Summary: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit CORTICOTROPIN secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Stress and adult neurogenesis
    Christian Mirescu
    Department of Psychology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA
    Hippocampus 16:233-8. 2006
  2. ncbi Antiinflammatory action of glucocorticoids--new mechanisms for old drugs
    Turk Rhen
    Department of Biology, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, USA
    N Engl J Med 353:1711-23. 2005
  3. ncbi The IGF-1/PI3K/Akt pathway prevents expression of muscle atrophy-induced ubiquitin ligases by inhibiting FOXO transcription factors
    Trevor N Stitt
    Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc, 777 Old Saw Mill River Road, Tarrytown, NY 10591, USA
    Mol Cell 14:395-403. 2004
  4. pmc The stressed synapse: the impact of stress and glucocorticoids on glutamate transmission
    Maurizio Popoli
    Center of Neuropharmacology, Department of Pharmacological Sciences and Center of Excellence on Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Milan, 20133 Milan, Italy
    Nat Rev Neurosci 13:22-37. 2012
  5. ncbi Glucocorticoid resistance in inflammatory diseases
    Peter J Barnes
    National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, UK
    Lancet 373:1905-17. 2009
  6. ncbi 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1: a tissue-specific regulator of glucocorticoid response
    Jeremy W Tomlinson
    Endocrinology, Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TH, UK
    Endocr Rev 25:831-66. 2004
  7. pmc Adolescent stress-induced epigenetic control of dopaminergic neurons via glucocorticoids
    Minae Niwa
    Department of Chemical Pharmacology, Meijo University Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan
    Science 339:335-9. 2013
  8. ncbi Low-dose prednisone inclusion in a methotrexate-based, tight control strategy for early rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized trial
    Marije F Bakker
    Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology and Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, and Diakonessenhuis, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Ann Intern Med 156:329-39. 2012
  9. pmc Glucocorticoids, cytokines and brain abnormalities in depression
    Patricia A Zunszain
    Stress, Psychiatry and Immunology Laboratory SPI Lab, Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, King s College London, 125 Coldharbour Lane, SE59NU London, United Kingdom
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 35:722-9. 2011
  10. ncbi The Salmeterol Multicenter Asthma Research Trial: a comparison of usual pharmacotherapy for asthma or usual pharmacotherapy plus salmeterol
    Harold S Nelson
    National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, CO, USA
    Chest 129:15-26. 2006

Detail Information

Publications360 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Stress and adult neurogenesis
    Christian Mirescu
    Department of Psychology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA
    Hippocampus 16:233-8. 2006
    ..Although some evidence points to a role for glucocorticoids in mediating this effect, contradictory data exist...
  2. ncbi Antiinflammatory action of glucocorticoids--new mechanisms for old drugs
    Turk Rhen
    Department of Biology, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, USA
    N Engl J Med 353:1711-23. 2005
  3. ncbi The IGF-1/PI3K/Akt pathway prevents expression of muscle atrophy-induced ubiquitin ligases by inhibiting FOXO transcription factors
    Trevor N Stitt
    Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc, 777 Old Saw Mill River Road, Tarrytown, NY 10591, USA
    Mol Cell 14:395-403. 2004
  4. pmc The stressed synapse: the impact of stress and glucocorticoids on glutamate transmission
    Maurizio Popoli
    Center of Neuropharmacology, Department of Pharmacological Sciences and Center of Excellence on Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Milan, 20133 Milan, Italy
    Nat Rev Neurosci 13:22-37. 2012
    Mounting evidence suggests that acute and chronic stress, especially the stress-induced release of glucocorticoids, induces changes in glutamate neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus, thereby influencing some ..
  5. ncbi Glucocorticoid resistance in inflammatory diseases
    Peter J Barnes
    National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, UK
    Lancet 373:1905-17. 2009
  6. ncbi 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1: a tissue-specific regulator of glucocorticoid response
    Jeremy W Tomlinson
    Endocrinology, Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TH, UK
    Endocr Rev 25:831-66. 2004
    ..Therapeutic inhibition of 11beta-HSD1 reductase activity in patients with obesity and the metabolic syndrome, as well as in glaucoma and osteoporosis, remains an exciting prospect...
  7. pmc Adolescent stress-induced epigenetic control of dopaminergic neurons via glucocorticoids
    Minae Niwa
    Department of Chemical Pharmacology, Meijo University Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan
    Science 339:335-9. 2013
    ..We describe an underlying mechanism in which glucocorticoids link adolescent stressors to epigenetic controls in neurons...
  8. ncbi Low-dose prednisone inclusion in a methotrexate-based, tight control strategy for early rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized trial
    Marije F Bakker
    Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology and Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, and Diakonessenhuis, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Ann Intern Med 156:329-39. 2012
    ..Treatment strategies for tight control of early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are highly effective but can be improved...
  9. pmc Glucocorticoids, cytokines and brain abnormalities in depression
    Patricia A Zunszain
    Stress, Psychiatry and Immunology Laboratory SPI Lab, Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, King s College London, 125 Coldharbour Lane, SE59NU London, United Kingdom
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 35:722-9. 2011
    ..b>Glucocorticoids, such as cortisol, are vital hormones that are released in response to stress, and regulate metabolism and ..
  10. ncbi The Salmeterol Multicenter Asthma Research Trial: a comparison of usual pharmacotherapy for asthma or usual pharmacotherapy plus salmeterol
    Harold S Nelson
    National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, CO, USA
    Chest 129:15-26. 2006
    ..To compare the safety of salmeterol xinafoate or placebo added to usual asthma care...
  11. ncbi Mechanisms involved in the side effects of glucocorticoids
    Heike Schäcke
    Research Business Area Dermatology, Schering AG, D 13342, Berlin, Germany
    Pharmacol Ther 96:23-43. 2002
    b>Glucocorticoids (GCs) represent the most important and frequently used class of anti-inflammatory drugs...
  12. pmc 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 knockout mice show attenuated glucocorticoid-inducible responses and resist hyperglycemia on obesity or stress
    Y Kotelevtsev
    Centre for Genome Research, University of Edinburgh, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH 9 3JQ, Scotland, UK
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:14924-9. 1997
    ..11beta-HSD type 2, a dehydrogenase, thus excludes glucocorticoids from otherwise nonselective mineralocorticoid receptors in the kidney...
  13. pmc Muscle sparing in muscle RING finger 1 null mice: response to synthetic glucocorticoids
    Leslie M Baehr
    Department of Neurobiology, Physiology, and Behavior, University of California Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    J Physiol 589:4759-76. 2011
    ..These results demonstrate that MuRF1 and MAFbx do not function similarly under all atrophy models, and that the primary role of MuRF1 may extend beyond controlling protein degradation via the ubiquitin proteasome system...
  14. ncbi The effects of glucocorticoids on adipose tissue lipid metabolism
    Ashley J Peckett
    School of Kinesiology and Health Science Muscle Health Research Centre, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Metabolism 60:1500-10. 2011
    b>Glucocorticoids (GCs) have long been accepted as being catabolic in nature, liberating energy substrates during times of stress to supply the increased metabolic demand of the body...
  15. ncbi Glucocorticoids, prenatal stress and the programming of disease
    Anjanette Harris
    University of Edinburgh, Endocrinology Unit, Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Queen s Medical Research Institute, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, UK
    Horm Behav 59:279-89. 2011
    ..In humans and in animal models, prenatal stress, excess exogenous glucocorticoids or inhibition of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD2; the placental barrier to maternal ..
  16. pmc Novel fat depot-specific mechanisms underlie resistance to visceral obesity and inflammation in 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1-deficient mice
    Malgorzata Wamil
    Endocrinology Unit, University of Edinburgh, Queen s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, Scotland
    Diabetes 60:1158-67. 2011
  17. ncbi Inhaled corticosteroid use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the risk of hospitalization for pneumonia
    Pierre Ernst
    Pharmacoepidemiology Research Unit, Department of Medicine, McGill University Health Centre, and Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Ross 4 29, Royal Victoria Hospital, 687 Pine Avenue West, Montreal, PQ, Quebec, H3A 1A1 Canada
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 176:162-6. 2007
    ..Inhaled corticosteroids are commonly prescribed to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
  18. ncbi The crucial role of pulsatile activity of the HPA axis for continuous dynamic equilibration
    Stafford L Lightman
    University of Bristol, Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Integrative Neuroscience and Endocrinology, Dorothy Hodgkin Building, Whitson Street, Bristol, BS1 3NY, UK
    Nat Rev Neurosci 11:710-8. 2010
    ..We propose that this continuous oscillatory activity is crucial for optimal responsiveness of glucocorticoid-sensitive neural processes...
  19. ncbi FK506-binding proteins 51 and 52 differentially regulate dynein interaction and nuclear translocation of the glucocorticoid receptor in mammalian cells
    Gabriela M Wochnik
    Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Kraepelinstrasse 10, D 80804 Munich, Germany
    J Biol Chem 280:4609-16. 2005
    ..In addition, differential regulation of dynein association and nuclear translocation contributes to the effects of the two immunophilins on the glucocorticoid receptor in mammals...
  20. ncbi Mechanisms of glucocorticoid-induced myopathy
    O Schakman
    Unite de Diabetologie et Nutrition, Faculte de Medecine, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 54 Avenue Hippocrate, B 1200 Brussels, Belgium
    J Endocrinol 197:1-10. 2008
    ..through the ubiquitin- proteasome system (UPS), is considered to play a major role in the catabolic action of glucocorticoids. The stimulation by glucocorticoids of the UPS is mediated through the increased expression of several ..
  21. ncbi Annexin A1 and glucocorticoids as effectors of the resolution of inflammation
    Mauro Perretti
    William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London EC1M 6BQ, UK
    Nat Rev Immunol 9:62-70. 2009
    b>Glucocorticoids are widely used for the management of inflammatory diseases...
  22. pmc MicroRNA signature in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis, reversibility with glucocorticoids, and assessment as disease biomarkers
    Thomas X Lu
    Division of Allergy and Immunology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 129:1064-75.e9. 2012
    ..The role of microRNAs (miRNAs), a key class of regulators of mRNA expression and translation, in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has not been explored...
  23. ncbi Measuring stress in wildlife: techniques for quantifying glucocorticoids
    Michael J Sheriff
    Centre for the Neurobiology of Stress, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Oecologia 166:869-87. 2011
    ..Glucocorticoid measurement is proving to be a powerful integrator of environmental stressors and of an animal's condition...
  24. ncbi Epigenetic mechanisms of perinatal programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and health
    Michael J Meaney
    McGill Program for Study of Genes, Environment and Health, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
    Trends Mol Med 13:269-77. 2007
    ..HPA) axis such that (i) the effect of maternal adversity on foetal growth is mediated by adrenal glucocorticoids and (ii) environmental adversity alters maternal physiology and behaviour, which then programs HPA activity ..
  25. ncbi Neuroendocrine regulation of immunity
    Jeanette I Webster
    Section on Neuroimmune Immunology and Behavior, National Institute of Mental Health, Bldg 36, Room 1A 23 MSC 4020, 36 Convent Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 4020, USA
    Annu Rev Immunol 20:125-63. 2002
    ..b>Glucocorticoids are the main effector end point of this neuroendocrine system and, through the glucocorticoid receptor, have ..
  26. pmc Expanded 2-year follow-up of ranibizumab plus prompt or deferred laser or triamcinolone plus prompt laser for diabetic macular edema
    Michael J Elman
    Elman Retina Group, PA, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Ophthalmology 118:609-14. 2011
    ..5 mg ranibizumab or 4 mg triamcinolone combined with focal/grid laser compared with focal/grid laser alone for treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME)...
  27. ncbi Low-dose prednisolone in addition to the initial disease-modifying antirheumatic drug in patients with early active rheumatoid arthritis reduces joint destruction and increases the remission rate: a two-year randomized trial
    Björn Svensson
    University of Lund, Lund, Sweden
    Arthritis Rheum 52:3360-70. 2005
    ..To assess the efficacy of low-dose prednisolone on joint damage and disease activity in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
  28. ncbi Glucocorticoids, depression, and mood disorders: structural remodeling in the brain
    Bruce S McEwen
    Harold and Margaret Milliken Hatch Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Metabolism 54:20-3. 2005
    ..Yet, these are not necessarily "damaged" and may be treatable with the right medications. The mechanisms that distinguish between protection and damage of brain cells from stress are discussed in this context...
  29. pmc Neural regulation of innate immunity: a coordinated nonspecific host response to pathogens
    Esther M Sternberg
    Section on Neuroendocrine Immunology and Behaviour, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, 5625 Fishers Lane, Room 4N 13, MSC 9401, Rockville, Maryland 20852, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 6:318-28. 2006
    ..Here, I review these regulatory mechanisms and discuss the evidence indicating that the CNS can be considered as integral to acute-phase inflammatory responses to pathogens as the innate immune system...
  30. pmc The human glucocorticoid receptor: molecular basis of biologic function
    Nicolas C Nicolaides
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Clinical Research Center, Biomedical Research Foundation of the Academy of Athens, 11527, Athens, Greece
    Steroids 75:1-12. 2010
    ..This review summarizes the basic aspects of the structure and actions of the human (h) GR, and the molecular basis of its biologic functions...
  31. ncbi Regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase expression by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha ligands, glucocorticoids, and insulin
    Boli Huang
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 5122, USA
    Diabetes 51:276-83. 2002
    ..The findings suggest that decreased levels of insulin and increased levels of fatty acids and glucocorticoids promote PDK4 gene expression in starvation and diabetes...
  32. ncbi Glucocorticoids and cardiovascular disease
    Brian R Walker
    Endocrinology Unit, Queen s Medical Research Institute, Centre for Cardiovascular Science, University of Edinburgh, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, Scotland, UK
    Eur J Endocrinol 157:545-59. 2007
    ..Subtle abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and/or of tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids are also associated with these cardiovascular risk factors in patients with the metabolic syndrome...
  33. ncbi Glucocorticoids and the Th1/Th2 balance
    Ilia J Elenkov
    Clinical Neuroendocrinology Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, Room 2D46, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1024:138-46. 2004
    Evidence accumulated over the last 5-10 years indicates that glucocorticoids (GCs) inhibit the production of interleukin (IL)-12, interferon (IFN)-gamma, IFN-alpha, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) ..
  34. pmc Crosstalk in inflammation: the interplay of glucocorticoid receptor-based mechanisms and kinases and phosphatases
    Ilse M E Beck
    Laboratory of Eukaryotic Gene Expression and Signal Transduction, K L Ledeganckstraat 35, B 9000 Gent, Belgium
    Endocr Rev 30:830-82. 2009
    b>Glucocorticoids (GCs) are steroidal ligands for the GC receptor (GR), which can function as a ligand-activated transcription factor...
  35. pmc Safety of low dose glucocorticoid treatment in rheumatoid arthritis: published evidence and prospective trial data
    J A P da Silva
    Reumatologia, Hospitais da Universidade, 3000 075 Coimbra, Portugal
    Ann Rheum Dis 65:285-93. 2006
    Adverse effects of glucocorticoids have been abundantly reported...
  36. pmc 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and the brain: from zero to hero, a decade of progress
    Caitlin S Wyrwoll
    Endocrinology Unit, Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Queen s Medical Research Institute, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, UK
    Front Neuroendocrinol 32:265-86. 2011
    b>Glucocorticoids have profound effects on brain development and adult CNS function. Excess or insufficient glucocorticoids cause myriad abnormalities from development to ageing...
  37. pmc Glucocorticosteroids: current and future directions
    Peter J Barnes
    National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, UK
    Br J Pharmacol 163:29-43. 2011
    b>Glucocorticoids are the most effective anti-inflammatory therapy for asthma yet are relatively ineffective in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Glucocorticoids suppress inflammation via several molecular mechanisms...
  38. ncbi Maternal care and hippocampal plasticity: evidence for experience-dependent structural plasticity, altered synaptic functioning, and differential responsiveness to glucocorticoids and stress
    Danielle L Champagne
    Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences Center for Neuroscience, University of Amsterdam, 1098 SM Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Neurosci 28:6037-45. 2008
  39. pmc Antcin A, a steroid-like compound from Antrodia camphorata, exerts anti-inflammatory effect via mimicking glucocorticoids
    Yi Ching Chen
    Graduate Institute of Biotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan, China
    Acta Pharmacol Sin 32:904-11. 2011
    ..To determine the active ingredient of Niuchangchih (Antrodia camphorata) responsible for its anti-inflammatory effects and the relevant molecular mechanisms...
  40. ncbi Guidance for the adjustment of FRAX according to the dose of glucocorticoids
    J A Kanis
    WHO Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S102RX, UK
    Osteoporos Int 22:809-16. 2011
    ..A relatively simple adjustment of conventional FRAX estimates of probabilities of hip fracture and a major osteoporotic fracture can be applied to modulate the risk assessment with knowledge of the dose of glucocorticoids.
  41. pmc Cellular processing of the glucocorticoid receptor gene and protein: new mechanisms for generating tissue-specific actions of glucocorticoids
    Robert H Oakley
    Laboratory of Signal Transduction, NIEHS, National Institutes of Heath, Department of Health and Human Services, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:3177-84. 2011
    b>Glucocorticoids regulate numerous physiological processes and are mainstays in the treatment of inflammation, autoimmune disease, and cancer...
  42. pmc Influenza virus-induced glucocorticoids compromise innate host defense against a secondary bacterial infection
    Amanda M Jamieson
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 7:103-14. 2010
    ..This study demonstrates that activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis controls the balance between immune defense and immunopathology and is an important component of the host response to coinfection...
  43. pmc Glucocorticoids antagonize tumor necrosis factor-α-stimulated lipolysis and resistance to the antilipolytic effect of insulin in human adipocytes
    Mi Jeong Lee
    Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 303:E1126-33. 2012
    ..Adipocytes of the obese are also exposed to elevated levels of glucocorticoids (GCs), which antagonize TNF actions in many cell types...
  44. pmc Reversing the defective induction of IL-10-secreting regulatory T cells in glucocorticoid-resistant asthma patients
    Emmanuel Xystrakis
    Medical Research Council and Asthma UK Centre in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma at King s College London, Strand, London, United Kingdom
    J Clin Invest 116:146-55. 2006
    ..This strongly suggests that vitamin D3 could potentially increase the therapeutic response to glucocorticoids in SR patients.
  45. pmc Circadian CLOCK-mediated regulation of target-tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids: implications for cardiometabolic diseases
    Tomoshige Kino
    Unit on Molecular Hormone Action, Program in Reproductive and Adult Endocrinology, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Endocr Dev 20:116-26. 2011
    b>Glucocorticoids, the end-products of the hypothalamic-pituitary- adrenal (HPA) axis, influence the functions of virtually all organs and tissues through the nuclear glucocorticoid receptor (GR)...
  46. ncbi Prenatal stress, glucocorticoids and the programming of the brain
    L A Welberg
    Molecular Endocrinology Laboratory, Molecular Medicine Centre, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh UK
    J Neuroendocrinol 13:113-28. 2001
    ..This review focuses on the effects of adverse early environments, notably exposure to stress or glucocorticoids, upon subsequent adult hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, behaviour and cognition...
  47. ncbi Bronchoscopic evaluation of severe asthma. Persistent inflammation associated with high dose glucocorticoids
    S E Wenzel
    Department of Medicine, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, Colorado, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 156:737-43. 1997
    The role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of severe asthma chronically treated with high doses of glucocorticoids is poorly understood. Despite this, treatment has been aimed at advancing anti-inflammatory and immunomodulator therapy...
  48. ncbi Clinical and biochemical consequences of CYP17A1 inhibition with abiraterone given with and without exogenous glucocorticoids in castrate men with advanced prostate cancer
    Gerhardt Attard
    The Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT, UK
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 97:507-16. 2012
    ..Abiraterone acetate is a small-molecule cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) inhibitor that is active in castration-resistant prostate cancer...
  49. pmc Effect of inhaled glucocorticoids in childhood on adult height
    H William Kelly
    University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, USA
    N Engl J Med 367:904-12. 2012
    The use of inhaled glucocorticoids for persistent asthma causes a temporary reduction in growth velocity in prepubertal children...
  50. pmc TLR recognition of self nucleic acids hampers glucocorticoid activity in lupus
    Cristiana Guiducci
    Dynavax Technologies Corporation, 2929 Seventh Street, Suite 100, Berkeley, California 94710, USA
    Nature 465:937-41. 2010
    b>Glucocorticoids are widely used to treat patients with autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)...
  51. ncbi Glucocorticoids and the regulation of memory in health and disease
    Dominique J F de Quervain
    Division of Psychiatry Research, University of Zurich, Lenggstr 31, 8032 Zurich, Switzerland
    Front Neuroendocrinol 30:358-70. 2009
    Over the last decades considerable evidence has accumulated indicating that glucocorticoids - stress hormones released from the adrenal cortex - are crucially involved in the regulation of memory...
  52. pmc Glucocorticoids orchestrate divergent effects on mood through adult neurogenesis
    Michael L Lehmann
    Section on Functional Neuroanatomy, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 3724, USA
    J Neurosci 33:2961-72. 2013
    ..actions of environmental enrichment are neurogenesis-dependent, but the contribution of enrichment-elevated glucocorticoids is unexplored...
  53. ncbi Glucocorticoids induce protein S-dependent phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils by human macrophages
    Aisleen McColl
    Medical Research Council Centre for Inflammation Research, Queen s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 183:2167-75. 2009
    ..of a protein S/Mer tyrosine kinase-dependent apoptotic cell clearance pathway may contribute to the potent anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids, representing a potential target for promoting resolution of inflammatory responses.
  54. ncbi The stressed CNS: when glucocorticoids aggravate inflammation
    Shawn F Sorrells
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Gilbert Lab MC 5020, Stanford, CA 94305 5020, USA
    Neuron 64:33-9. 2009
    b>Glucocorticoids (GCs) are hormones released during the stress response that are well known for their immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties; however, recent advances have uncovered situations wherein they have effects in the ..
  55. ncbi p38 Mitogen-activated protein kinase-induced glucocorticoid receptor phosphorylation reduces its activity: role in steroid-insensitive asthma
    Elvis Irusen
    Thoracic Medicine, Imperial College School of Medicine at the National Heart and Lung Institute, London, United Kingdom
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 109:649-57. 2002
    Although glucocorticoids are the most effective treatment for chronic inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, some patients show a poor response...
  56. ncbi Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency
    P C White
    Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas 75390 9063, USA
    Endocr Rev 21:245-91. 2000
    ..Glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement are the mainstays of treatment, but more rational dosing and additional therapies are being developed...
  57. pmc Separating the contribution of glucocorticoids and wakefulness to the molecular and electrophysiological correlates of sleep homeostasis
    Valérie Mongrain
    Center for Integrative Genomics, University of Lausanne, CH 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Sleep 33:1147-57. 2010
    ..Because sleep deprivation also induces stress, we here determined the contribution of the corticosterone component of the stress response to the electrophysiological and molecular markers of sleep need in mice...
  58. ncbi Intergenerational consequences of fetal programming by in utero exposure to glucocorticoids in rats
    Amanda J Drake
    Endocrinology Unit, School of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Molecular Medicine Center, Western General Hospital, United Kingdom
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 288:R34-8. 2005
  59. ncbi 1999 Curt P. Richter award. Glucocorticoids and the regulation of memory consolidation
    B Roozendaal
    Center for the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory and Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, University of California, Irvine 92697 3800, USA
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 25:213-38. 2000
    This paper summarizes recent findings on the amygdala's role in mediating acute effects of glucocorticoids on memory consolidation in rats...
  60. ncbi Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper is an endogenous antiinflammatory mediator in arthritis
    Elaine Beaulieu
    Monash Medical Centre and Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Arthritis Rheum 62:2651-61. 2010
    ..This study was undertaken to examine the expression and function of GILZ in vivo in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and in RA synoviocytes...
  61. ncbi The neuroendocrinology of stress: a never ending story
    S L Lightman
    Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Integrative Neuroscience and Endocrinology, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    J Neuroendocrinol 20:880-4. 2008
  62. ncbi Mycophenolate mofetil or intravenous cyclophosphamide for lupus nephritis
    Ellen M Ginzler
    Division of Rheumatology, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA
    N Engl J Med 353:2219-28. 2005
    ..Since anecdotal series and small, prospective, controlled trials suggest that mycophenolate mofetil may be effective for treating lupus nephritis, larger trials are desirable...
  63. ncbi Cigarette smoking impairs the therapeutic response to oral corticosteroids in chronic asthma
    Rekha Chaudhuri
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 168:1308-11. 2003
    ..1; CI, 2.3, 56; p = 0.04 and 52.4; CI, 26, 79; p = 0.003, respectively), but not in FEV1 or asthma control score. We conclude that active smoking impairs the efficacy of short-term oral corticosteroid treatment in chronic asthma...
  64. ncbi Glucocorticoid-induced hyperglycemia
    John N Clore
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298, USA
    Endocr Pract 15:469-74. 2009
    ..To review the current literature on glucocorticoid-induced hyperglycemia and provide a strategy for its treatment...
  65. ncbi Status of glucocorticoid alterations in post-traumatic stress disorder
    Rachel Yehuda
    The Traumatic Stress Studies Program, Department of Psychiatry, The Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1179:56-69. 2009
    ..the field of PTSD employ glucocorticoid challenge strategies to delineate effects of exogenously administered glucocorticoids on neuroendocrine, cognitive, and brain function...
  66. ncbi Novel insights into glucocorticoid-mediated diabetogenic effects: towards expansion of therapeutic options?
    D H van Raalte
    VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Eur J Clin Invest 39:81-93. 2009
    At pharmacological concentrations, glucocorticoids (GCs) display potent anti-inflammatory effects, and are therefore frequently prescribed by physicians to treat a wide variety of diseases...
  67. pmc Saturated-efferocytosis generates pro-resolving CD11b low macrophages: modulation by resolvins and glucocorticoids
    Sagie Schif-Zuck
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel
    Eur J Immunol 41:366-79. 2011
    ..Thus, we suggest that satisfying efferocytosis generates CD11b(low) macrophages that are essential for complete nonphlogistic containment of inflammatory agents and the termination of acute inflammation...
  68. ncbi Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of systemically administered glucocorticoids
    David Czock
    Division of Nephrology, University Hospital Ulm, Robert Koch Str 8, Ulm 89081, Germany
    Clin Pharmacokinet 44:61-98. 2005
    b>Glucocorticoids have pleiotropic effects that are used to treat diverse diseases such as asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and acute kidney transplant rejection...
  69. ncbi Selective glucocorticoid receptor agonists (SEGRAs): novel ligands with an improved therapeutic index
    Heike Schäcke
    Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Global Drug Discovery, TRG Inflammation Immunology, Müllerstr 178, 13342 Berlin, Germany
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 275:109-17. 2007
    b>Glucocorticoids are among the most successful therapies in the treatment of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases...
  70. ncbi Glucocorticoids enhance the excitability of principal basolateral amygdala neurons
    Sevil Duvarci
    Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark, New Jersey 07102, USA
    J Neurosci 27:4482-91. 2007
    ..However, the direct effects of glucocorticoids on BLA neurons are incompletely understood...
  71. ncbi Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ): a new important mediator of glucocorticoid action
    Emira Ayroldi
    Section of Pharmacology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Via del Giochetto, 06122 Perugia Italy
    FASEB J 23:3649-58. 2009
    b>Glucocorticoids (GCs) represent the mainstay of current anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive strategies, mediating effects that mostly result in transcriptional regulation of glucocorticoid receptor target genes...
  72. ncbi Effect of systemic glucocorticoids on exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group
    D E Niewoehner
    Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Minneapolis, MN 55417, USA
    N Engl J Med 340:1941-7. 1999
    Although their clinical efficacy is unclear and they may cause serious adverse effects, systemic glucocorticoids are a standard treatment for patients hospitalized with exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
  73. ncbi Glucocorticoids suppress bone formation by attenuating osteoblast differentiation via the monomeric glucocorticoid receptor
    Alexander Rauch
    Tissue specific hormone action, Leibniz Institute for Age Research, Fritz Lipmann Institute, 07745 Jena, Germany
    Cell Metab 11:517-31. 2010
    ..Thus, GCs inhibit cytokines independent of GR dimerization and thereby attenuate osteoblast differentiation, which accounts, in part, for bone loss during GC therapy...
  74. ncbi 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases: changing glucocorticoid action
    Jonathan R Seckl
    Endocrinology Unit, School of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, Scotland, UK
    Curr Opin Pharmacol 4:597-602. 2004
    ..Overexpression of this isozyme may contribute to the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Its inhibition is a potential therapeutic target for both metabolic and glucocorticoid-associated CNS disorders...
  75. ncbi Effect of corticosteroids on brain growth in fetal sheep
    W L Huang
    Department of Zoology, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Australia
    Obstet Gynecol 94:213-8. 1999
    ..To compare the effects of single and repeated courses of corticosteroids on brain growth in fetal sheep...
  76. pmc Characterization of sgk, a novel member of the serine/threonine protein kinase gene family which is transcriptionally induced by glucocorticoids and serum
    M K Webster
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley 94720
    Mol Cell Biol 13:2031-40. 1993
    ..sgk mRNA was stimulated by glucocorticoids and by serum within 30 min, and both inductions were independent of de novo protein synthesis...
  77. ncbi Aberrant inflammation and resistance to glucocorticoids in annexin 1-/- mouse
    Robert Hannon
    Department of Biochemical Pharmacology, William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary, University of London, Charterhouse Square, EC1M 6BQ, UK
    FASEB J 17:253-5. 2003
    ..emigration and IL-1beta generation and a partial or complete resistance to the antiinflammatory effects of glucocorticoids. Anx-1-/- polymorphonuclear leucocytes exhibited increased spontaneous migratory behavior in vivo whereas in ..
  78. pmc Preventing local regeneration of glucocorticoids by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enhances angiogenesis
    Gary R Small
    Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Queen s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, Scotland, UK
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:12165-70. 2005
    Angiogenesis restores blood flow to healing tissues, a process that is inhibited by high doses of glucocorticoids. However, the role of endogenous glucocorticoids and the potential for antiglucocorticoid therapy to enhance angiogenesis ..
  79. ncbi The role and regulation of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in the inflammatory response
    Karen E Chapman
    Endocrinology Unit, Centre for Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Edinburgh, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, UK
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 301:123-31. 2009
    ..Kendall were awarded a Nobel Prize in 1950 and which led to the discovery of the anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids. To be effective, the intrinsically inert cortisone must be converted to the active glucocorticoid, cortisol, ..
  80. ncbi Macrophage expression of LRP1, a receptor for apoptotic cells and unopsonized erythrocytes, can be regulated by glucocorticoids
    Anna Nilsson
    Department of Integrative Medical Biology, Section for Histology and Cell Biology, Umea University, Umea, Sweden
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 417:1304-9. 2012
    ..b>Glucocorticoids (GC) are powerful in treatment of a range of inflammatory conditions, and were shown to enhance macrophage ..
  81. ncbi Glucocorticoids mediate stress-induced priming of microglial pro-inflammatory responses
    Matthew G Frank
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 26:337-45. 2012
    ..While prior evidence shows that glucocorticoids (GCs) play a pivotal role in stress-induced potentiation of neuroinflammatory responses, it remains unclear ..
  82. ncbi Hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase knock-out mice lack 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1-mediated glucocorticoid generation
    Gareth G Lavery
    Department of Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:6546-51. 2006
  83. ncbi Pro-apoptotic protein BIM in apoptosis of glucocorticoid-sensitive and -resistant acute lymphoblastic leukemia CEM cells
    Ya ning Zhao
    Department of Phymatology, Baoji Municipal Central Hospital, 721008, Shaanxi, Baoji, China
    Med Oncol 28:1609-17. 2011
    Although glucocorticoids (GCs) have been used to treat acute lymphoblast leukemia (ALL) for decades, the mechanisms of GC sensitivity and resistance in ALL cells are poorly understood...
  84. ncbi Glucocorticoids induce mitochondrial gene transcription in HepG2 cells: role of the mitochondrial glucocorticoid receptor
    Anna Maria G Psarra
    Biomedical Research Foundation, Academy of Athens, Center for Basic Research, Athens, Greece
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1813:1814-21. 2011
    b>Glucocorticoids are major regulators of a plethora of cellular functions, acting on target cells through glucocorticoid receptors (GR) and modulation of gene transcription, among other mechanisms...
  85. ncbi Glucocorticoids act on glutamatergic pathways to affect memory processes
    Carmen Sandi
    Laboratory of Behavioral Genetics, Brain Mind Institute, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Trends Neurosci 34:165-76. 2011
    b>Glucocorticoids can acutely affect memory processes, with both facilitating and impairing effects having been described...
  86. pmc Use of oral glucocorticoids and risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in a population based case-control study
    P C Souverein
    Department of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacotherapy, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, PO Box 80082, 3508 TB Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Heart 90:859-65. 2004
    To assess whether use of oral glucocorticoids is associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity.
  87. ncbi Modulation of T-cell activation by the glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper factor via inhibition of nuclear factor kappaB
    E Ayroldi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Pharmacology, University of Perugia, Via del Giochetto, 06100 Perugia, Italy
    Blood 98:743-53. 2001
    ..These results identify a new molecular mechanism involved in the dexamethasone-induced regulation of NF-kappaB activity and T-cell activation. (Blood. 2001;98:743-753)..
  88. pmc Advances in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis
    Debby den Uyl
    Department of Rheumatology, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Curr Rheumatol Rep 13:233-40. 2011
  89. ncbi Desnutrin, an adipocyte gene encoding a novel patatin domain-containing protein, is induced by fasting and glucocorticoids: ectopic expression of desnutrin increases triglyceride hydrolysis
    Josep A Villena
    Department of Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:47066-75. 2004
    ..gene expression was up-regulated by dexamethasone in a dose-dependent manner but not by cAMP, suggesting that glucocorticoids could mediate the increase in desnutrin mRNA levels observed during fasting...
  90. ncbi Glucocorticoids. Mood, memory, and mechanisms
    Owen M Wolkowitz
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Francisco UCSF School of Medicine, San Francisco, California, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1179:19-40. 2009
    Elevated circulating levels of glucocorticoids are associated with psychiatric symptoms across several different conditions. It remains unknown if this hormonal abnormality is a cause or an effect of the psychiatric conditions...
  91. ncbi Glucocorticoids, metabolism and metabolic diseases
    Alexandros Vegiopoulos
    Molecular Metabolic Control, German Cancer Research Center Heidelberg, Germany
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 275:43-61. 2007
    ..the beneficial effects of adrenocortical extracts for treating adrenal insufficiency more than 80 years ago, glucocorticoids (GC) and their cognate, intracellular receptor, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) have been characterized as ..
  92. ncbi Differential regulation of chemokine expression by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists: interactions with glucocorticoids and beta2-agonists
    Mei Nie
    Division of Respiratory Medicine, City Hospital, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG5 1PB, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 280:2550-61. 2005
    Chemokine-mediated inflammatory cell infiltration is a hallmark of asthma. We recently demonstrated that glucocorticoids and beta(2)-agonists additively or synergistically suppress tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha)-induced ..
  93. ncbi Urocortin 3 modulates the neuroendocrine stress response and is regulated in rat amygdala and hypothalamus by stress and glucocorticoids
    Pauline M Jamieson
    The Clayton Foundation Laboratories for Peptide Biology, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Endocrinology 147:4578-88. 2006
  94. ncbi Disrupted corticosterone pulsatile patterns attenuate responsiveness to glucocorticoid signaling in rat brain
    R Angela Sarabdjitsingh
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden Amsterdam Centre for Drug Research Leiden University Medical Centre, University of Leiden, Einsteinweg 55, P O Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Endocrinology 151:1177-86. 2010
    ..We propose that corticosteroid pulsatility is crucial in maintaining normal responsiveness to glucocorticoids. Whereas the results with 100% corticosterone are likely attributed to receptor saturation, subtle changes in ..
  95. ncbi Adverse neonatal outcomes associated with antenatal dexamethasone versus antenatal betamethasone
    Ben H Lee
    Division of Neonatal Perinatal Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Pediatrics 117:1503-10. 2006
  96. ncbi Use of fecal glucocorticoid metabolite measures in conservation biology research: considerations for application and interpretation
    Joshua J Millspaugh
    Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences, University of Missouri, 302 Natural Resources Building, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
    Gen Comp Endocrinol 138:189-99. 2004
    ..Building reliable databases, and research with surrogate species when possible, will aid future efforts and enhance the utility of FGM assays...
  97. ncbi Autophagy as the main means of cytotoxicity by glucocorticoids in hematological malignancies
    Dan Grander
    Department of Oncology Pathology, Cancer Centre Karolinska R8 03, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    Autophagy 5:1198-200. 2009
    b>Glucocorticoids are fundamental drugs used in the treatment of lymphoid malignancies with apoptotic cell death as the hitherto proposed mechanism of action...
  98. ncbi Vitreous concentrations of triamcinolone acetonide in human eyes after intravitreal or subtenon injection
    Makoto Inoue
    Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    Am J Ophthalmol 138:1046-8. 2004
    ..To compare vitreous concentrations of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) achieved by prior therapeutic intravitreal and subtenon injections...
  99. ncbi High anticipatory stress plasma cortisol levels and sensitivity to glucocorticoids predict severity of coronary artery disease in subjects undergoing coronary angiography
    Maria Alevizaki
    Endocrine Unit, Evgenidion Hospital, Athens University School of Medicine, 15773 Athens, Greece
    Metabolism 56:222-6. 2007
    ..of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and/or increased sensitivity of peripheral tissues to glucocorticoids may be associated with the dysmetabolic syndrome and its cardiovascular sequelae...
  100. pmc Therapeutic manipulation of glucocorticoid metabolism in cardiovascular disease
    Patrick W F Hadoke
    Centre for Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Edinburgh, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, UK
    Br J Pharmacol 156:689-712. 2009
    ..of glucocorticoid metabolism in cardiovascular disease was revolutionized by the recognition that access of glucocorticoids to their receptors is regulated in a tissue-specific manner by the isozymes of 11beta-hydroxysteroid ..

Research Grants75

  1. Understanding/ Treating Neuropsychiatric Symptoms of Pediatric Physical Illness
    Eva Szigethy; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  2. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase kinase as Therapeutic Target for Hepatic Steatosis, Obesit
    Robert A Harris; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..PDC is inactivated in starvation and diabetes because of induction of PDK2 and 4 by high levels of glucocorticoids and fatty acids and low levels of insulin...
    Carole R Mendelson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..human fetal type II cells is markedly stimulated by cAMP and by interleukin-1 (IL-1), and is inhibited by glucocorticoids. cAMP stimulation of SP-A expression is O2-dependent and mediated by binding of estrogen-related receptor ( (..
  4. Targeting Galectin-3 with novel drugs for treatment of eczema
    Fu Tong Liu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Current therapies include topical application of glucocorticoids and calcineurin inhibitors (immunomodulators), and systemic treatment with glucocorticoids, ..
  5. Steroid Responsive Mechanisms in the Ear
    DENNIS ROYAL TRUNE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    Project Summary Glucocorticoids (prednisone, methlyprednisolone, dexamethasone) have been employed for decades for control of hearing loss...
  6. Neural mechanisms by which chronic stress regulates inflammation in asthma
    Melissa A Rosenkranz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..sputum and blood eosinophils, exhaled nitric oxide), sensitivity of immune cells to inhibition by glucocorticoids, stress responsivity (salivary cortisol and alpha amylase), self-reported asthma symptom control, and self-..
  7. Ethanol Regulation of Serum Glucocorticoid Kinase I
    BLAIR N COSTIN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Sgk1 was accompanied by a highly correlated group of genes, many of which are also known to respond to glucocorticoids. This suggests that stress-related signaling events might play an important role in ethanol regulation of the ..
  8. Aldosterone Action In The Brain, Hypertension and Inflammation
    ELISE PEERY GOMEZ-SANCHEZ; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..brain areas and in the heart, however the enzymes that confer MR selectivity for aldo over the more abundant glucocorticoids with similar MR affinity, are limited or absent in the heart and most of the brain...
  9. Preclinical drug trial in mouse models of inflammation
    Kanneboyina Nagaraju; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..b>Glucocorticoids (GCs) have been successfully used in the treatment of many acute and chronic inflammatory diseases for ..
  10. Antenatal Betamethasone in Late Preterm Gestation Lambs
    ..Practice guidelines of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommend tocolysis and glucocorticoids to women in preterm labor up to 34 wk gestation...
    Bruce S McEwen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..plasticity and other functions involve interactions among endocannabinoids, excitatory amino acids and glucocorticoids and neuroprotective agents, such as the chaperone, BAG1...
  12. A rational approach to liver toxicity monitoring in methotrexate users
    Gabriela Schmajuk; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..if they are switched to high-priced biologic agents, or increased harm if methotrexate is substituted by glucocorticoids, which have more long-term toxicities...
  13. Role of Subdiaphragmatic Vagus in Fibromyalgia Syndrome
    JON DAVID LEVINE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This enhancement, which developed more than a week after exposure to stress, required concerted action of glucocorticoids and catecholamines at the glucocorticoid and 22-adrenergic receptor, respectively, located in the peripheral ..
  14. Preclinical drug trial in mouse models of inflammation
    Kanneboyina Nagaraju; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Glucocorticoids (GCs) have been successfully used in the treatment of many acute and chronic inflammatory diseases for ..
  15. Modulation of cancer prevention by social stress
    Hildegard M Schuller; Fiscal Year: 2010 vitro and in vivo by cAMP-dependent signaling downstream of beta-adrenergic receptors (b-ARs) and that glucocorticoids stimulate these cells by increasing cAMP signaling...
  16. Glucocorticoids, Stress and Blood Pressure Regulation
    Deborah A Scheuer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Prolonged elevations of glucocorticoids cause cardiovascular disease by generating risk factors including hypertension, abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, elevated triglycerides ..
  17. Interventions Against the Molecular Etiology of BMPR2-induced PAH
    James D West; Fiscal Year: 2013 signal through others, leaving BMPR2 mutation carriers susceptible to the chronic inflammation, which glucocorticoids are meant to suppress...
  18. Race-based social stress and health trajectories from adolescence to adulthood
    Jacquelynne S Eccles; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..episode;(3) inflammatory cytokine production and immune cell resistance to the anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids, gene expression profiling of leukocytes to identify broad groups of genes associated with social stress (e.g...
  19. Dysfunctional PGC-1alpha expression in skeletal muscle during diabetes
    S Russ Price; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..coactivator protein, is decreased in skeletal muscle during DM and in cultured myotubes treated with glucocorticoids to induced insulin resistance and atrophy...
  20. C/EBP, atrogin-1, and muscle wasting
    Per Olof Hasselgren; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Because glucocorticoids are important mediators of sepsis-induced muscle wasting, dexametasone-treated cultured myotubes are used as ..
  21. Fatty acid Control Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome via TPR proteins
    Terry D Hinds; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and the Metabolic Syndrome have been linked to the actions of glucocorticoids on the body...
  22. Investigation of Nephrotic Syndrome
    LIONEL CLAUDIUS CLEMENT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In this proposal, the applicant will study the regulation of Angptl4 gene expression in the podocyte by glucocorticoids, and investigate the development of hypertriglyceridemia resulting from podocyte secretion of Angptl4 into ..
  23. An internet based prospective study of time to pregnancy
    Elizabeth E Hatch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Other objectives will focus on several common and increasingly used medications, including glucocorticoids, serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs...
    Timothy E Holy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of olfactory-detected sulfated steroids in estrous cycle suppression, focusing in particular on the role of glucocorticoids. In aim 4, we will examine the role of sulfated steroids in protecting against pregnancy block triggered by ..
    INDER MOHAN VERMA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Glucocorticoid receptor repression of NF-?B: Identification of novel molecular mechanisms. Glucocorticoids are among the strongest anti-inflammatory agents and one of the most common forms of treatment to suppress ..
  26. MIF in progression and treatment of ALD
    Laura E Nagy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..MIF also counter-regulates the immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory activities of glucocorticoids. Analysis of the human MIF gene has identified important functional polymorphisms in the promoter region, ..
  27. A Protein Biologic for the Treatment of Sepsis
    Rafal M Smigrodzki; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..understanding of the pathomechanism of sepsis, treatment options are still limited primarily to antibiotics, glucocorticoids, and supportive measures...
  28. Role of FoxOs in Skeletal Homeostasis
    MARIA JOSE ALMEIDA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Moreover, evidence was obtained that the actions of glucocorticoids or TNF1 on bone are mediated, at least in part, by ROS-induced FoxO activation...
  29. Trauma and Hemorrhage-Induced Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance
    JOSEPH LOUIS MESSINA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The data suggests an important role for the glucocorticoids and proinflammatory cytokines, but how they interact to cause the the initial development of insulin ..
  30. Mechanisms for the evolution of novel DNA specificity in a transcription factor f
    Joseph W Thornton; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The two classes of SRs-estrogen receptors on one hand and the receptors for androgens, progestagens, glucocorticoids, and mineralocorticoids (APGMRs) on the other-recognize different DNA binding sites...
  31. Glucocorticoid Receptor and Lipid Homeostasis
    Jen Chywan Wang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Lipid homeostasis is exquisitely controlled by hormonal and nutritional signals. Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones that play a critical role in regulating lipid homeostasis...
  32. Chronic stress-induced gene expression in colonic circular smooth muscle cells.
    Sushil K Sarna; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The primary mediators of the stress response are: corticotropin releasing hormone, norepinephrine, glucocorticoids and the neurotransmitters of the autonomic nervous system...
  33. Role of PPAR-gamma in Smoking-induced COPD Progression and Steroid Resistance
    Raju C Reddy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-g (PPAR-g) blocks disease progression and improves responses to glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids, a standard treatment for most inflammatory diseases, have only modest effects in COPD...
  34. CNS Mechanisms of Acute Hypoglycemia-Associate Autonomic Failure
    ..epinephrine (EPI) release;activation of the hypothalamic/pituitary/adrenal (HPA) axis and release of adrenal glucocorticoids;and glucagon (GLU) release...
  35. GR-Mediated Epigenetic Regulation of the CRH Gene
    ROSALIE MARIE UHT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Activity of the HPA axis is normally tightly regulated, in large part because the end products, glucocorticoids, are potent down- regulators of the system...
  36. Nature of mamalian Cutaneous Permeablilty Barrier
    Peter M Elias; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Because the current standard treatment of AD with glucocorticoids and calcineurin inhibitors is accompanied by significant side effects, alternate approaches, based upon ..
  37. Maturation of intestinal innate immunity and NEC
    W Allan Walker; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..regulators prevents excessive inflammatory response to bacterial colonization at birth;(2) pretreatment with glucocorticoids prevents hyperresponsiveness to newly colonizing bacteria by inducing maturation of the TLR signaling ..
  38. Skin Defense by Antimicrobial Peptides
    Richard L Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Thus addressing the question: What AMPs are altered in keratinocytes exposed to glucocorticoids? 2...
  39. Somatostain & Stress-Related Genes in HIV & Comorbid Major Depressive Disorder
    Ian Paul Everall; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..SGK1 is regulated by glucocorticoids and stress, it is significantly increased in the brain during neurodegeneration, promotes dendritic growth ..
  40. Role of Bile Acids and Gut Bacteria in GI Diseases
    Phillip B Hylemon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Some strains of 7[unreadable]- dehydroxylating bacteria can convert glucocorticoids into C-19 androgenic compounds and the genes encoding these enzymes have not been isolated...
  41. NPY,Neurovascular Niches and Stress-Induced Remodeling of Adipose Tissue
    John W Osborn; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..adipogenesis through up-regulated NPYY2R system, predominantly in the abdominal fat due to locally produced glucocorticoids. Stress/NPY-induced angio/adipogenesis and obesity were prevented by intra-fat Y2R inhibition or deletion;..
  42. Functional Dissection of Glucocorticoid Action in Metabolic Disease
    Charles A Harris; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..His interest in glucocorticoids (GCs) was sparked as a clinical endocrine fellow seeing patients with Cushing's disease, a state of GC ..
  43. CD8+ T Cell Immunity to Cytomegalovirus
    Stanley R Riddell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..for the ability to establish long-lived memory cells and edited at the glucocorticoid receptor gene using zinc finger nucleases to establish durable T cell immunity that is resistant to the immunosuppressive effects of glucocorticoids.
  44. Exploiting Protease-Activatable Agents to Characterize and Treat Asthma
    Csilla Felsen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We propose to increase the efficacy of asthma therapeutic agents by attaching ACPPs to glucocorticoids and protease inhibitors, such as dexamethasone and marimastat, respectively, and administering them ..
  45. Bone Marrow Adiposity, Bone and Body Composition
    Ann V Schwartz; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The study will also evaluate the effect of glucocorticoids, hormone replacement therapy and bisphosphonates on marrow fat in a subset of women (N=45) selected from ..
    Stavros C Manolagas; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Finally, Project 3 will pursue seminal discoveries of this program that endogenous glucocorticoids contribute to the age-associated decrease in bone mass and strength by directly stimulating osteocyte ..
  47. GR Impairment in Carconogenesis: Tumor Suppressor Role
    THOMAS SLAGA; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We and others have shown, however, that glucocorticoids do not affect the growth of either established papillomas, squamous ceil carcinomas (SCC), or transformed ..
  48. Urocortin &Musculoskeletal Hyperalgesia
    Alice A Larson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Second, urocortins inhibit circulating glucocorticoids, consistent with a diminished diurnal rhythm and attenuated cortisol response to stress in patients with ..
  49. Glucocorticoids, Bone Strength and Angiogenesis
    ..osteoporosis and whether the bone strength and vascularity may be compromised through direct actions of glucocorticoids on bone cells...
  50. Mechanisms of Immunosuppressive Actions of Glucocorticoids
    Inez Rogatsky; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..abstract_text> ..
  51. GCs, CRF and Stressor-Induced Relapse
    John R Mantsch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that that the establishment of heightened stressor-induced reinstatement appears to require elevation of glucocorticoids (GCs) at the time of earlier LgA SA, suggesting that the induction of addiction-related neuroplasticity ..
  52. Pro-inflammatory glucocorticoid effects in the CNS
    Robert M Sapolsky; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Glucocorticoids (GCs), the adrenal steroids secreted during stress, can compromise the ability of neurons to survive necrotic neurological insults...
    Per Olof J Hasselgren; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..suggest that sepsis-induced muscle wasting is associated with increased muscle calcium levels and that glucocorticoids are the predominant mediator of sepsis-induced muscle proteolysis...
    Peter Hornsby; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..individual secretes androgen precursors, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), as well as glucocorticoids and mineral-corticoids...
  55. Maternal Smoking: HPA and Epigenetic Pathways to Infant Neurobehavioral Deficits
    Laura R Stroud; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..6 months, 2) to test the possibility that maternal smoking programs the HPA axis via regulation of maternal glucocorticoids and placental 112 HSD2 and that these changes influence infant neurobehavior/cortisol reactivity, 3) to test ..
  56. The Iowa Flood Study: Perinatal Effects of a Natural Disaster
    MICHAEL WILLIAM O apos HARA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..provided by applicant): Animal studies show that prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) results in maternal glucocorticoids passing the placental barrier and disrupting fetal brain development, particularly the hypothalamic-pituitary-..
  57. Drug Abuse: Sex differences in developmental and environmental influences
    Jill B Becker; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Prenatal stress exposes the developing organism to increased levels of glucocorticoids at a time during which critical growth is taking place so there are profound effects on the development of ..
    Ashok Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In order to understand the role of glucocorticoids and IL-6 on transcription of -6A and -6G haplotypes of the hAGT gene and on the regulation of blood pressure ..
  59. Targeting CCR7 for the Prevention/Treatment of GvHD
    JONATHAN STUART SERODY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Additionally, the treatment of acute GvHD has not changed markedly in thirty years and consists primarily of glucocorticoids, which are associated with a significant number of side-effects and complications...
    Gary L Firestone; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..interaction regulates Sgk localization and how beta-catenin compartmentalization is regulated by glucocorticoids. A final goal is to functionally characterize the roles of GSK3 and CAS and their degradative systems in the ..
  61. Rewarding experience and the aging brain
    Erica R Glasper; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Evidence suggests that sexual experience paradoxically increases both glucocorticoids and adult neurogenesis in the young adult hippocampus, but no studies have examined its effects on the aging ..
  62. Novel therapies in alcoholic hepatitis University of Louisville
    Craig J McClain; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The most widely-used (off-label) drug therapies for AH are glucocorticoids and pentoxifylline...
  63. Extinction of Fear Memories with Glucocorticoids in Veterans with PTSD
    Alina Suris; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The information gained from this study will be applicable not only to veterans who have combat-related PTSD, but to any individual with suffering intrusive memories from any type of trauma. ..
  64. Glucocorticoid Receptor Function in Steroid Resistant Childhood Nephrotic Syndrom
    JORGE A INIGUEZ LLUHI; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Although glucocorticoids, the mainstay of therapy for over 50 years, are effective in most children, more than 20% develop steroid ..
    Candace Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Therefore, glucocorticoids differentially modulate and enhance calcitriol-mediated effects and have significant therapeutic implications...
    Anuradha Ray; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..prevent its production in Th1 cells and the mechanisms that underlie inhibition of IL-5 gene expression by glucocorticoids are poorly understood...
    SUSAN FRIED; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..Because insulin and glucocorticoids are thought to be the major hormonal mediators of nutrition-induced changes in LPLA, their mechanism of ..
  68. Podocyte Protein Alterations Induced by Glucocorticoids
    Richard Ransom; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..b>Glucocorticoids are the primary therapy used to treat NS, although neither the target cell nor their mechanism of action in ..
    David Loose; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..We are particularly interested in the manner by which glucocorticoids alter expression of the gene for the enzyme: in liver and kidney glucocorticoids induce the enzyme yet in ..
    Peter Newburger; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..b>Glucocorticoids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) modulate the expression of various genes and cell functions...
    CHRISTINE BASTL; Fiscal Year: 1990
    b>Glucocorticoids potently regulate ion transport in intestinal epithelia...
    Mary Samuels; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The overall hypothesis of this proposal is that, in the human, glucocorticoids contain TSH secretion at physiologic levels, and mediate stress-induced TSH suppression at elevated levels...
    Robert Bigsby; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..b>Glucocorticoids also block the effect of E on uterine growth in rodents...
    David York; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..In the current grant period, we have shown that mRNA levels of several genes are induced excessively by glucocorticoids in liver of obese rats in comparison to learn littermates...
    Richard Pierce; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..We have identified glucocorticoids as transcriptional activators of fetal lung tropoelastin expression...