate decisions concerning EpiSCs by clarifying the distinct roles played by FGF signaling...
  40. Revazova E, Turovets N, Kochetkova O, Kindarova L, Kuzmichev L, Janus J, et al. Patient-specific stem cell lines derived from human parthenogenetic blastocysts. Cloning Stem Cells. 2007;9:432-49 pubmed
    ..teratomas after injection to immunodeficient animals and give differentiated derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers. DNA profiling of all six phESC lines demonstrates that they are MHC matched with the oocyte donors...
  41. Bernemann C, Greber B, Ko K, Sterneckert J, Han D, Arauzo Bravo M, et al. Distinct developmental ground states of epiblast stem cell lines determine different pluripotency features. Stem Cells. 2011;29:1496-503 pubmed publisher
  42. Nakaya Y, Sukowati E, Alev C, Nakazawa F, Sheng G. Involvement of dystroglycan in epithelial-mesenchymal transition during chick gastrulation. Cells Tissues Organs. 2011;193:64-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these data suggest an involvement of dystroglycan, especially the regulation of its expression and localization, in gastrulation EMT...
  43. Tsakiridis A, Huang Y, Blin G, Skylaki S, Wymeersch F, Osorno R, et al. Distinct Wnt-driven primitive streak-like populations reflect in vivo lineage precursors. Development. 2014;141:1209-21 pubmed publisher
  44. Campbell J, Nottle M, Vassiliev I, Mitchell M, Lane M. Insulin increases epiblast cell number of in vitro cultured mouse embryos via the PI3K/GSK3/p53 pathway. Stem Cells Dev. 2012;21:2430-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we suggest that the inclusion of insulin in culture media could be used as a strategy for increasing the efficiency with which the ESC lines can be derived from cultured embryos...
  45. Nichols J, Smith A. Pluripotency in the embryo and in culture. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2012;4:a008128 pubmed publisher
    ..We also consider the proposition that early epiblast cells and ESCs may represent a naïve ground state without any prespecification of lineage choice, whereas later epiblasts and EpiSCs may be primed in favor of particular fates...
  46. Hudson C, Kawai N, Negishi T, Yasuo H. ?-Catenin-driven binary fate specification segregates germ layers in ascidian embryos. Curr Biol. 2013;23:491-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that subdivision of the ascidian embryo into the three germ layers involves differential nuclear ?-catenin activity coupled with the first two animal-vegetal (A-V)-oriented cell ..
  47. Vallier L, Mendjan S, Brown S, Chng Z, Teo A, Smithers L, et al. Activin/Nodal signalling maintains pluripotency by controlling Nanog expression. Development. 2009;136:1339-49 pubmed publisher
    ..status of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) confers upon them the capacity to differentiate into the three primary germ layers, ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm, from which all the cells of the adult body are derived...
  48. Shin D, Liu R, Klich I, Ratajczak J, Kucia M, Ratajczak M. Molecular characterization of isolated from murine adult tissues very small embryonic/epiblast like stem cells (VSELs). Mol Cells. 2010;29:533-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Mounting evidence accumulates that perturbation of expression of imprinted genes is a common phenomenon observed in developing tumors...
  49. Wu Z, Chen J, Ren J, Bao L, Liao J, Cui C, et al. Generation of pig induced pluripotent stem cells with a drug-inducible system. J Mol Cell Biol. 2009;1:46-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These cells could differentiate into cell types of all three germ layers in vitro and in teratomas...
  50. Burtscher I, Lickert H. Foxa2 regulates polarity and epithelialization in the endoderm germ layer of the mouse embryo. Development. 2009;136:1029-38 pubmed publisher
    In the mouse, one of the earliest events in the determination of cell fate is the segregation of cells into germ layers during gastrulation; however, the cellular and molecular details are not well defined due to intrauterine development...
  51. Tamagawa T, Ishiwata I, Saito S. Establishment and characterization of a pluripotent stem cell line derived from human amniotic membranes and initiation of germ layers in vitro. Hum Cell. 2004;17:125-30 pubmed
    ..Pluripotent stem cells are proposed to be used in regenerative therapy and may exist in the human amniotic membrane. The present article is aimed at establishing a pluripotent stem cell line from human placenta...
  52. Revinski D, Paganelli A, Carrasco A, López S. Delta-Notch signaling is involved in the segregation of the three germ layers in Xenopus laevis. Dev Biol. 2010;339:477-92 pubmed publisher
    In vertebrates, the induction of the three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm) has been extensively studied, but less is known about how they segregate...
  53. Rada Iglesias A, Bajpai R, Swigut T, Brugmann S, Flynn R, Wysocka J. A unique chromatin signature uncovers early developmental enhancers in humans. Nature. 2011;470:279-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the wealth of new regulatory sequences identified here provides an invaluable resource for studies and isolation of transient, rare cell populations representing early stages of human embryogenesis...
  54. Ohnishi Y, Huber W, Tsumura A, Kang M, Xenopoulos P, Kurimoto K, et al. Cell-to-cell expression variability followed by signal reinforcement progressively segregates early mouse lineages. Nat Cell Biol. 2014;16:27-37 pubmed publisher
    ..These data lead us to propose a model where stochastic cell-to-cell expression heterogeneity followed by signal reinforcement underlies ICM lineage segregation by antagonistically separating equivalent cells. ..
  55. Ratajczak M, Liu R, Marlicz W, Blogowski W, Starzynska T, Wojakowski W, et al. Identification of very small embryonic/epiblast-like stem cells (VSELs) circulating in peripheral blood during organ/tissue injuries. Methods Cell Biol. 2011;103:31-54 pubmed publisher
    ..g., in stroke or heart infarct). In this chapter, we will present FACS-based strategies to detect and enumerate these cells in human peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood...
  56. Silva J, Nichols J, Theunissen T, Guo G, van Oosten A, Barrandon O, et al. Nanog is the gateway to the pluripotent ground state. Cell. 2009;138:722-37 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that Nanog choreographs synthesis of the naive epiblast ground state in the embryo and that this function is recapitulated in the culmination of somatic cell reprogramming...
  57. Hayashi K, Ohta H, Kurimoto K, Aramaki S, Saitou M. Reconstitution of the mouse germ cell specification pathway in culture by pluripotent stem cells. Cell. 2011;146:519-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide a paradigm for the first step of in vitro gametogenesis...
  58. Sabel J, d Alençon C, O Brien E, Van Otterloo E, Lutz K, Cuykendall T, et al. Maternal Interferon Regulatory Factor 6 is required for the differentiation of primary superficial epithelia in Danio and Xenopus embryos. Dev Biol. 2009;325:249-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These experiments reveal a conserved role for maternally-encoded Irf6 in differentiation of a simple epithelium in X. laevis and D. rerio. This epithelium constitutes a novel model tissue in which to explore the Irf6 regulatory pathway...
  59. Leitch H, Blair K, Mansfield W, Ayetey H, Humphreys P, Nichols J, et al. Embryonic germ cells from mice and rats exhibit properties consistent with a generic pluripotent ground state. Development. 2010;137:2279-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Future research will determine the extent to which this is maintained in other mammals and whether, in some species, primordial germ cells might be a more tractable source than epiblast for the capture of naïve pluripotent stem cells...
  60. Guibert S, Forné T, Weber M. Global profiling of DNA methylation erasure in mouse primordial germ cells. Genome Res. 2012;22:633-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide important insights into the targets and dynamics of DNA methylation reprogramming in mammalian germ cells...
  61. Brøchner C, Johansen J, Larsen L, Bak M, Mikkelsen H, Byskov A, et al. YKL-40 is differentially expressed in human embryonic stem cells and in cell progeny of the three germ layers. J Histochem Cytochem. 2012;60:188-204 pubmed publisher
  62. Zhang K, Li L, Huang C, Shen C, Tan F, Xia C, et al. Distinct functions of BMP4 during different stages of mouse ES cell neural commitment. Development. 2010;137:2095-105 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that BMP signaling has distinct functions during different stages of ESC neural commitment...
  63. Ihrie R, Alvarez Buylla A. Lake-front property: a unique germinal niche by the lateral ventricles of the adult brain. Neuron. 2011;70:674-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The integration of emerging molecular and anatomical clues forecasts an exciting new understanding of how the germ of youth is actively maintained in the adult brain...
  64. Iwafuchi Doi M, Yoshida Y, Onichtchouk D, Leichsenring M, Driever W, Takemoto T, et al. The Pou5f1/Pou3f-dependent but SoxB-independent regulation of conserved enhancer N2 initiates Sox2 expression during epiblast to neural plate stages in vertebrates. Dev Biol. 2011;352:354-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, the enhancer N2-mediated, POU factor-dependent activation of Sox2, without involvement of Sox2, is a phylogenetically conserved core mechanism that functions in gene regulatory networks at early embryonic stages...
  65. Gao X, Tate P, Hu P, Tjian R, Skarnes W, Wang Z. ES cell pluripotency and germ-layer formation require the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling component BAF250a. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6656-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that BAF250a is a key component of the gene regulatory machinery in ES cells controlling self-renewal, differentiation, and cell lineage decisions...
  66. Krawchuk D, Honma Yamanaka N, Anani S, Yamanaka Y. FGF4 is a limiting factor controlling the proportions of primitive endoderm and epiblast in the ICM of the mouse blastocyst. Dev Biol. 2013;384:65-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the amount of FGF4 is limited and regulates PE/EPI proportions in the mouse embryo...
  67. Hanna J, Markoulaki S, Mitalipova M, Cheng A, Cassady J, Staerk J, et al. Metastable pluripotent states in NOD-mouse-derived ESCs. Cell Stem Cell. 2009;4:513-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that stem cells from different genetic backgrounds can assume distinct states of pluripotency in vitro, the stability of which is regulated by endogenous genetic determinants and can be modified by exogenous factors...
  68. Iwafuchi Doi M, Matsuda K, Murakami K, Niwa H, Tesar P, Aruga J, et al. Transcriptional regulatory networks in epiblast cells and during anterior neural plate development as modeled in epiblast stem cells. Development. 2012;139:3926-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The direct interaction of these factors with enhancers of Otx2, Hesx1 and Sox2 genes was demonstrated. Thus, a combination of regulatory processes that suppresses non-ANP lineages and promotes neural plate development determines the ANP...
  69. Lawson K. Fate mapping the mouse embryo. Int J Dev Biol. 1999;43:773-5 pubmed
    ..A revised fate map of the epiblast at 6.5 days gestation is provided, and the development of 3-dimensional, quantitative image analysis techniques outlined...
  70. Alberga A, Boulay J, Kempe E, Dennefeld C, Haenlin M. The snail gene required for mesoderm formation in Drosophila is expressed dynamically in derivatives of all three germ layers. Development. 1991;111:983-92 pubmed
    ..Expression of sna is transient and is observed in tissues derived from all three germ layers. Prior to germband elongation, sna RNA accumulation is consistent with its genetically determined role in ..
  71. Ratajczak M, Shin D, Liu R, Marlicz W, Tarnowski M, Ratajczak J, et al. Epiblast/germ line hypothesis of cancer development revisited: lesson from the presence of Oct-4+ cells in adult tissues. Stem Cell Rev. 2010;6:307-16 pubmed publisher
    ..However, we are aware that this working hypothesis requires further direct experimental confirmation...
  72. Simon L, Ekman G, Kostereva N, Zhang Z, Hess R, Hofmann M, et al. Direct transdifferentiation of stem/progenitor spermatogonia into reproductive and nonreproductive tissues of all germ layers. Stem Cells. 2009;27:1666-75 pubmed publisher
    ..recombined with the appropriate mesenchyme can directly transdifferentiate in vivo into tissues of all germ layers, including prostatic, uterine, and skin epithelium...
  73. Seisenberger S, Andrews S, Krueger F, Arand J, Walter J, Santos F, et al. The dynamics of genome-wide DNA methylation reprogramming in mouse primordial germ cells. Mol Cell. 2012;48:849-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide a framework for the understanding of the epigenetic ground state of pluripotency in the germline...
  74. Hall V, Christensen J, Gao Y, Schmidt M, Hyttel P. Porcine pluripotency cell signaling develops from the inner cell mass to the epiblast during early development. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:2014-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal cell signaling associated with maintaining pluripotency in human embryonic stem cells is detectable in the porcine epiblast, but not in the inner cell mass...
  75. Batlle Morera L, Smith A, Nichols J. Parameters influencing derivation of embryonic stem cells from murine embryos. Genesis. 2008;46:758-67 pubmed publisher
  76. Sumi T, Oki S, Kitajima K, Meno C. Epiblast ground state is controlled by canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling in the postimplantation mouse embryo and epiblast stem cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63378 pubmed publisher
    ..revealed that EpiSCs were able to contribute to primordial germ cells and descendants of all three germ layers in a host embryo, suggesting that they maintained pluripotency, even after prolonged culture with XAV939...
  77. He X, Liu J, Qi Y, Brakebusch C, Chrostek Grashoff A, Edgar D, et al. Rac1 is essential for basement membrane-dependent epiblast survival. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:3569-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal a signaling cascade triggered by cell-BM interactions essential for epithelial morphogenesis...
  78. Ramirez J, Gerbal Chaloin S, Milhavet O, Qiang B, Becker F, Assou S, et al. Brief report: benchmarking human pluripotent stem cell markers during differentiation into the three germ layers unveils a striking heterogeneity: all markers are not equal. Stem Cells. 2011;29:1469-74 pubmed publisher
    ..PSC) are functionally characterized by their capacity to differentiate into all the cell types from the three germ layers. A wide range of markers, the expression of which is associated with pluripotency, has been used as surrogate ..
  79. Yamanaka Y, Lanner F, Rossant J. FGF signal-dependent segregation of primitive endoderm and epiblast in the mouse blastocyst. Development. 2010;137:715-24 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we propose a model in which stochastic and progressive specification of EPI and PE lineages occurs during maturation of the blastocyst in an FGF/MAP kinase signal-dependent manner...
  80. Cockburn K, Rossant J. Making the blastocyst: lessons from the mouse. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:995-1003 pubmed publisher
    ..A greater understanding of the similarities and differences between mouse and human preimplantation development has implications for improving assisted reproductive technologies and for deriving human embryonic stem cells...
  81. Thomson M, Liu S, Zou L, Smith Z, Meissner A, Ramanathan S. Pluripotency factors in embryonic stem cells regulate differentiation into germ layers. Cell. 2011;145:875-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides a framework for understanding how complex transcription factor networks control cell fate decisions in progenitor cells...
  82. Nichols J, Smith A. The origin and identity of embryonic stem cells. Development. 2011;138:3-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on recent findings, we propose here that ES cells can be derived directly from early epiblast cells and that ES cells might arise via two different routes that are dictated by their culture conditions...