branchial region

Summary

Summary: A region, of SOMITE development period, that contains a number of paired arches, each with a mesodermal core lined by ectoderm and endoderm on the two sides. In lower aquatic vertebrates, branchial arches develop into GILLS. In higher vertebrates, the arches forms outpouchings and develop into structures of the head and neck. Separating the arches are the branchial clefts or grooves.

Top Publications

  1. Thomas P, Kim J, Nunez S, Glogauer M, Kaartinen V. Neural crest cell-specific deletion of Rac1 results in defective cell-matrix interactions and severe craniofacial and cardiovascular malformations. Dev Biol. 2010;340:613-25 pubmed publisher
  2. Compagnucci C, Debiais Thibaud M, Coolen M, Fish J, Griffin J, Bertocchini F, et al. Pattern and polarity in the development and evolution of the gnathostome jaw: both conservation and heterotopy in the branchial arches of the shark, Scyliorhinus canicula. Dev Biol. 2013;377:428-48 pubmed publisher
  3. Choudhary B, Ito Y, Makita T, Sasaki T, Chai Y, Sucov H. Cardiovascular malformations with normal smooth muscle differentiation in neural crest-specific type II TGFbeta receptor (Tgfbr2) mutant mice. Dev Biol. 2006;289:420-9 pubmed
    ..We infer that TGFbeta is an essential morphogenic signal for the neural crest cell lineage in specific aspects of cardiovascular development, although one that is not required for smooth muscle differentiation...
  4. Gillis J, Rawlinson K, Bell J, Lyon W, Baker C, Shubin N. Holocephalan embryos provide evidence for gill arch appendage reduction and opercular evolution in cartilaginous fishes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:1507-12 pubmed publisher
  5. Dobreva G, Chahrour M, Dautzenberg M, Chirivella L, Kanzler B, Farinas I, et al. SATB2 is a multifunctional determinant of craniofacial patterning and osteoblast differentiation. Cell. 2006;125:971-86 pubmed
    ..Thus, SATB2 acts as a molecular node in a transcriptional network regulating skeletal development and osteoblast differentiation...
  6. Kirilenko P, He G, Mankoo B, Mallo M, Jones R, Bobola N. Transient activation of meox1 is an early component of the gene regulatory network downstream of hoxa2. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:1301-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that Meox1 can specifically bind the DNA sequences recognized by Hoxa2 on its functional target genes. These results provide new insight into the Hoxa2 regulatory network that controls branchial arch identity...
  7. Müller I, Knapik E, Hatzopoulos A. Expression of the protein related to Dan and Cerberus gene--prdc--During eye, pharyngeal arch, somite, and swim bladder development in zebrafish. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:2881-8 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the complexity of the prdc expression pattern suggests possible roles in eye development, pharyngeal arch remodeling, somitogenesis, and swim bladder organogenesis...
  8. Vaccari E, Deflorian G, Bernardi E, Pauls S, Tiso N, Bortolussi M, et al. prep1.2 and aldh1a2 participate to a positive loop required for branchial arches development in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2010;343:94-103 pubmed publisher
    ..As the paralogue gene prep1.1 is more important in hindbrain patterning and neural crest chondrogenesis, we provide evidence of a functional specialization of prep genes in zebrafish head segmentation and morphogenesis...
  9. Miller C, Swartz M, Khuu P, Walker M, Eberhart J, Kimmel C. mef2ca is required in cranial neural crest to effect Endothelin1 signaling in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2007;308:144-57 pubmed
    ..Together our results support a model in which CNC cells require mef2ca downstream of edn1 signaling for proper craniofacial development...
  10. Swartz M, Nguyen V, McCarthy N, Eberhart J. Hh signaling regulates patterning and morphogenesis of the pharyngeal arch-derived skeleton. Dev Biol. 2012;369:65-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results demonstrate that Hh signaling is essential to establish intrinsic and extrinsic patterning information for the craniofacial skeleton...

Detail Information

Publications74

  1. Thomas P, Kim J, Nunez S, Glogauer M, Kaartinen V. Neural crest cell-specific deletion of Rac1 results in defective cell-matrix interactions and severe craniofacial and cardiovascular malformations. Dev Biol. 2010;340:613-25 pubmed publisher
  2. Compagnucci C, Debiais Thibaud M, Coolen M, Fish J, Griffin J, Bertocchini F, et al. Pattern and polarity in the development and evolution of the gnathostome jaw: both conservation and heterotopy in the branchial arches of the shark, Scyliorhinus canicula. Dev Biol. 2013;377:428-48 pubmed publisher
  3. Choudhary B, Ito Y, Makita T, Sasaki T, Chai Y, Sucov H. Cardiovascular malformations with normal smooth muscle differentiation in neural crest-specific type II TGFbeta receptor (Tgfbr2) mutant mice. Dev Biol. 2006;289:420-9 pubmed
    ..We infer that TGFbeta is an essential morphogenic signal for the neural crest cell lineage in specific aspects of cardiovascular development, although one that is not required for smooth muscle differentiation...
  4. Gillis J, Rawlinson K, Bell J, Lyon W, Baker C, Shubin N. Holocephalan embryos provide evidence for gill arch appendage reduction and opercular evolution in cartilaginous fishes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:1507-12 pubmed publisher
  5. Dobreva G, Chahrour M, Dautzenberg M, Chirivella L, Kanzler B, Farinas I, et al. SATB2 is a multifunctional determinant of craniofacial patterning and osteoblast differentiation. Cell. 2006;125:971-86 pubmed
    ..Thus, SATB2 acts as a molecular node in a transcriptional network regulating skeletal development and osteoblast differentiation...
  6. Kirilenko P, He G, Mankoo B, Mallo M, Jones R, Bobola N. Transient activation of meox1 is an early component of the gene regulatory network downstream of hoxa2. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:1301-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that Meox1 can specifically bind the DNA sequences recognized by Hoxa2 on its functional target genes. These results provide new insight into the Hoxa2 regulatory network that controls branchial arch identity...
  7. Müller I, Knapik E, Hatzopoulos A. Expression of the protein related to Dan and Cerberus gene--prdc--During eye, pharyngeal arch, somite, and swim bladder development in zebrafish. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:2881-8 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the complexity of the prdc expression pattern suggests possible roles in eye development, pharyngeal arch remodeling, somitogenesis, and swim bladder organogenesis...
  8. Vaccari E, Deflorian G, Bernardi E, Pauls S, Tiso N, Bortolussi M, et al. prep1.2 and aldh1a2 participate to a positive loop required for branchial arches development in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2010;343:94-103 pubmed publisher
    ..As the paralogue gene prep1.1 is more important in hindbrain patterning and neural crest chondrogenesis, we provide evidence of a functional specialization of prep genes in zebrafish head segmentation and morphogenesis...
  9. Miller C, Swartz M, Khuu P, Walker M, Eberhart J, Kimmel C. mef2ca is required in cranial neural crest to effect Endothelin1 signaling in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2007;308:144-57 pubmed
    ..Together our results support a model in which CNC cells require mef2ca downstream of edn1 signaling for proper craniofacial development...
  10. Swartz M, Nguyen V, McCarthy N, Eberhart J. Hh signaling regulates patterning and morphogenesis of the pharyngeal arch-derived skeleton. Dev Biol. 2012;369:65-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results demonstrate that Hh signaling is essential to establish intrinsic and extrinsic patterning information for the craniofacial skeleton...
  11. Abe M, Ruest L, Clouthier D. Fate of cranial neural crest cells during craniofacial development in endothelin-A receptor-deficient mice. Int J Dev Biol. 2007;51:97-105 pubmed
    ..However, a subset of NCCs appear to require Ednra signaling earlier, with loss of Ednra signaling likely leading to premature cessation of migration into or within the arches and subsequent cell death...
  12. Walker M, Miller C, Swartz M, Eberhart J, Kimmel C. phospholipase C, beta 3 is required for Endothelin1 regulation of pharyngeal arch patterning in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2007;304:194-207 pubmed
  13. Blentic A, Tandon P, Payton S, Walshe J, Carney T, Kelsh R, et al. The emergence of ectomesenchyme. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:592-601 pubmed publisher
    ..However, our results further suggest that, although FGF signaling is required for the realization of the ectomesenchymal lineages, other cues from the pharyngeal epithelia are also likely to be involved...
  14. Rochais F, Mesbah K, Kelly R. Signaling pathways controlling second heart field development. Circ Res. 2009;104:933-42 pubmed publisher
  15. Wang P, Lin C, Hwang H, Lee T. Branchial FXYD protein expression in response to salinity change and its interaction with Na+/K+-ATPase of the euryhaline teleost Tetraodon nigroviridis. J Exp Biol. 2008;211:3750-8 pubmed publisher
  16. Borday Birraux V, Van der Heyden C, Debiais Thibaud M, Verreijdt L, Stock D, Huysseune A, et al. Expression of Dlx genes during the development of the zebrafish pharyngeal dentition: evolutionary implications. Evol Dev. 2006;8:130-41 pubmed
  17. Hutson M, Kirby M. Model systems for the study of heart development and disease. Cardiac neural crest and conotruncal malformations. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2007;18:101-10 pubmed
    ..Thus, understanding congenital cardiac outflow malformations in human sequences of malformations as represented by the DiGeorge syndrome will necessarily require understanding development of the cardiac neural crest...
  18. Zhang Z, Cerrato F, Xu H, Vitelli F, Morishima M, Vincentz J, et al. Tbx1 expression in pharyngeal epithelia is necessary for pharyngeal arch artery development. Development. 2005;132:5307-15 pubmed
    ..We also thereby demonstrate conclusively that the role of Tbx1 in fourth PAA development is cell non-autonomous...
  19. Anderson M, Pham V, Vogel A, Weinstein B, Roman B. Loss of unc45a precipitates arteriovenous shunting in the aortic arches. Dev Biol. 2008;318:258-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results are the first to ascribe a role for Unc45a, a putative myosin chaperone, in vertebrate development, and identify a novel mechanism by which an AVM can form...
  20. Debiais Thibaud M, Germon I, Laurenti P, Casane D, Borday Birraux V. Low divergence in Dlx gene expression between dentitions of the medaka (Oryzias latipes) versus high level of expression shuffling in osteichtyans. Evol Dev. 2008;10:464-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate a low constraint on dlx gene expression shuffling in the odontogenic cascade within osteichtyans but the non-individualization of oral and pharyngeal dentitions in the medaka...
  21. Gillis J, Dahn R, Shubin N. Chondrogenesis and homology of the visceral skeleton in the little skate, Leucoraja erinacea (Chondrichthyes: Batoidea). J Morphol. 2009;270:628-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we suggest that the unique presence of certain visceral skeletal elements in chondrichthyans make oviparous chondrichthyans an ideal system for addressing questions of endoskeletal axial patterning during development...
  22. Fraser G, Hulsey C, Bloomquist R, Uyesugi K, Manley N, Streelman J. An ancient gene network is co-opted for teeth on old and new jaws. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data highlight an amazing modularity of jaws and teeth as they coevolved during the history of vertebrates. We exploit this diversity to infer a core dental gene network, common to the first tooth and all of its descendants...
  23. Huh S, Ornitz D. Beta-catenin deficiency causes DiGeorge syndrome-like phenotypes through regulation of Tbx1. Development. 2010;137:1137-47 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings identify Wnt-beta-catenin signaling as a crucial upstream regulator of a Tbx1-Fgf8 signaling pathway and suggest that factors that affect Wnt-beta-catenin signaling could modify the incidence and severity of DGS...
  24. Calmont A, Ivins S, van Bueren K, Papangeli I, Kyriakopoulou V, Andrews W, et al. Tbx1 controls cardiac neural crest cell migration during arch artery development by regulating Gbx2 expression in the pharyngeal ectoderm. Development. 2009;136:3173-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the spatiotemporal control of this tightly orchestrated network of genes participates in crucial aspects of PAA development...
  25. Nechiporuk A, Linbo T, Poss K, Raible D. Specification of epibranchial placodes in zebrafish. Development. 2007;134:611-23 pubmed
    ..The coordinated interplay between craniofacial tissues would thus assure proper spatial and temporal interactions in the shaping of the vertebrate head...
  26. Ladher R, O Neill P, Begbie J. From shared lineage to distinct functions: the development of the inner ear and epibranchial placodes. Development. 2010;137:1777-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarises recent studies into the induction, morphogenesis and innervation of these systems and discusses lineage restriction and cell specification in the context of their common origin...
  27. Ko S, Chung I, Xu X, Oka S, Zhao H, Cho E, et al. Smad4 is required to regulate the fate of cranial neural crest cells. Dev Biol. 2007;312:435-47 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data show that TGF-beta/BMP signals rely on Smad-dependent pathways in the ectomesenchyme to mediate epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that control craniofacial organogenesis...
  28. Coppola E, Rallu M, Richard J, Dufour S, Riethmacher D, Guillemot F, et al. Epibranchial ganglia orchestrate the development of the cranial neurogenic crest. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:2066-71 pubmed publisher
  29. Engeman J, Aspinwall N, Mabee P. Development of the pharyngeal arch skeleton in Catostomus commersonii (Teleostei: Cypriniformes). J Morphol. 2009;270:291-305 pubmed publisher
    ..Such "fluidity" in cartilage patterning may be widespread in fishes and requires further comparative developmental studies...
  30. Graham A, Okabe M, Quinlan R. The role of the endoderm in the development and evolution of the pharyngeal arches. J Anat. 2005;207:479-87 pubmed
    ..In particular, we focus on the emergence of the parathyroid gland, which we have recently shown to be the result of the internalization of the gills...
  31. Block A, Mabee P. Development of the mandibular, hyoid arch and gill arch skeleton in the Chinese barb Puntius semifasciolatus: comparisons of ossification sequences among Cypriniformes. J Fish Biol. 2012;81:54-80 pubmed publisher
  32. Dean M, Summers A, Ferry L. Very low pressures drive ventilatory flow in chimaeroid fishes. J Morphol. 2012;273:461-79 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that constraints on holocephalan jaw and hyoid movements were compensated for evolutionarily by novel visceral arch mechanics and kinematics...
  33. Nathan E, Monovich A, Tirosh Finkel L, Harrelson Z, Rousso T, Rinon A, et al. The contribution of Islet1-expressing splanchnic mesoderm cells to distinct branchiomeric muscles reveals significant heterogeneity in head muscle development. Development. 2008;135:647-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, the contribution of Isl1(+) SpM cells to a subset of branchiomeric skeletal muscles...
  34. Mehta R, Wainwright P. Functional morphology of the pharyngeal jaw apparatus in moray eels. J Morphol. 2008;269:604-19 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculate that morays have evolved this alternative prey transport strategy as a means of overcoming gape constraints, while hunting in the confines of coral reefs...
  35. BIRKHOLZ D, OLESNICKY KILLIAN E, George K, Artinger K. Prdm1a is necessary for posterior pharyngeal arch development in zebrafish. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:2575-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results indicate an essential role for prdm1a in the development of the zebrafish craniofacial skeleton...
  36. Nakae M, Sasaki K, Nakajima T, Miyazaki Y, Matsuura K. Homologies of the branchial arch muscles in Zacco platypus (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae): evidence from innervation pattern. J Morphol. 2011;272:503-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Homologies of some ventral branchial muscles are also discussed and the criteria for homology improved by clarifying the innervation pattern...
  37. Alexander C, Zuniga E, Blitz I, Wada N, Le Pabic P, Javidan Y, et al. Combinatorial roles for BMPs and Endothelin 1 in patterning the dorsal-ventral axis of the craniofacial skeleton. Development. 2011;138:5135-46 pubmed publisher
  38. Tavares A, Garcia E, Kuhn K, Woods C, Williams T, Clouthier D. Ectodermal-derived Endothelin1 is required for patterning the distal and intermediate domains of the mouse mandibular arch. Dev Biol. 2012;371:47-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results illustrate an integral role for ectoderm-derived Edn1 in early arch morphogenesis, particularly in the intermediate domain...
  39. Kutejova E, Engist B, Self M, Oliver G, Kirilenko P, Bobola N. Six2 functions redundantly immediately downstream of Hoxa2. Development. 2008;135:1463-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Six2 acts to mediate Hoxa2 control over the insulin-like growth factor pathway during branchial arch development...
  40. Knight R, Schilling T. Cranial neural crest and development of the head skeleton. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2006;589:120-33 pubmed
    ..We highlight recent genetic studies of craniofacial development in zebrafish that have revealed new tissue interactions and show that the process of CNC development is highly conserved across the vertebrates...
  41. Fraser G, Graham A, Smith M. Developmental and evolutionary origins of the vertebrate dentition: molecular controls for spatio-temporal organisation of tooth sites in osteichthyans. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2006;306:183-203 pubmed
    ..Utilising the data generated from the rainbow trout model, we propose this as a standard for comparative development and evolutionary theories of the vertebrate dentition...
  42. Depew M, Simpson C, Morasso M, Rubenstein J. Reassessing the Dlx code: the genetic regulation of branchial arch skeletal pattern and development. J Anat. 2005;207:501-61 pubmed
  43. Cheah F, Winkler C, Jabs E, Chong S. Tgfbeta3 regulation of chondrogenesis and osteogenesis in zebrafish is mediated through formation and survival of a subpopulation of the cranial neural crest. Mech Dev. 2010;127:329-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, proper cranial neural crest formation and survival, and ultimately craniofacial chondrogenesis and osteogenesis, are dependent on tight regulation of Tgfbeta3 protein levels in zebrafish...
  44. Talbot J, Johnson S, Kimmel C. hand2 and Dlx genes specify dorsal, intermediate and ventral domains within zebrafish pharyngeal arches. Development. 2010;137:2507-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our work indicates that the expression and function of hand2 and Dlx genes specify major patterning domains along the dorsoventral axis of zebrafish pharyngeal arches...
  45. Britz R, Conway K. Osteology of Paedocypris, a miniature and highly developmentally truncated fish (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Cyprinidae). J Morphol. 2009;270:389-412 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that the three genera form a monophyletic group. We further found that Paedocypris and Danionella share a number of uniquely derived characters pointing to a sister group relationship of the two...
  46. Xu H, Cerrato F, Baldini A. Timed mutation and cell-fate mapping reveal reiterated roles of Tbx1 during embryogenesis, and a crucial function during segmentation of the pharyngeal system via regulation of endoderm expansion. Development. 2005;132:4387-95 pubmed
    ..A genetic-based blueprint of crucial developmental times for organs and systems should be a valuable asset for our understanding of birth defect pathogenesis. ..
  47. Zerina J, Smith M. Origin and evolution of gnathostome dentitions: a question of teeth and pharyngeal denticles in placoderms. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2005;80:303-45 pubmed
    ..A comparable co-option is suggested for the Placodermi. ..
  48. Aiyer A, Honarpour N, Herz J, Srivastava D. Loss of Apaf-1 leads to partial rescue of the HAND2-null phenotype. Dev Biol. 2005;278:155-62 pubmed
  49. Grammatopoulos G, Bell E, Toole L, Lumsden A, Tucker A. Homeotic transformation of branchial arch identity after Hoxa2 overexpression. Development. 2000;127:5355-65 pubmed
    ..Hoxa2 appears to exert its effect during differentiation of the cartilage elements in the branchial arches, rather than during crest migration, implying that pattern is determined quite late in development. ..
  50. Miller C, Schilling T, Lee K, Parker J, Kimmel C. sucker encodes a zebrafish Endothelin-1 required for ventral pharyngeal arch development. Development. 2000;127:3815-28 pubmed
    ..Collectively our results support a model for dorsoventral patterning of the gnathostome pharyngeal arches in which Et-1 in the environment of the postmigratory cranial neural crest specifies the lower jaw and other ventral arch fates. ..
  51. Trumpp A, Depew M, Rubenstein J, Bishop J, Martin G. Cre-mediated gene inactivation demonstrates that FGF8 is required for cell survival and patterning of the first branchial arch. Genes Dev. 1999;13:3136-48 pubmed
    ..Because the mutant mice resemble humans with first arch syndromes that include agnathia, our results raise the possibility that some of these syndromes are caused by mutations that affect FGF8 signaling in BA1 ectoderm...
  52. Clouthier D, Schilling T. Understanding endothelin-1 function during craniofacial development in the mouse and zebrafish. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today. 2004;72:190-9 pubmed
  53. Thomas B, Liu J, Rubenstein J, Sharpe P. Independent regulation of Dlx2 expression in the epithelium and mesenchyme of the first branchial arch. Development. 2000;127:217-24 pubmed
    ..Thus, the signalling molecules BMP4 and FGF8 provide the mechanism for maintaining the strict epithelial and mesenchymal expression domains of Dlx2 in the first arch. ..
  54. Kanzler B, Kuschert S, Liu Y, Mallo M. Hoxa-2 restricts the chondrogenic domain and inhibits bone formation during development of the branchial area. Development. 1998;125:2587-97 pubmed
    ..The implications of these results on the patterning of the branchial area are discussed. ..
  55. Bulfone A, Kim H, Puelles L, Porteus M, Grippo J, Rubenstein J. The mouse Dlx-2 (Tes-1) gene is expressed in spatially restricted domains of the forebrain, face and limbs in midgestation mouse embryos. Mech Dev. 1993;40:129-40 pubmed
    ..Several mouse and human disorders have phenotypes which potentially are the result of mutations in the Dlx genes...
  56. Kurihara Y, Kurihara H, Suzuki H, Kodama T, Maemura K, Nagai R, et al. Elevated blood pressure and craniofacial abnormalities in mice deficient in endothelin-1. Nature. 1994;368:703-10 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that ET-1 is essential for normal mouse development and may also play a physiological role in cardiovascular homeostasis...
  57. Bingham S, Higashijima S, Okamoto H, Chandrasekhar A. The Zebrafish trilobite gene is essential for tangential migration of branchiomotor neurons. Dev Biol. 2002;242:149-60 pubmed
    ..We conclude that trilobite function is specifically required for two types of cell migration that occur at different stages of zebrafish development...
  58. Graham A. Development of the pharyngeal arches. Am J Med Genet A. 2003;119A:251-6 pubmed
    ..Thus pharyngeal arch development is more complex, and more consensual, than was previously believed...
  59. Bobola N, Carapuco M, Ohnemus S, Kanzler B, Leibbrandt A, Neubüser A, et al. Mesenchymal patterning by Hoxa2 requires blocking Fgf-dependent activation of Ptx1. Development. 2003;130:3403-14 pubmed
  60. Jerome L, Papaioannou V. DiGeorge syndrome phenotype in mice mutant for the T-box gene, Tbx1. Nat Genet. 2001;27:286-91 pubmed
    ..On the basis of this phenotype in mice, we propose that TBX1 in humans is a key gene in the etiology of DGS/VCFS...
  61. Yelick P, Schilling T. Molecular dissection of craniofacial development using zebrafish. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 2002;13:308-22 pubmed
    ..We discuss the potential impact of specialized mutagenesis screens and the future applications of this versatile, vertebrate developmental model system in the molecular dissection of craniofacial development...
  62. Ataliotis P, Ivins S, Mohun T, Scambler P. XTbx1 is a transcriptional activator involved in head and pharyngeal arch development in Xenopus laevis. Dev Dyn. 2005;232:979-91 pubmed
    ..Lineage labeling reveals a requirement for XTbx1 function in cells that contribute to the pharyngeal mesoderm and for fgf8 expression...
  63. Piotrowski T, Schilling T, Brand M, Jiang Y, Heisenberg C, Beuchle D, et al. Jaw and branchial arch mutants in zebrafish II: anterior arches and cartilage differentiation. Development. 1996;123:345-56 pubmed
    ..The mutants presented here may be valuable tools for elucidating the genetic mechanisms that underlie the development of the mandibular and the hyoid arches, as well as the process of cartilage differentiation...
  64. Frank D, Fotheringham L, Brewer J, Muglia L, Tristani Firouzi M, Capecchi M, et al. An Fgf8 mouse mutant phenocopies human 22q11 deletion syndrome. Development. 2002;129:4591-603 pubmed
    ..In either case, Fgf8 may function as a modifier of the 22q11 deletion and contribute to the phenotypic variability of this syndrome...
  65. Yanagisawa H, Clouthier D, Richardson J, Charité J, Olson E. Targeted deletion of a branchial arch-specific enhancer reveals a role of dHAND in craniofacial development. Development. 2003;130:1069-78 pubmed
  66. Rossel M, Capecchi M. Mice mutant for both Hoxa1 and Hoxb1 show extensive remodeling of the hindbrain and defects in craniofacial development. Development. 1999;126:5027-40 pubmed
  67. Schilling T, Piotrowski T, Grandel H, Brand M, Heisenberg C, Jiang Y, et al. Jaw and branchial arch mutants in zebrafish I: branchial arches. Development. 1996;123:329-44 pubmed
  68. Kimmel C, Miller C, Keynes R. Neural crest patterning and the evolution of the jaw. J Anat. 2001;199:105-20 pubmed
    ..We consider it likely that the jaw supports did indeed arise from branchiomeric cartilages...
  69. Brault V, Moore R, Kutsch S, Ishibashi M, Rowitch D, McMahon A, et al. Inactivation of the beta-catenin gene by Wnt1-Cre-mediated deletion results in dramatic brain malformation and failure of craniofacial development. Development. 2001;128:1253-64 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate the pivotal role of beta-catenin in morphogenetic processes during brain and craniofacial development...
  70. Nikolova M, Chen X, Lufkin T. Nkx2.6 expression is transiently and specifically restricted to the branchial region of pharyngeal-stage mouse embryos. Mech Dev. 1997;69:215-8 pubmed
    ..Nkx2.6 is expressed in all three layers comprising the caudal branchial arches (ectoderm, mesectoderm and endoderm) with the strongest expression being detected in the surface ectoderm...
  71. Trokovic N, Trokovic R, Partanen J. Fibroblast growth factor signalling and regional specification of the pharyngeal ectoderm. Int J Dev Biol. 2005;49:797-805 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that Fgfr1 is important for localized signalling in the pharyngeal ectoderm and consequently for normal tissue interactions in the developing second branchial arch...