uracil

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Top Publications

  1. doi Bacterial-derived uracil as a modulator of mucosal immunity and gut-microbe homeostasis in Drosophila
    Kyung Ah Lee
    School of Biological Science, Seoul National University and National Creative Research Initiative Center for Symbiosystem, Seoul 151 742, South Korea
    Cell 153:797-811. 2013
  2. pmc Characterization of the gene cluster responsible for cylindrospermopsin biosynthesis
    Troco Kaan Mihali
    The University of New South Wales, School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia
    Appl Environ Microbiol 74:716-22. 2008
  3. doi Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging biomarkers predict survival and response in hepatocellular carcinoma patients treated with sorafenib and metronomic tegafur/uracil
    Chao Yu Hsu
    Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
    J Hepatol 55:858-65. 2011
  4. ncbi Repair and genetic consequences of endogenous DNA base damage in mammalian cells
    Deborah E Barnes
    Cancer Research UK, London Research Institute, Clare Hall Laboratories, South Mimms, Hertfordshire EN6 3LD, UK
    Annu Rev Genet 38:445-76. 2004
  5. doi Cylindrospermopsin: occurrence, methods of detection and toxicology
    C Moreira
    CIMAR CIIMAR Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Genomics and Evolution, Porto University, Porto, Portugal
    J Appl Microbiol 114:605-20. 2013
  6. doi The cylindrospermopsin gene cluster of Aphanizomenon sp. strain 10E6: organization and recombination
    Anke Stüken
    Department of Biology, Microbial Evolution Research Group, University of Oslo, 0316 Oslo, Norway
    Microbiology 156:2438-51. 2010
  7. pmc Advancing uracil-excision based cloning towards an ideal technique for cloning PCR fragments
    Hussam H Nour-Eldin
    Plant Biochemistry Laboratory, Center for Molecular Plant Physiology, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK 1871 Frederiksberg C, Denmark
    Nucleic Acids Res 34:e122. 2006
  8. doi Genotoxicity of a freshwater cyanotoxin, cylindrospermopsin, in two human cell lines: Caco-2 and HepaRG
    Emmanuelle Bazin
    Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments, Unité de Toxicologie Génétique des Contaminants Alimentaires, Fougeres, France
    Environ Mol Mutagen 51:251-9. 2010
  9. ncbi Patient preference and pharmacokinetics of oral modulated UFT versus intravenous fluorouracil and leucovorin: a randomised crossover trial in advanced colorectal cancer
    M M Borner
    Early Clinical Studies Group of The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, Belgium
    Eur J Cancer 38:349-58. 2002
  10. pmc The versatile thymine DNA-glycosylase: a comparative characterization of the human, Drosophila and fission yeast orthologs
    Ulrike Hardeland
    Institute of Molecular Cancer Research, University of Zurich, August Forel Strasse 7, Ch 8008 Zurich, Switzerland
    Nucleic Acids Res 31:2261-71. 2003

Detail Information

Publications381 found, 100 shown here

  1. doi Bacterial-derived uracil as a modulator of mucosal immunity and gut-microbe homeostasis in Drosophila
    Kyung Ah Lee
    School of Biological Science, Seoul National University and National Creative Research Initiative Center for Symbiosystem, Seoul 151 742, South Korea
    Cell 153:797-811. 2013
    ..Here, we show that bacterial-derived uracil acts as a ligand for dual oxidase (DUOX)-dependent reactive oxygen species generation in Drosophila gut and that ..
  2. pmc Characterization of the gene cluster responsible for cylindrospermopsin biosynthesis
    Troco Kaan Mihali
    The University of New South Wales, School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia
    Appl Environ Microbiol 74:716-22. 2008
    ..The uracil ring is formed by a novel pyrimidine biosynthesis mechanism and tailoring reactions, including sulfation and ..
  3. doi Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging biomarkers predict survival and response in hepatocellular carcinoma patients treated with sorafenib and metronomic tegafur/uracil
    Chao Yu Hsu
    Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
    J Hepatol 55:858-65. 2011
    Sorafenib plus metronomic tegafur/uracil therapy can induce tumor stabilization in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients...
  4. ncbi Repair and genetic consequences of endogenous DNA base damage in mammalian cells
    Deborah E Barnes
    Cancer Research UK, London Research Institute, Clare Hall Laboratories, South Mimms, Hertfordshire EN6 3LD, UK
    Annu Rev Genet 38:445-76. 2004
    ..The genetic instability characteristic of cancer cells may be due, in part, to mutations in genes whose products normally function to ensure DNA integrity...
  5. doi Cylindrospermopsin: occurrence, methods of detection and toxicology
    C Moreira
    CIMAR CIIMAR Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Genomics and Evolution, Porto University, Porto, Portugal
    J Appl Microbiol 114:605-20. 2013
    ..It is important to review the information regarding the findings made until now about this cyanotoxin 30 years since its first report...
  6. doi The cylindrospermopsin gene cluster of Aphanizomenon sp. strain 10E6: organization and recombination
    Anke Stüken
    Department of Biology, Microbial Evolution Research Group, University of Oslo, 0316 Oslo, Norway
    Microbiology 156:2438-51. 2010
    ....
  7. pmc Advancing uracil-excision based cloning towards an ideal technique for cloning PCR fragments
    Hussam H Nour-Eldin
    Plant Biochemistry Laboratory, Center for Molecular Plant Physiology, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK 1871 Frederiksberg C, Denmark
    Nucleic Acids Res 34:e122. 2006
    The largely unused uracil-excision molecular cloning technique has excellent features in most aspects compared to other modern cloning techniques...
  8. doi Genotoxicity of a freshwater cyanotoxin, cylindrospermopsin, in two human cell lines: Caco-2 and HepaRG
    Emmanuelle Bazin
    Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments, Unité de Toxicologie Génétique des Contaminants Alimentaires, Fougeres, France
    Environ Mol Mutagen 51:251-9. 2010
    ..Moreover, ketoconazole reduced both the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity caused by CYN. Our results confirm the involvement of metabolic activation of CYN in mediating its toxicity and suggest that CYN is progenotoxic...
  9. ncbi Patient preference and pharmacokinetics of oral modulated UFT versus intravenous fluorouracil and leucovorin: a randomised crossover trial in advanced colorectal cancer
    M M Borner
    Early Clinical Studies Group of The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, Belgium
    Eur J Cancer 38:349-58. 2002
    ..v. 5-FU/LV. Oral UFT/LV compares favourably with i.v. 5-FU/LV in terms of toxicity and patient's preference and leads to prolonged 5-FU exposure, which is comparable to continuous i.v. 5-FU treatment...
  10. pmc The versatile thymine DNA-glycosylase: a comparative characterization of the human, Drosophila and fission yeast orthologs
    Ulrike Hardeland
    Institute of Molecular Cancer Research, University of Zurich, August Forel Strasse 7, Ch 8008 Zurich, Switzerland
    Nucleic Acids Res 31:2261-71. 2003
    Human thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG) is well known to excise thymine and uracil from G.T and G...
  11. ncbi Uracil in DNA--occurrence, consequences and repair
    Hans E Krokan
    Institute of Cancer Research and Molecular Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N 7489 Trondheim, Norway
    Oncogene 21:8935-48. 2002
    b>Uracil in DNA results from deamination of cytosine, resulting in mutagenic U : G mispairs, and misincorporation of dUMP, which gives a less harmful U : A pair...
  12. ncbi Identification and characterization of a novel human DNA glycosylase for repair of cytosine-derived lesions
    Tapas K Hazra
    Department of Human Biological Chemistry and Genetics, Sealy Center for Molecular Science, University of Texas Medical Branch, 6 136 Medical Research Building, Rte 1079, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:30417-20. 2002
    ..Despite the absence of a putative nuclear localization signal, NEIL2 was predominantly localized in the nucleus. These results suggest that NEIL2 is involved in global genome repair mainly for removing oxidative products of cytosine...
  13. pmc Uracil in DNA and its processing by different DNA glycosylases
    Torkild Visnes
    Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7489 Trondheim, Norway
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 364:563-8. 2009
    b>Uracil in DNA may result from incorporation of dUMP during replication and from spontaneous or enzymatic deamination of cytosine, resulting in U:A pairs or U:G mismatches, respectively...
  14. ncbi Concentrations of particulate and dissolved cylindrospermopsin in 21 Aphanizomenon-dominated temperate lakes
    Jacqueline Rücker
    Brandenburg University of Technology, Department of Freshwater Conservation, Bad Saarow Research Station, Seestrasse 45, 15526 Bad Saarow, Germany
    Toxicon 50:800-9. 2007
    ..It occurred in 98 CYN-positive samples, was the most abundant Nostocales and was the only Nostocales in five samples. This indicates that A. gracile is a potential CYN producer in German lakes...
  15. ncbi A randomized trial of adjuvant chemotherapy with uracil-tegafur for adenocarcinoma of the lung
    Harubumi Kato
    Department of Surgery, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan
    N Engl J Med 350:1713-21. 2004
    ..In a previous phase 3 trial of adjuvant chemotherapy after resection of non-small-cell lung cancer, a combination of uracil and tegafur (often referred to as UFT) taken orally was shown to prolong survival...
  16. doi Cylindrospermopsin induced DNA damage and alteration in the expression of genes involved in the response to DNA damage, apoptosis and oxidative stress
    B Zegura
    National Institute of Biology, Department for Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Biology, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
    Toxicon 58:471-9. 2011
    ..These results provide strong evidence that CYN should be considered as genotoxic and that lymphocytes can also be a target of cylindrospermopsin induced genotoxicity...
  17. doi A novel prokaryotic L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase is involved in cylindrospermopsin biosynthesis
    Julia Muenchhoff
    School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    FEBS J 277:3844-60. 2010
    ....
  18. pmc urg1: a uracil-regulatable promoter system for fission yeast with short induction and repression times
    Stephen Watt
    Cancer Research United Kingdom Fission Yeast Functional Genomics Group, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 3:e1428. 2008
    ..Given the short cell cycle of fission yeast, however, a promoter system that can be rapidly regulated, similar to the GAL system for budding yeast, would provide a key advantage for many experiments...
  19. pmc Enzymatic capture of an extrahelical thymine in the search for uracil in DNA
    Jared B Parker
    Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medical School, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Nature 449:433-7. 2007
    The enzyme uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG) excises unwanted uracil bases in the genome using an extrahelical base recognition mechanism...
  20. ncbi DNA-uracil and human pathology
    Mirta M L Sousa
    Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N 7006 Trondheim, Norway
    Mol Aspects Med 28:276-306. 2007
    b>Uracil is usually an inappropriate base in DNA, but it is also a normal intermediate during somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) in adaptive immunity...
  21. doi Alogliptin added to insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes reduces HbA(1C) without causing weight gain or increased hypoglycaemia
    J Rosenstock
    Dallas Diabetes and Endocrine Center, Dallas, TX 75230, USA
    Diabetes Obes Metab 11:1145-52. 2009
    ..To assess the efficacy and safety of alogliptin added to insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with insulin alone or combined with metformin...
  22. pmc Uracil residues dependent on the deaminase AID in immunoglobulin gene variable and switch regions
    Robert W Maul
    Laboratory of Molecular Gerontology, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Nat Immunol 12:70-6. 2011
    Activation-induced deaminase (AID) initiates diversity of immunoglobulin genes through deamination of cytosine to uracil. Two opposing models have been proposed for the deamination of DNA or RNA by AID...
  23. pmc Uracil DNA glycosylase uses DNA hopping and short-range sliding to trap extrahelical uracils
    Rishi H Porecha
    Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:10791-6. 2008
    ..One example is the enzyme uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG), which captures and excises rare extrahelical uracil bases that have emerged from the DNA ..
  24. pmc Origin of endogenous DNA abasic sites in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Marie Guillet
    CEA, DSV, Departement de Radiobiologie et Radiopathologie, UMR 217 CNRS CEA Radiobiologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, F 92265 Fontenay aux Roses, France
    Mol Cell Biol 23:8386-94. 2003
    ..Our results show that the deletion of the UNG1 gene encoding the uracil DNA glycosylase suppresses the lethality of the apn1 apn2 rad1 mutant...
  25. doi Phase II study of combining sorafenib with metronomic tegafur/uracil for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma
    Chih Hung Hsu
    Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
    J Hepatol 53:126-31. 2010
    ..Metronomic chemotherapy using tegafur/uracil (4:1 molar ratio), an oral fluoropyrimidine, has been shown to enhance the anti-tumor effect of anti-angiogenic ..
  26. doi Oxidative stress responses in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to a single dose of pure cylindrospermopsin under laboratory conditions: influence of exposure route and time of sacrifice
    Daniel Gutiérrez-Praena
    Area of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Profesor García González 2, 41012 Seville, Spain
    Aquat Toxicol 105:100-6. 2011
    ..The time of sacrifice had a bigger influence on the results than the exposure route because after 5 days some of the biomarkers assayed had recovered their pre-intoxication levels, which was not the case after 24 h...
  27. ncbi Identification of the first pyrimidine nucleobase transporter in Leishmania: similarities with the Trypanosoma brucei U1 transporter and antileishmanial activity of uracil analogues
    I G Papageorgiou
    Department of Biochemistry, Hellenic Pasteur Institute, 115 21 Athens, Greece
    Parasitology 130:275-83. 2005
    ..Here, we report a Leishmania major transporter with high affinity for uracil (Km=0.32+/-0.07 microM) which we designated LmU1...
  28. doi A second pathway to degrade pyrimidine nucleic acid precursors in eukaryotes
    Gorm Andersen
    Department of Cell and Organism Biology, Lund University, 223 62 Lund, Sweden
    J Mol Biol 380:656-66. 2008
    ..In eukaryotes, degradation of uracil has been believed to proceed only via the reduction to dihydrouracil...
  29. doi Genotoxic effects of the cyanobacterial hepatotoxin cylindrospermopsin in the HepG2 cell line
    Alja Straser
    Department for Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Biology, National Institute of Biology, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
    Arch Toxicol 85:1617-26. 2011
    ..Our results provide new evidence that CYN is genotoxic and strongly suggest that it needs to be considered in the human health risk assessment...
  30. doi Efficacy and safety of alogliptin added to pioglitazone in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with an open-label long-term extension study
    K Kaku
    Diabetes and Endocrine Division, Kawasaki Medical School, Okayama, Japan
    Diabetes Obes Metab 13:1028-35. 2011
    ..To assess the efficacy and safety of alogliptin added to pioglitazone versus pioglitazone monotherapy, in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes who achieved inadequate glycaemic control on pioglitazone plus diet/exercise...
  31. doi Structure and mechanism of the uracil transporter UraA
    Feiran Lu
    State Key Laboratory of Bio membrane and Membrane Biotechnology, Center for Structural Biology, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
    Nature 472:243-6. 2011
    ..Here we report the crystal structure of a representative NAT protein, the Escherichia coli uracil/H(+) symporter UraA, in complex with uracil at a resolution of 2.8 Å...
  32. ncbi Oral uracil and tegafur plus leucovorin compared with intravenous fluorouracil and leucovorin in stage II and III carcinoma of the colon: results from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol C-06
    Barry C Lembersky
    National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project, Pittsburgh, PA 15212, USA
    J Clin Oncol 24:2059-64. 2006
    The primary aim of this study was to compare the relative efficacy of oral uracil and tegafur (UFT) plus leucovorin (LV) with the efficacy of weekly intravenous fluorouracil (FU) plus LV in prolonging disease-free survival (DFS) and ..
  33. ncbi Structure of the 16S rRNA pseudouridine synthase RsuA bound to uracil and UMP
    J Sivaraman
    Biotechnology Research Institute, 6100 Royalmount Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H4P 2R2, Canada
    Nat Struct Biol 9:353-8. 2002
    ..We have determined the crystal structure of RsuA bound to uracil at 2.0 A resolution and to uridine 5'-monophosphate (UMP) at 2.65 A resolution...
  34. doi The influence of cylindrospermopsin on oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis induction in HepG2 cells
    Alja Straser
    National Institute of Biology, Department of Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Biology, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
    Chemosphere 92:24-30. 2013
    ....
  35. doi Efficacy and safety of alogliptin added to metformin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with an open-label, long-term extension study
    Y Seino
    Kansai Electric Power Hospital, Osaka, Japan
    Diabetes Obes Metab 14:927-36. 2012
    ..To evaluate the efficacy and safety of alogliptin added to metformin versus metformin monotherapy in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes who achieved inadequate glycaemic control on metformin (500 or 750 mg/day) + diet/exercise...
  36. pmc Uracil-containing DNA in Drosophila: stability, stage-specific accumulation, and developmental involvement
    Villo Muha
    Institute of Enzymology, Research Center for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Science, Budapest, Hungary
    PLoS Genet 8:e1002738. 2012
    Base-excision repair and control of nucleotide pools safe-guard against permanent uracil accumulation in DNA relying on two key enzymes: uracil-DNA glycosylase and dUTPase...
  37. pmc Nuclear localization of de novo thymidylate biosynthesis pathway is required to prevent uracil accumulation in DNA
    Amanda J MacFarlane
    Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:44015-22. 2011
    b>Uracil accumulates in DNA as a result of impaired folate-dependent de novo thymidylate biosynthesis, a pathway composed of the enzymes serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), thymidylate synthase (TYMS), and dihydrofolate reductase...
  38. doi Lowering of postprandial lipids in individuals with type 2 diabetes treated with alogliptin and/or pioglitazone: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study
    B Eliasson
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Goteborg, Sweden
    Diabetologia 55:915-25. 2012
    ..We assessed the effects of alogliptin (Alo) and Alo co-administered with pioglitazone (Pio) vs placebo (Pbo) on triacylglycerol (TG)-rich lipoproteins in type 2 diabetes before and following a high-fat meal...
  39. ncbi Specific binding of human MSH2.MSH6 mismatch-repair protein heterodimers to DNA incorporating thymine- or uracil-containing UV light photoproducts opposite mismatched bases
    H Wang
    Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 7301, USA
    J Biol Chem 274:16894-900. 1999
    ..Surprisingly, although hMutSalpha affinities for both non-photoproduct UU/GG double mismatches and for (uracil-cyclobutane-dimer)/AG single mismatches were high, affinity for the (uracil-cyclobutane-dimer)/GG mismatch was ..
  40. ncbi First observation of cylindrospermopsin in Anabaena lapponica isolated from the boreal environment (Finland)
    Lisa Spoof
    Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacy, Abo Akademi University, Tykistokatu 6A, FI 20520 Turku, Finland
    Environ Toxicol 21:552-60. 2006
    ..Cylindrospermopsin was confirmed by all three techniques in a culture sample of Anabaena lapponica at a concentration of 242 microg cylindrospermopsin per g freeze-dried cyanobacterial material...
  41. ncbi Cylindrospermopsin-induced protein synthesis inhibition and its dissociation from acute toxicity in mouse hepatocytes
    Suzanne M Froscio
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia
    Environ Toxicol 18:243-51. 2003
    ..In cell types deficient in CYP450 enzymes, protein synthesis inhibition may play a more crucial role in the development of cytotoxicity...
  42. ncbi Oral administration of uracil-tegafur (UFT) inhibits liver micrometastasis of human colon cancer in an orthotopic nude mouse model and its early detection system
    Yutaka Takahashi
    Department of Surgical Oncology, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, 13 1 Takaramachi, Kanazawa 920 8640, Japan
    Surg Today 34:855-9. 2004
    To evaluate the effect of UFT (an oral antineoplastic drug combining uracil and tegafur) as an adjuvant chemotherapy.
  43. pmc C(5) modified uracil derivatives showing antiproliferative and erythroid differentiation inducing activities on human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells
    Eleonora Brognara
    BioPharmaNet, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Molecular Biology Division, University of Ferrara, Via Luigi Borsari, 46 44100 Ferrara, Italy
    Eur J Pharmacol 672:30-7. 2011
    ..In this paper we report a screening study on a set of different modified C(5) uracil derivatives for the evaluation of their antiproliferative effect in connection with erythroid differentiation ..
  44. ncbi A randomized consent design trial of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with tegafur plus uracil (UFT) for gastric cancer--a single institute study
    Yoshinori Nio
    Department of Cardiovascular and Digestive Surgery, Shimane University School of Medicine, Shimane, Japan
    Anticancer Res 24:1879-87. 2004
    ..The present study was designed to assess the survival benefits of NAC with UFT (tegafur plus uracil) for gastric cancer, as a randomized consent trial as described by Zelen.
  45. pmc dUTPase activity is critical to maintain genetic stability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Marie Guillet
    CEA, DSV Département de Radiobiologie et Radiopathologie, UMR 217 CNRS Radiobiologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, BP 6, 92265 Fontenay aux Roses, France
    Nucleic Acids Res 34:2056-66. 2006
    ..All phenotypes of the dut1-1 mutant are suppressed by the simultaneous inactivation of the uracil DNA N-glycosylase, Ung1. However, the ung1 dut1-1 double mutant accumulates uracil in its genomic DNA...
  46. doi Uracil salvage is necessary for early Arabidopsis development
    Samuel E Mainguet
    URGV, UMR 1165 Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique CNRS, Evry Cedex, France
    Plant J 60:280-91. 2009
    ..b>Uracil phosphoribosyltransferases (UPRTs; EC 2.4.2...
  47. ncbi UPS1 and UPS2 from Arabidopsis mediate high affinity transport of uracil and 5-fluorouracil
    Anja Schmidt
    Plant Physiology, ZMBP, Auf der Morgenstelle 1, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    J Biol Chem 279:44817-24. 2004
    ..uptake systems for pyrimidines have been described, but in higher eukaryotes, transporters for thymine and uracil have not been identified...
  48. pmc Uracil in DNA: consequences for carcinogenesis and chemotherapy
    Sondra H Berger
    Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, South Carolina College of Pharmacy, University of South Carolina, 715 Sumter Street, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
    Biochem Pharmacol 76:697-706. 2008
    ..of the close relationship between dUMP and TMP, thymidylate stress is associated with increased incorporation of uracil into DNA. Genomic uracil is removed by uracil DNA glycosylases of base excision repair (BER)...
  49. ncbi Structure and function in the uracil-DNA glycosylase superfamily
    L H Pearl
    Section of Structural Biology and CRC DNA Repair Enzyme Group, Institute of Cancer Research, Chester Beatty Laboratories, 237 Fulham Road, SW3 6JB, London, UK
    Mutat Res 460:165-81. 2000
    Deamination of cytosine to uracil is one of the major pro-mutagenic events in DNA, causing G:C-->A:T transition mutations if not repaired before replication...
  50. ncbi Cylindrospermopsin genotoxicity and cytotoxicity: role of cytochrome P-450 and oxidative stress
    Andrew R Humpage
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia
    J Toxicol Environ Health A 68:739-53. 2005
    ..It therefore seems likely that CYP450-derived metabolites are responsible for both the acute cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by CYN...
  51. ncbi The Palm Island mystery disease 20 years on: a review of research on the cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin
    Dilwyn J Griffiths
    School of Biological Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville 4811, Australia
    Environ Toxicol 18:78-93. 2003
    ..Among the more recent developments described are those that come from the application of molecular techniques for characterizing toxic and nontoxic strains and for exploring the genetic aspects of CYN production...
  52. pmc JBP1 and JBP2 are two distinct thymidine hydroxylases involved in J biosynthesis in genomic DNA of African trypanosomes
    Laura J Cliffe
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 37:1452-62. 2009
    ..Reintroduction of JBP2 in the J-null trypanosome stimulates HOMedU formation and site-specific synthesis of base J. We conclude that JBP2 and JBP1 are the TH enzymes involved in J biosynthesis...
  53. doi Pyrimidine salvage in Trypanosoma brucei bloodstream forms and the trypanocidal action of halogenated pyrimidines
    Juma A M Ali
    Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8TA, United Kingdom
    Mol Pharmacol 83:439-53. 2013
    ..transport activities in bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei brucei found that these cells express a high-affinity uracil transporter (designated TbU3) that is clearly distinct from the procyclic pyrimidine transporters...
  54. ncbi Molecular mechanisms of antibody somatic hypermutation
    Javier M Di Noia
    Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, H2W 1R7 Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    Annu Rev Biochem 76:1-22. 2007
    ..Thus, DNA replication across the uracil yields transition mutations at C:G pairs, whereas uracil excision by UNG uracil-DNA glycosylase creates abasic ..
  55. ncbi An AbrB-like protein might be involved in the regulation of cylindrospermopsin production by Aphanizomenon ovalisporum
    Gali Shalev-Malul
    Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904, Israel
    Environ Microbiol 10:988-99. 2008
    ..coli, include N-acetylation and methylation of specific residues. We discuss the possible role of these modifications in the regulation of cylindrospermopsin production in Aphanizomenon...
  56. ncbi Clinical studies of three oral prodrugs of 5-fluorouracil (capecitabine, UFT, S-1): a review
    M Malet-Martino
    Groupe de RMN Biomédicale, Laboratoire des IMRCP, Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France
    Oncologist 7:288-323. 2002
    ..e., capecitabine, UFT (ftorafur [FTO] plus uracil), and S-1 (FTO plus 5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine plus potassium oxonate)...
  57. ncbi A new class of uracil-DNA glycosylases related to human thymine-DNA glycosylase
    P Gallinari
    Istituto di Richerche di Biologia Molecolare P Angeletti, Pomezia, Italy
    Nature 383:735-8. 1996
    Mispairs in DNA of guanine with uracil and thymine can arise as a result of deamination of cytosine and 5-methylcytosine, respectively. In humans such mispairs are removed by thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG)...
  58. ncbi Gene-targeted mice lacking the Ung uracil-DNA glycosylase develop B-cell lymphomas
    Hilde Nilsen
    Cancer Research UK, London Research Institute, Clare Hall Laboratories, South Mimms, Hertfordshire EN6 3LD, UK
    Oncogene 22:5381-6. 2003
    Mice deficient in the Ung uracil-DNA glycosylase have an increased level of uracil in their genome, consistent with a major role of Ung counteracting U:A base pairs arising by misincorporation of dUMP during DNA replication...
  59. pmc The UA_handle: a versatile submotif in stable RNA architectures
    Luc Jaeger
    Chemistry and Biochemistry Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 9510, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 37:215-30. 2009
    ..The sequence network resulting from the structural relationships shared by these RNA motifs can be used as a proto-language for assisting prediction and rational design of RNA tertiary structures...
  60. pmc Uracil incorporation into genomic DNA does not predict toxicity caused by chemotherapeutic inhibition of thymidylate synthase
    Yuhong Luo
    Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, South Carolina College of Pharmacy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
    DNA Repair (Amst) 7:162-9. 2008
    ..During TS inhibition, TTP levels decrease with a subsequent increase in dUTP. Uracil incorporated into the genome is removed by base excision repair (BER)...
  61. doi Base J: discovery, biosynthesis, and possible functions
    Piet Borst
    Center of Biomedical Genetics, Division of Molecular Biology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, 1066 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Annu Rev Microbiol 62:235-51. 2008
    ....
  62. ncbi Uracil in DNA--general mutagen, but normal intermediate in acquired immunity
    Bodil Kavli
    Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N 7006 Trondheim, Norway
    DNA Repair (Amst) 6:505-16. 2007
    ..In both cases, uracil is mainly removed by a uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) that initiates the base excision repair pathway...
  63. pmc Hierarchy of lesion processing governs the repair, double-strand break formation and mutability of three-lesion clustered DNA damage
    Laura J Eccles
    CRUK MRC Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, OX3 7DQ, UK
    Nucleic Acids Res 38:1123-34. 2010
    ..The inaccurate repair of such clusters has biological significance due to the ultimate risk of tumourigenesis or as potential cytotoxic lesions in tumour cells...
  64. pmc Cylindrospermopsin: a decade of progress on bioaccumulation research
    Susan Kinnear
    Centre for Environmental Management, CQUniversity Australia, Building 7, Bruce Highway, North Rockhampton, Queensland 4702, Australia
    Mar Drugs 8:542-64. 2010
    ..A discussion on the factors influencing bioaccumulation rates and potential is also provided, along with notes on detection, monitoring and risk assessments. Finally, key gaps in the existing research are identified for future study...
  65. pmc A mutant Pfu DNA polymerase designed for advanced uracil-excision DNA engineering
    Morten H H Nørholm
    Center for Biomembrane Research, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, SE 10691 Stockholm, Sweden
    BMC Biotechnol 10:21. 2010
    ..b>Uracil-excision based cloning is ligase and sequence independent and allows seamless fusion of multiple DNA sequences in ..
  66. ncbi Uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG)-deficient mice reveal a primary role of the enzyme during DNA replication
    H Nilsen
    Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Clare Hall Laboratories, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom
    Mol Cell 5:1059-65. 2000
    Gene-targeted knockout mice have been generated lacking the major uracil-DNA glycosylase, UNG. In contrast to ung- mutants of bacteria and yeast, such mice do not exhibit a greatly increased spontaneous mutation frequency...
  67. pmc Keeping uracil out of DNA: physiological role, structure and catalytic mechanism of dUTPases
    Beata G Vertessy
    Institute of Enzymology, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary
    Acc Chem Res 42:97-106. 2009
    The thymine-uracil exchange constitutes one of the major chemical differences between DNA and RNA...
  68. pmc Attenuated virulence of uridine-uracil auxotrophs of Aspergillus fumigatus
    C d'Enfert
    Laboratoire des Aspergillus and Unité d Histopathologie, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Infect Immun 64:4401-5. 1996
    ..mutation in the pyrG gene encoding orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase (and therefore auxotrophic for uridine or uracil) were evaluated in a murine model of invasive aspergillosis...
  69. pmc Human activation-induced cytidine deaminase causes transcription-dependent, strand-biased C to U deaminations
    Anjum Sohail
    Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 31:2990-4. 2003
    ..It suggests that AID may be recruited to variable genes through transcription without the assistance of other proteins and that the strand bias in SHM may be caused by the preference of AID for the non-transcribed strand...
  70. ncbi Randomized phase III trial of fluorouracil alone versus fluorouracil plus cisplatin versus uracil and tegafur plus mitomycin in patients with unresectable, advanced gastric cancer: The Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study (JCOG9205)
    Atsushi Ohtsu
    Division of Gastrointestinal Oncology Digestive Endoscopy, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan
    J Clin Oncol 21:54-9. 2003
    To compare fluorouracil (FU) alone with FU plus cisplatin (FP) and with uracil and tegafur plus mitomycin (UFTM) for patients with advanced gastric cancer in a prospective, randomized, controlled trial.
  71. ncbi Incorporation of uracil into minus strand DNA affects the specificity of plus strand synthesis initiation during lentiviral reverse transcription
    George J Klarmann
    Eccles Institute of Human Genetics and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City 84112, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:7902-9. 2003
    Many retroviruses either encode dUTP pyrophosphatase (dUTPase) or package host-derived uracil DNA glycosylase as a means to limit the accumulation of uracil in DNA strands, suggesting that uracil is detrimental to one or more steps in the ..
  72. doi Uracil recognition in archaeal DNA polymerases captured by X-ray crystallography
    Susan J Firbank
    Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH, UK
    J Mol Biol 381:529-39. 2008
    Archaeal family B DNA polymerases bind tightly to template-strand uracil and stall replication on encountering the pro-mutagenic base. This article describes an X-ray crystal structure, at 2...
  73. ncbi Uracil metabolism--UMP synthesis from orotic acid or uridine and conversion of uracil to beta-alanine: enzymes and cDNAs
    T W Traut
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill 27599, USA
    Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol 53:1-78. 1996
  74. pmc Improved survival for hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombosis treated by intra-arterial chemotherapy combining etoposide, carboplatin, epirubicin and pharmacokinetic modulating chemotherapy by 5-FU and enteric-coated tegafur/uracil: a p
    Toru Ishikawa
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Saiseikai Niigata Second Hospital, Teraji 280 7, Niigata 950 1104, Japan
    World J Gastroenterol 13:5465-70. 2007
    ..To investigate the poor prognosis of HCC with PVTT, we evaluated the efficacy by a new combination chemotherapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT)...
  75. pmc Single-nucleotide and long-patch base excision repair of DNA damage in plants
    Dolores Córdoba-Cañero
    Department of Genetics, University of Cordoba, 14071 Cordoba, Spain
    Plant J 60:716-28. 2009
    ..cell extracts contain the enzymatic machinery required to completely repair ubiquitous DNA lesions, such as uracil and abasic (AP) sites...
  76. ncbi Phenotypical variation in a toxic strain of the phytoplankter, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Nostocales, Cyanophyceae) during batch culture
    P R Hawkins
    Sydney Water Corporation, 51 Hermitage Road, West Ryde, NSW, 2114 Australia
    Environ Toxicol 16:460-7. 2001
    ..The application of algicides that promote cell lysis will exacerbate this effect...
  77. doi Effect of alogliptin, pioglitazone and glargine on pancreatic β-cells in diabetic db/db mice
    Satoshi Kawashima
    Department of Metabolic Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2 2 Yamadaoka, Suita City, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 404:534-40. 2011
    ..To examine if anti-diabetic reagents, such as insulin, pioglitazone (pio), and alogliptin (alo), have protective effects on β-cell mass and function in vivo, we treated obese diabetic db/db mice with these reagents...
  78. doi Increased uracil insertion in DNA is cytotoxic and increases the frequency of mutation, double strand break formation and VSG switching in Trypanosoma brucei
    Victor M Castillo-Acosta
    Instituto de Parasitologia y Biomedicina Lopez Neyra, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Parque Tecnológico de Ciencias de la Salud, Avenida del Conocimiento, s n 18100 Armilla, Granada, Spain
    DNA Repair (Amst) 11:986-95. 2012
    Deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate pyrophosphatase (dUTPase) and uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG) are key enzymes involved in the control of the presence of uracil in DNA...
  79. doi Efficacy and tolerability of the DPP-4 inhibitor alogliptin combined with pioglitazone, in metformin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes
    R A DeFronzo
    University of Texas Health Sciences Center, Diabetes Division, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, Texas 78229, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 97:1615-22. 2012
    ..Optimal management of type 2 diabetes remains an elusive goal. Combination therapy addressing the core defects of impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance shows promise in maintaining glycemic control...
  80. pmc Removal of uracil by uracil DNA glycosylase limits pemetrexed cytotoxicity: overriding the limit with methoxyamine to inhibit base excision repair
    A D Bulgar
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology Oncology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA
    Cell Death Dis 3:e252. 2012
    b>Uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) specifically removes uracil bases from DNA, and its repair activity determines the sensitivity of the cell to anticancer agents that are capable of introducing uracil into DNA...
  81. pmc Biosynthesis of cylindrospermopsin and 7-epicylindrospermopsin in Oscillatoria sp. strain PCC 6506: identification of the cyr gene cluster and toxin analysis
    Rabia Mazmouz
    Laboratoire Charles Friedel, UMR CNRS 7223, ENSCP ChimieParisTech, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France
    Appl Environ Microbiol 76:4943-9. 2010
    ..All the cylindrospermopsin producers studied gave a PCR product using specific primers for the amplification of the cyrJ gene from genomic DNA...
  82. pmc Unwinding of primer-templates by archaeal family-B DNA polymerases in response to template-strand uracil
    Tomas T Richardson
    Institute of Cell and Molecular Biosciences ICaMB, The University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH, UK
    Nucleic Acids Res 41:2466-78. 2013
    Archaeal family-B DNA polymerases bind tightly to deaminated bases and stall replication on encountering uracil in template strands, four bases ahead of the primer-template junction...
  83. ncbi Vaccinia virus uracil DNA glycosylase interacts with the A20 protein to form a heterodimeric processivity factor for the viral DNA polymerase
    Eleni S Stanitsa
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:3439-51. 2006
    ..A20 has been shown to interact with D4, the virally encoded uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG), by yeast-two hybrid and in vitro analysis...
  84. ncbi Distribution of 14C cylindrospermopsin in vivo in the mouse
    R L Norris
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, 39 Kessels Road, Coopers Plains, QLD 4108 Australia
    Environ Toxicol 16:498-505. 2001
    ..There is at least one methanol-extractable metabolite as well as a nonmethanol-extractable metabolite in the liver. The methanol-extractable metabolite was not found in the kidney and is more hydrophilic than CYN itself on reverse phase...
  85. ncbi Discovery of alogliptin: a potent, selective, bioavailable, and efficacious inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase IV
    Jun Feng
    J Med Chem 50:2297-300. 2007
    ..Alogliptin is currently undergoing phase III trials in patients with type 2 diabetes...
  86. pmc AR-C155858 is a potent inhibitor of monocarboxylate transporters MCT1 and MCT2 that binds to an intracellular site involving transmembrane helices 7-10
    Matthew J Ovens
    Department of Biochemistry, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TD, UK
    Biochem J 425:523-30. 2010
    ..Biol. Chem. 284, 20011-20021]...
  87. pmc Phylogenomic analysis of the uracil-DNA glycosylase superfamily
    J Ignacio Lucas-Lledó
    Department of Biology, Indiana University Bloomington, Indiana, USA
    Mol Biol Evol 28:1307-17. 2011
    The spontaneous deamination of cytosine produces uracil mispaired with guanine in DNA, which will produce a mutation, unless repaired...
  88. doi First occurrence of cylindrospermopsin in freshwater in France
    Luc Brient
    Université de Rennes U M R, CNRS Ecobio I F R CAREN, France
    Environ Toxicol 24:415-20. 2009
    ..55 and 1.95 microg/L. The occurrence of CYN represents an additional health hazard to MC especially because Aphanizomenon flos-aquae is the third most common species in freshwaters in France...
  89. ncbi Stressing-out DNA? The contribution of serine-phosphodiester interactions in catalysis by uracil DNA glycosylase
    R M Werner
    Center for Advanced Research in Biotechnology, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute and National Institute for Standards and Technology, 9600 Gudelsky Drive, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA
    Biochemistry 39:12585-94. 2000
    The DNA repair enzyme uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) pinches the phosphodiester backbone of damaged DNA using the hydroxyl side chains of a conserved trio of serine residues, resulting in flipping of the deoxyuridine from the DNA helix into ..
  90. ncbi Distinction and relationship between elongation rate and processivity of RNA polymerase II in vivo
    Paul B Mason
    Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Mol Cell 17:831-40. 2005
    ..Our results suggest that, in vivo, a reduced rate of Pol II elongation leads to premature dissociation along the chromatin template and that Pol II processivity can be uncoupled from elongation rate...
  91. doi Time-dependent histopathological changes induced in Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after acute exposure to pure cylindrospermopsin by oral and intraperitoneal route
    Daniel Gutiérrez-Praena
    Area of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Seville, Profesor García González 2, 41012 Seville, Spain
    Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 76:102-13. 2012
    ..p. route, and with the time of sacrifice, supporting the histopathological results obtained in these organs. Thus, both parameters could be useful for quantifying the extent of the damage in fish after CYN exposure...
  92. pmc Mimicking damaged DNA with a small molecule inhibitor of human UNG2
    Daniel J Krosky
    Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 34:5872-9. 2006
    Human nuclear uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG2) is a cellular DNA repair enzyme that is essential for a number of diverse biological phenomena ranging from antibody diversification to B-cell lymphomas and type-1 human immunodeficiency virus ..
  93. ncbi RutR is the uracil/thymine-sensing master regulator of a set of genes for synthesis and degradation of pyrimidines
    Tomohiro Shimada
    Department of Frontier Bioscience and Micro Nano Technology Research Centre, Hosei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184 8584, Japan
    Mol Microbiol 66:744-57. 2007
    ..Adding either uracil or thymine abolished RutR binding in vitro to the carAB P1 promoter...
  94. ncbi Presteady-state analysis of a single catalytic turnover by Escherichia coli uracil-DNA glycosylase reveals a "pinch-pull-push" mechanism
    Isaac Wong
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:19424-32. 2002
    b>Uracil-DNA glycosylase catalyzes the excision of uracils from DNA via a mechanism where the uracil is extrahelically flipped out of the DNA helix into the enzyme active site...
  95. ncbi Heteronuclear NMR and crystallographic studies of wild-type and H187Q Escherichia coli uracil DNA glycosylase: electrophilic catalysis of uracil expulsion by a neutral histidine 187
    A C Drohat
    Center for Advanced Research in Biotechnology, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, National Institute for Standards and Technology, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA
    Biochemistry 38:11876-86. 1999
    The nature of the putative general acid His187 in the reaction catalyzed by Escherichia coli uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) was investigated using X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy...
  96. doi Reducing sequence artifacts in amplicon-based massively parallel sequencing of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded DNA by enzymatic depletion of uracil-containing templates
    Hongdo Do
    Molecular Pathology Research and Development Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Clin Chem 59:1376-83. 2013
    ..Pretreatment of FFPE DNA with uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) can markedly reduce these C:G>T:A SNCs with a small panel of amplicons...
  97. doi Strikingly different properties of uracil-DNA glycosylases UNG2 and SMUG1 may explain divergent roles in processing of genomic uracil
    Berit Doseth
    Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
    DNA Repair (Amst) 11:587-93. 2012
    Genomic uracil resulting from spontaneously deaminated cytosine generates mutagenic U:G mismatches that are usually corrected by error-free base excision repair (BER)...
  98. ncbi Comparative pharmacokinetic study of continuous venous infusion fluorouracil and oral fluorouracil with eniluracil in patients with advanced solid tumors
    Alex A Adjei
    Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Department of Oncology, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    J Clin Oncol 20:1683-91. 2002
    ..To compare the pharmacokinetics of continuous venous infusion (CVI) fluorouracil (5-FU) with that of oral eniluracil/5-FU and to describe toxicities and clinical activity of prolonged oral administration of eniluracil/5-FU...
  99. ncbi Associations between two common variants C677T and A1298C in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene and measures of folate metabolism and DNA stability (strand breaks, misincorporated uracil, and DNA methylation status) in human lymphocytes in vivo
    Sabrina Narayanan
    Division of Cellular Integrity, Rowett Research Institute, Bucksburn, Aberdeen, United Kingdom
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13:1436-43. 2004
    ..between two variants of the MTHFR gene (C677T and A1298C) and blood folate, homocysteine, and genomic stability (strand breakage, misincorporated uracil, and global cytosine methylation in lymphocytes) in a study of 199 subjects.
  100. ncbi Oral toxicity of the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin in male Swiss albino mice: determination of no observed adverse effect level for deriving a drinking water guideline value
    A R Humpage
    Australian Water Quality Centre, Cooperative Research Centre for Water Quality and Treatment, Private Bag 3, Salisbury, South Australia 5108
    Environ Toxicol 18:94-103. 2003
    ....
  101. pmc Two thymidine hydroxylases differentially regulate the formation of glucosylated DNA at regions flanking polymerase II polycistronic transcription units throughout the genome of Trypanosoma brucei
    Laura J Cliffe
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 38:3923-35. 2010
    ..The regulation of J synthesis/localization by two THs and potential biological function of J in regulating kinetoplastid gene expression is discussed...

Research Grants63

  1. MECHANISM-BASED DRUG SELECTION AND DESIGN: NUCLEOTIDE SA
    Buddy Ullman; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Full length genomic and cDNA sequences for T. gondii uracil phosphoribosyl transferase (UPRT), nucleoside triphosphate hydrolyze (NTPase), hypoxanthine-guanine-xanthine ..
  2. Antibody-mediated Gene Therapy for the Treatment of Cancer
    TRACY RUTH DANIELS-WELLS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..second gene that will be used encodes a chimeric yeast enzyme (FCU1) that consists of cytosine deaminse (CD) and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT)...
  3. Folate Status, Genomic Uracil, and the Balance of Base Excision Repair Activity
    Michael D Wyatt; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Thus, folate deficiency decreases TTP, increases dUTP, and increases uracil incorporation into DNA...
  4. Regulation of Genomic and Epigenomic Stability at CpG Sites
    Alfonso Bellacosa; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cytosines have a tendency - higher for the former - to spontaneously deaminate, generating thymine and uracil, respectively...
  5. DNA REPAIR IN A HORMONE RESPONSIVE GENE
    Michael J Smerdon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will also examine BER of uracil incorporated at specific sites in the GRE complexed with protein (aim II)...
  6. Molecular Determinants of DNA Sliding and Hopping by a DNA Repair Glycosylase
    MENG MENG ROWLAND; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Human uracil DNA glycosylase (hUNG) searches and removes uracil bases from deoxyribose phosphate backbone using a remarkable ..
  7. Evaluation of a new class of antimicrobial agents against Clostridium difficile
    SAUL R contact TZIPORI; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..the prototype drug, is a dual acting DNA replication inhibitor which targets DNA polymerase through its anilino uracil (AU) component and gyrase/topoisomerase through its fluoroquinolone (FQ) component...
  8. RNA Modification Enzymes: Methyltransferase/psi-synthase
    Robert M Stroud; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..the basis for selectivity and catalysis in two of the most abundant families of RNA modifying enzymes: 5-methyl uracil (m5U) methyltransferases (MTases) and pseudouridine synthases (synthases)...
  9. ACTIVATION INDUCED DEAMINASE (AID) INTERACTING PROTEINS
    Michel C Nussenzweig; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..is a mutator enzyme that initiates somatic mutation and class switch recombination in B lymphocytes by introducing uracil:guanine mismatches into DNA...
  10. Re-Wiring Cellular Metabolism to Control Biofilm Formation and Virulence BY...
    Thomas K Wood; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..g., indole, uracil), and that biofilms may be dispersed via global regulators...
  11. The Regulation of Somatic Hypermutation
    F Nina Papavasiliou; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Secondary antibody diversification is triggered by deamination of cytidine residues (to yield uracil) within the immunoglobulin locus...
  12. Structural Biochemistry of DNA Base Repair
    John A Tainer; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..catalytic mechanism, and pathway coordination for these proteins that control BER pathway initiation: Aim 1, Uracil DNA N-Glycosylase (UDG/UNG) in deaminated base recognition and removal;Aim 2, N-glycosylase/AP-lyases in oxidized ..
  13. Gene-Nutrient Interactions in Neural Tube Defects
    Patrick J Stover; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..metabolism affects AdoMet and dTMP syntheses and thereby influences AdoMet-dependent methylation reactions and uracil content in DNA...
  14. Correlative Studies for NCI Study#7916: Phase I Clinical Trial of Intravenous FAU
    Patricia Mucci LoRusso; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..FAU (1-(2'-deoxy-2'- fluoro-2-D-arabinofuranosyl) uracil) is a pyrimidine nucleoside which acts as a suicide prodrug, taking advantage of high TS activity as part of its ..
  15. Determination of histone modifications necessary for DNA base excision repair in
    JOHN MICHAEL HINZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..NCP) model, consisting of the canonical histone octamer with associated DNA containing damage (in the form or uracil residues), which has been used as a prototype lesion to assess BER activity with purified repair enzymes...
  16. Metal inhibition of the base excision repair enzymes
    Anton Guliaev; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We also observed inhibition of the Uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG) activity in cell-free extracts suggesting that another non-metal requiring enzyme is a ..
  17. MOLECULAR GENETICS OF HSV DNA POLYMERASE GENE
    James M Hogle; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..thumb, palm, and fingers domains in terms of enzymatic functions, binding to the base excision repair (BER) enzyme uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG), viral replication, and mechanisms of antiviral drug resistance...
  18. MECHANISM OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN HYPERMUTATION
    URSULA B STORB; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..the cell cycle when AID is expressed will affect which other proteins interact with AID and with the AID-induced uracil, thus determining whether the uracil and neighboring sequences become mutated or are repaired error-free...
  19. Role of ABH1's AP endonuclease activity in immunoglobulin gene diversification
    TINA A MUELLER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..b>Uracil N-glycosylase (Ung) acts on the deaminated cytidine (now a uracil) to generate an abasic site...
  20. Epigenetic Control of Osteoblast Differentiation and Bone Formation
    Krishna M Sinha; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Sodium bisulfite converts all unmethylated cytosine in DNA to uracil, but not the methylated cytosine...
  21. Nucleoside hydrolase Inhibitors from natural products for Leishmania
    ESTEBAN EDWARD MENA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..requires the activity of the Leishmania major nucleoside hydrolase for growth on uridine as the sole source of uracil and the in vitro models of leishmaniasis...
  22. Genomic instability causes imatinib resistance in CML
    Tomasz Skorski; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..BCR/ABL elevates the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which induce "spontaneous" DNA lesions (for example uracil residues), whose unfaithful repair introduces amino acid substitutions in the BCR/ABL kinase domain causing ..
  23. Elucidating the Chemistry and Biology of Nucleic Acid Cytidine Deaminases in HIV
    RAHUL MANU KOHLI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..AID physiologically serves as the chief catalyst governing antibody diversity through the introduction of targeted uracil lesions in antibody variable genes or switch regions which ultimately result in higher affinity antibodies of ..
  24. HYBRID MOLECULES DESIGNED TO ENHANCE ANTIBIOTIC ACTIVITY
    George Wright; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..1-(1-cyclopropyl-3-carboxy-4-oxo-6,8-difluoro-7-quinolyl)-4-(2-methylpiperazinyl)]butyl}-6-(3-ethyl-4-methylanilino)uracil, and its S and R enantiomers...
  25. VACCINIA DNA REPLICATION
    Paula Traktman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will focus on understanding the mechanism whereby UDG/A20 confers processivity on Pol. Because D4 is an active uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG), we will investigate how replication-associated base excision repair is accomplished by ..
  26. Transcriptional Regulation of Motor Neuron Subtype Development
    MADALYNN LEA ERB; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..4-TU tagging uses the cell-type-specific expression of the enzyme Uracil Phosphoribosyl Transferase (UPRT) to label newly synthesized RNAs in specific subsets of cells in the developing ..
  27. Mycobacterium tuberculosis dUTPase as a tool in disease control
    Judit Toth; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Abstract dUTPase is the unique enzyme that catalyses the pyrophosphorolysis of dUTP, thus regulating the extent of uracil incorporation into DNA. Massive uracil incorporation may lead to cell death...
  28. A mouse model enabling in vivo labeling of fibroblast-specific transcription duri
    Richard A Steinman; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..g. fibroblasts) in vivo without dissecting or destroying the microenvironment. By expressing a YFP/uracil phosphoribosyl transferase (UPRT) gene specifically in mouse fibroblasts, only fibroblasts will be able to ..
  29. Impact of uracil DNA glycosylase on lung cancer cell sensitivity to pemetrexed
    LACHELLE DAWN WEEKS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Within tumor cells, pemetrexed causes genomic uracil incorporation through inhibition of enzymes involved in de novo thymidine biosynthesis...
  30. Uracil Damage Recognition by Uracil DNA Glycosylase
    James T Stivers; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..One such system is the uracil base excision repair pathway (UBER)...
  31. Recognition and excision of nucleosomal uracils by human uracil DNA glycosylase
    Mary R Stahley; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Recognition and excision of nucleosomal uracils by human uracil DNA glycosylase. DNA damage in cells must be repaired to maintain the integrity of the genome and prevent disease- causing mutations...
  32. Flavoenzymes in Pyrimidine Metabolism
    Bruce A Palfey; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..chemistry is performed by the DUSs, flavoproteins which are structurally related to DHODs and reduce specific uracil moieties in maturing tRNA...
  33. In situ Redirection of T cell Specificity and Imaging of Targeted CAR Expression.
    Pin Wang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by PET using the nucleoside analog substrate 2'-deoxy-2'-[18F]fluoro-5-ethyl-1-?-D-arabinofuranosyl- uracil ([18F]-FEAU)...
  34. Transcription-associated mutagenesis in yeast
    Sue Jinks-Robertson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Most of these AP sites are generated by the enzymatic removal of uracil, and genetic studies demonstrate that the transcription-associated uracil is derived from direct incorporation ..
  35. Targeted DNA cleavage at switch regions in immunoglobulin class switch recombinat
    Kefei Yu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, the mechanism by which switch region directs AID actions in-cis and the interplays of uracil repair pathways that ultimately lead to DNA double strand breaks remain poorly defined...
  36. Molecular Mechanisms of HIV Disease Pathogenesis
    Kathleen L Collins; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by pursuing the following three specific aims: (1) Determine whether Vif and Vpr counteract deleterious effects of uracil in HIV-infected macrophages...
  37. Homeostatic Regulation of Folate Metabolism
    Patrick J Stover; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Recently, we reported that the Shmt-/+ mouse model accumulates uracil in DNA and is sensitized to intestinal tumors and neural tube defects...
  38. Activation-induced Deaminase and Antibody Maturation
    Ashok S Bhagwat; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..deaminase (AID) belongs to the APOBEC family enzymes which convert cytosines in nucleic acids to uracil. AID is required for two processes essential for antibody maturation- somatic hypermutations and class-switch ..
  39. Base Analog Toxicity and Detoxification
    Andrei Kuzminov; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We have recently demonstrated that even natural base analogs uracil and hypoxanthine, that are not known to elicit any of the above consequences, are still genotoxic in E...
  40. Transcriptional analysis of adult newborn hippocampal neurons
    Richard H Goodman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will use retroviruses expressing Toxoplasma gondii uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT) to label adult newborn hippocampal neurons population specifically at their birth...
  41. T. Gondii: Pyrimidine Synthesis as a Chemo Target
    David J Bzik; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II (CPSII) in the de novo pyrimidine synthesis pathway causes a severe uracil auxotrophy with a corresponding loss of parasite growth and virulence...
  42. PET Proliferation Tracers
    Jeffrey L Schwartz; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..FLT (3'- deoxy-3'-L-fluorothymidine), FMAU (2'-fluoro-5-methyl-1-(_-D-2-arabino-furanosyl) uracil), and thymidine), can be modified by alterations in (1) nucleoside transporter levels, (2) cell cycle checkpoint ..
  43. HIV HOST-CELL INTERACTIONS
    Michael Emerman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In addition, Vpr interacts with a host cell DNA repair enzyme called Uracil DNA Glycosidase (UNG)...
  44. MECHANISM OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN HYPERMUTATION
    URSULA B STORB; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The 3'end of the gene is spared. The uracil is repaired in an error-prone fashion, resulting in an excess of transitions over transversions from all four ..
  45. MITDNA MUTAGENESIS BY ENVIRONMENTAL CARCINOGENS
    Keshav Singh; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Many environmental carcinogens deaminate bases in DNA. Of these bases, deamination of cytosine to uracil is of particular importance because human mitDNA is rich in cytosine and uracil mispairs with guanine in DNA, thus ..
  46. SIGNIFICANCE OF EPOXIDE GENERATED 3-ALKYL-URACIL IN DNA
    JEROME SOLOMON; Fiscal Year: 1999
    We have discovered a new class of DNA adducts, 3-alkyl uracil residues, which are the product of cytosine alkylation and deamination by a variety of aliphatic epoxides...
  47. DNA Repair Defects in IgA Deficiency
    REUBEN HARRIS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..have demonstrated that CSR is initiated by AID-catalyzed DNA cytosine deamination events and that the resulting uracil residues are recognized and processed by ubiquitous DNA repair systems such as base excision repair, mismatch ..
  48. PHARMACOLOGY OF ANTICANCER DRUGS IN ADVANCED AGE
    HEINZ LENZ; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..age group) will be treated in a series of standard Phase II trials with docetaxel, gemcitabine-paclitaxel, and uracil-ftorafur [UFT], respectively...
  49. VITAMIN B6 ADEQUACY, SMOKING AND DNA DAMAGE
    Terry Shultz; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Preliminary data reveal that vitamin B-6 inadequacy increases uracil incorporation in DNA...
  50. DNA BASE EXCISION REPAIR IN PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM
    THEODORE TARASCHI; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..investigations revealed that Plasmodium falciparum (Pj) has DNA repair capabilities, and that the removal of uracil and the repair of abasic sites in DNA are exclusively by a long-patch base excision repair (BER) pathway, which is ..
  51. Pseudouridines, pseudouridine synthases, and ribosomes
    MURRAY DEUTSCHER; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..This unique reaction involves breaking the uridine N-C glycosyl bond, rotating the uracil base, and reforming a C-C glycosyl link. Two classes of enzyme systems exist...
  52. Improving self delivering properties of RNAi compounds through medicinal chemistr
    Karen G Bulock; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..A panel of lipophilically modified nucleotide phosphoramidites (pre-cursor monomers) using position 5 of a uracil will be synthesized for initial screening...
  53. Exploring the Role of Vif Antagonists in Preventing Sexual HIV Transmission
    Mario Stevenson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A3G is an enzyme of the AID/APOBEC family, characterized by the targeted deamination of cytosine to generate uracil within DNA...
  54. MED1 MUTATIONS IN COLORECTAL CANCER
    Alfonso Bellacosa; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..MED1 displays thymine and uracil glycosylase activity, removing these bases from G:T and G:U mismatches...
  55. REACTION COORDINATE ANALYSES--URACIL DNA GLYCOSYLASES
    NICOLE HORENSTEIN; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..from the Applicant's Abstract): This proposal presents a research plan for a comparative mechanistic analysis of uracil DNA glycosylases (UDG's) from E. coli and Vaccina virus, and mismatch-specific uracil DNA glycosylase (MUG) from E...
  56. A novel method to identify interacting partners of insoluble proteins
    F Nina Papavasiliou; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Both CSR and SHM are triggered by deamination of cytidine residues (to yield uracil) within the immunoglobulin locus...
  57. Prodrug enzyme therapy of pancreatic cancer mediated by oncolytic HSV vector
    Michael Lanuti; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..is tested that tumor-targeted delivery of two different prodrug converting enzymes, yeast cytosine deaminase and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase fusion protein (yCD-UPRT) and rabbit carboxylesterase (rCE), by an oncolytic HSV vector ..
  58. PET IMAGING OF DRUG KINETICS AND PATHWAYS
    Anthony Shields; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..To test this paradigm we have chosen to study [F-18] FAU {1-(2'-deoxy-2'- fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-uracil} for use in PET. This compound is entering phase I trials at our institution...
  59. FUNCTION FOR VPR AND VPX OF PRIMATE LENTIVIRUSES
    Mario Stevenson; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..a delay in the G2 phase of the cell cycle and has additionally been shown to associate with the DNA repair enzyme, uracil DNA glycosylase...
  60. PET & MR QUANTITATIVE IMAGING OF TRANSGENE EXPRESSION
    Juri Gelovani; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..validate a novel hybrid "reporter" gene that combines two pro-drug activating genes, cytosine deaminase (CD) and uracil phosphoribo-transferase (UPRT)...
  61. GRAM+ ANTIMICROBIALS TARGETED TO DNA POLYMERASE III
    George Wright; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..i) continued evaluation of lead drug candidates, 3-(4-hydroxybutyl) derivatives of 6-(3-ethyl-4- methylanilino) uracil (HB-EMAU) and 6-(3-iodo-4-methylanilino)uracil (HB-IMAU) for efficacy and toxicity in mice; (ii) synthesis of new ..
  62. ANALOGS OF 6-VINYLURACIL AS ANTITUMOR AGENTS
    BRIAN OTTER; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..and is intended to amplify and extend the earlier findings that 6-vinyluracil and 6-(2-bromoethylacrylyl)-uracil are active in vivo against a number of experimental tumors in mice...
  63. MECHANISM OF ACTION OF RADIATION REPAIR ENZYMES
    YOKE KOW; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..by base excision repair enzymes including endonucleases III, IV and VIII, exonuclease III, formamidopyrimidine, uracil and hypoxanthine DNA N-glycosylases...