slow twitch muscle fibers

Summary

Summary: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.

Top Publications

  1. Von Hofsten J, Elworthy S, Gilchrist M, Smith J, Wardle F, Ingham P. Prdm1- and Sox6-mediated transcriptional repression specifies muscle fibre type in the zebrafish embryo. EMBO Rep. 2008;9:683-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Prdm1 promotes slow-twitch fibre differentiation by acting as a global repressor of fast-fibre-specific genes, as well as by abrogating the repression of slow-fibre-specific genes...
  2. Stocksley M, Chakkalakal J, Bradford A, Miura P, De Repentigny Y, Kothary R, et al. A 1.3 kb promoter fragment confers spatial and temporal expression of utrophin A mRNA in mouse skeletal muscle fibers. Neuromuscul Disord. 2005;15:437-49 pubmed
    ..This transgenic mouse will be valuable as an in vivo model for developing and testing molecules aimed at increasing utrophin A expression...
  3. Mogensen M, Sahlin K. Mitochondrial efficiency in rat skeletal muscle: influence of respiration rate, substrate and muscle type. Acta Physiol Scand. 2005;185:229-36 pubmed
    ..To investigate the hypothesis that mitochondrial efficiency (i.e. P/O ratio) is higher in type I than in type II fibres during submaximal rates of respiration...
  4. Chakkalakal J, Michel S, Chin E, Michel R, Jasmin B. Targeted inhibition of Ca2+ /calmodulin signaling exacerbates the dystrophic phenotype in mdx mouse muscle. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:1423-35 pubmed
    ..Finally, our results further support the concept that strategies aimed at promoting the slow oxidative myofiber program in muscle may be effective in altering the relentless progression of DMD...
  5. Elworthy S, Hargrave M, Knight R, Mebus K, Ingham P. Expression of multiple slow myosin heavy chain genes reveals a diversity of zebrafish slow twitch muscle fibres with differing requirements for Hedgehog and Prdm1 activity. Development. 2008;135:2115-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The adult trunk slow fibres express smyhc2 and smyhc3, but lack smyhc1 expression. The different slow fibres in the craniofacial muscles variously express smyhc1, smyhc2 and smyhc3, and all differentiate independently of Prdm1...
  6. Bryson Richardson R, Daggett D, Cortes F, Neyt C, Keenan D, Currie P. Myosin heavy chain expression in zebrafish and slow muscle composition. Dev Dyn. 2005;233:1018-22 pubmed
    ..We also demonstrate that zebrafish embryonic slow twitch muscle co-expresses both slow and fast twitch MyHC isoforms, a property that they share with primary fibers of the amniote myotome...
  7. Roots H, Offer G, Ranatunga K. Comparison of the tension responses to ramp shortening and lengthening in intact mammalian muscle fibres: crossbridge and non-crossbridge contributions. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2007;28:123-39 pubmed
  8. Hagiwara N, Ma B, Ly A. Slow and fast fiber isoform gene expression is systematically altered in skeletal muscle of the Sox6 mutant, p100H. Dev Dyn. 2005;234:301-11 pubmed
    ..Together with our earlier report, demonstrating early postnatal muscle defects in the Sox6 null-p100H mutant, the present results suggest that Sox6 likely plays an important role in muscle development...
  9. Frey N, Frank D, Lippl S, Kuhn C, Kogler H, Barrientos T, et al. Calsarcin-2 deficiency increases exercise capacity in mice through calcineurin/NFAT activation. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:3598-608 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that calsarcin-2 modulates exercise performance in vivo through regulation of calcineurin/NFAT activity and subsequent alteration of the fiber type composition of skeletal muscle...
  10. Hernelahti M, Tikkanen H, Karjalainen J, Kujala U. Muscle fiber-type distribution as a predictor of blood pressure: a 19-year follow-up study. Hypertension. 2005;45:1019-23 pubmed
    ..A high proportion of type I fibers in skeletal muscle is an independent predictor of low blood pressure and explains part of the known association between high levels of physical activity and low blood pressure...

Detail Information

Publications93

  1. Von Hofsten J, Elworthy S, Gilchrist M, Smith J, Wardle F, Ingham P. Prdm1- and Sox6-mediated transcriptional repression specifies muscle fibre type in the zebrafish embryo. EMBO Rep. 2008;9:683-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Prdm1 promotes slow-twitch fibre differentiation by acting as a global repressor of fast-fibre-specific genes, as well as by abrogating the repression of slow-fibre-specific genes...
  2. Stocksley M, Chakkalakal J, Bradford A, Miura P, De Repentigny Y, Kothary R, et al. A 1.3 kb promoter fragment confers spatial and temporal expression of utrophin A mRNA in mouse skeletal muscle fibers. Neuromuscul Disord. 2005;15:437-49 pubmed
    ..This transgenic mouse will be valuable as an in vivo model for developing and testing molecules aimed at increasing utrophin A expression...
  3. Mogensen M, Sahlin K. Mitochondrial efficiency in rat skeletal muscle: influence of respiration rate, substrate and muscle type. Acta Physiol Scand. 2005;185:229-36 pubmed
    ..To investigate the hypothesis that mitochondrial efficiency (i.e. P/O ratio) is higher in type I than in type II fibres during submaximal rates of respiration...
  4. Chakkalakal J, Michel S, Chin E, Michel R, Jasmin B. Targeted inhibition of Ca2+ /calmodulin signaling exacerbates the dystrophic phenotype in mdx mouse muscle. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:1423-35 pubmed
    ..Finally, our results further support the concept that strategies aimed at promoting the slow oxidative myofiber program in muscle may be effective in altering the relentless progression of DMD...
  5. Elworthy S, Hargrave M, Knight R, Mebus K, Ingham P. Expression of multiple slow myosin heavy chain genes reveals a diversity of zebrafish slow twitch muscle fibres with differing requirements for Hedgehog and Prdm1 activity. Development. 2008;135:2115-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The adult trunk slow fibres express smyhc2 and smyhc3, but lack smyhc1 expression. The different slow fibres in the craniofacial muscles variously express smyhc1, smyhc2 and smyhc3, and all differentiate independently of Prdm1...
  6. Bryson Richardson R, Daggett D, Cortes F, Neyt C, Keenan D, Currie P. Myosin heavy chain expression in zebrafish and slow muscle composition. Dev Dyn. 2005;233:1018-22 pubmed
    ..We also demonstrate that zebrafish embryonic slow twitch muscle co-expresses both slow and fast twitch MyHC isoforms, a property that they share with primary fibers of the amniote myotome...
  7. Roots H, Offer G, Ranatunga K. Comparison of the tension responses to ramp shortening and lengthening in intact mammalian muscle fibres: crossbridge and non-crossbridge contributions. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2007;28:123-39 pubmed
  8. Hagiwara N, Ma B, Ly A. Slow and fast fiber isoform gene expression is systematically altered in skeletal muscle of the Sox6 mutant, p100H. Dev Dyn. 2005;234:301-11 pubmed
    ..Together with our earlier report, demonstrating early postnatal muscle defects in the Sox6 null-p100H mutant, the present results suggest that Sox6 likely plays an important role in muscle development...
  9. Frey N, Frank D, Lippl S, Kuhn C, Kogler H, Barrientos T, et al. Calsarcin-2 deficiency increases exercise capacity in mice through calcineurin/NFAT activation. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:3598-608 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that calsarcin-2 modulates exercise performance in vivo through regulation of calcineurin/NFAT activity and subsequent alteration of the fiber type composition of skeletal muscle...
  10. Hernelahti M, Tikkanen H, Karjalainen J, Kujala U. Muscle fiber-type distribution as a predictor of blood pressure: a 19-year follow-up study. Hypertension. 2005;45:1019-23 pubmed
    ..A high proportion of type I fibers in skeletal muscle is an independent predictor of low blood pressure and explains part of the known association between high levels of physical activity and low blood pressure...
  11. Oh M, Rybkin I, Copeland V, Czubryt M, Shelton J, van Rooij E, et al. Calcineurin is necessary for the maintenance but not embryonic development of slow muscle fibers. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:6629-38 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that developmental patterning of slow fibers is independent of calcineurin, while the maintenance of the slow-fiber phenotype in the adult requires calcineurin activity...
  12. Knuth S, Dave H, Peters J, Fitts R. Low cell pH depresses peak power in rat skeletal muscle fibres at both 30 degrees C and 15 degrees C: implications for muscle fatigue. J Physiol. 2006;575:887-99 pubmed
  13. Iorga B, Adamek N, Geeves M. The slow skeletal muscle isoform of myosin shows kinetic features common to smooth and non-muscle myosins. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:3559-70 pubmed
    ..The role of these actin-myosin.ADP complexes in the mechanochemistry of slow muscle contraction is discussed in relation to the load dependence of ADP release...
  14. Shabala L, Sanchez Pastor E, Trujillo X, Shabala S, Muñiz J, Huerta M. Effects of verapamil and gadolinium on caffeine-induced contractures and calcium fluxes in frog slow skeletal muscle fibers. J Membr Biol. 2008;221:7-13 pubmed
  15. Grimaldi A, Tettamanti G, Martin B, Gaffield W, Pownall M, Hughes S. Hedgehog regulation of superficial slow muscle fibres in Xenopus and the evolution of tetrapod trunk myogenesis. Development. 2004;131:3249-62 pubmed
    ..We propose a model for the evolutionary adaptation of myogenesis in the transition from fish to tetrapod trunk...
  16. Michel R, Dunn S, Chin E. Calcineurin and skeletal muscle growth. Proc Nutr Soc. 2004;63:341-9 pubmed
    ..Increased understanding of these mediators of muscle growth may provide strategies for the development of effective therapeutics to counter muscle weakness and muscular dystrophy...
  17. Lee H, Choi R, Ting A, Siow N, Jiang J, Massoulié J, et al. Transcriptional regulation of acetylcholinesterase-associated collagen ColQ: differential expression in fast and slow twitch muscle fibers is driven by distinct promoters. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:27098-107 pubmed
    ..These results explain the specific expression patterns of collagen-tailed acetylcholinesterase in slow and fast muscle fibers...
  18. Hitomi Y, Kizaki T, Watanabe S, Matsumura G, Fujioka Y, Haga S, et al. Seven skeletal muscles rich in slow muscle fibers may function to sustain neutral position in the rodent hindlimb. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2005;140:45-50 pubmed
    ..The soleus muscle is an important antigravity muscle in both rodents and humans; therefore, these skeletal muscles rich in slow muscle fibers might play an important role in sustaining neutral alignment of the lower extremity...
  19. Baxendale S, Davison C, Muxworthy C, Wolff C, Ingham P, Roy S. The B-cell maturation factor Blimp-1 specifies vertebrate slow-twitch muscle fiber identity in response to Hedgehog signaling. Nat Genet. 2004;36:88-93 pubmed
    ..Our data provide the first molecular insight into the mechanism by which a specific group of muscle precursors is driven along a distinct pathway of fiber-type differentiation in response to positional cues in the vertebrate embryo...
  20. Smerdu V, Erzen I. Dynamic nature of fibre-type specific expression of myosin heavy chain transcripts in 14 different human skeletal muscles. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2001;22:647-55 pubmed
    ..The appearance of hybrid and mismatched fibres additionally indicates that fibre type transition occurs also in presumably normal skeletal muscles, what enables the muscles to tune even with minimal changes in mechanical demands...
  21. Parsons S, Wilkins B, Bueno O, Molkentin J. Altered skeletal muscle phenotypes in calcineurin Aalpha and Abeta gene-targeted mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:4331-43 pubmed
    ..Our results also suggest that fiber type switching occurs through an NFAT-independent mechanism...
  22. Andruchov O, Wang Y, Andruchova O, Galler S. Functional properties of skinned rabbit skeletal and cardiac muscle preparations containing alpha-cardiac myosin heavy chain. Pflugers Arch. 2004;448:44-53 pubmed
    ..We conclude that type alpha fibres have characteristic kinetic properties that fill the gap between the fast type II and the slow type I fibres, and the following order of velocity can be established: IIB>IID(X)>IIA>alpha>I...
  23. Russell A, Feilchenfeldt J, Schreiber S, Praz M, Crettenand A, Gobelet C, et al. Endurance training in humans leads to fiber type-specific increases in levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha in skeletal muscle. Diabetes. 2003;52:2874-81 pubmed
    ..001). The increases in PGC-1 and PPAR-alpha levels reported in this study may play an important role in the changes in muscle mitochondria content, oxidative phenotype, and sensitivity to insulin known to be induced by endurance training...
  24. Henry C, Amacher S. Zebrafish slow muscle cell migration induces a wave of fast muscle morphogenesis. Dev Cell. 2004;7:917-23 pubmed
    ..Thus, the medial to lateral migration of slow muscle fibers through the somite creates a morphogenetic signal that patterns fast muscle fiber elongation in its wake...
  25. Velasco R, Trujillo X, Vasquez C, Huerta M, Trujillo Hernández B. Effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on excitation-contraction coupling in chicken slow skeletal muscle. J Pharmacol Sci. 2003;93:149-54 pubmed
    ..As a consequence, this type of biological preparation is not suitable for research on muscle contractures involving drugs that must be dissolved in DMSO (at the DMSO concentrations tested here)...
  26. Lin J, Wu H, Tarr P, Zhang C, Wu Z, Boss O, et al. Transcriptional co-activator PGC-1 alpha drives the formation of slow-twitch muscle fibres. Nature. 2002;418:797-801 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that PGC-1 alpha is a principal factor regulating muscle fibre type determination...
  27. Parsons S, Millay D, Wilkins B, Bueno O, Tsika G, Neilson J, et al. Genetic loss of calcineurin blocks mechanical overload-induced skeletal muscle fiber type switching but not hypertrophy. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:26192-200 pubmed
    ..We conclude that calcineurin expression is important during myogenesis and fiber-type switching, but not for muscle growth in response to hypertrophic stimuli...
  28. Grifone R, Laclef C, Spitz F, Lopez S, Demignon J, Guidotti J, et al. Six1 and Eya1 expression can reprogram adult muscle from the slow-twitch phenotype into the fast-twitch phenotype. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:6253-67 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these data identify Six1 and Eya1 as the first transcriptional complex that is able to reprogram adult slow-twitch oxidative fibers toward a fast-twitch glycolytic phenotype...
  29. Francis West P, Antoni L, Anakwe K. Regulation of myogenic differentiation in the developing limb bud. J Anat. 2003;202:69-81 pubmed
  30. Agarkova I, Schoenauer R, Ehler E, Carlsson L, Carlsson E, Thornell L, et al. The molecular composition of the sarcomeric M-band correlates with muscle fiber type. Eur J Cell Biol. 2004;83:193-204 pubmed
    ..A model is proposed to explain the functional consequence of differential M-band composition for the physiological and morphological properties of sarcomeres in different muscle types...
  31. Launay T, Noirez P, Butler Browne G, Agbulut O. Expression of slow myosin heavy chain during muscle regeneration is not always dependent on muscle innervation and calcineurin phosphatase activity. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006;290:R1508-14 pubmed
  32. Lionikas A, Blizard D, Vandenbergh D, Stout J, Vogler G, McClearn G, et al. Genetic determinants of weight of fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscles in old mice. Mamm Genome. 2006;17:615-28 pubmed
    ..05 for TA muscle in males (between 200 and 800 days) and females (between 500 and 800 days), respectively. Analysis of all age groups supported previous findings that the genetic effects may be muscle-, age-, and sex-specific. ..
  33. Gannon J, Doran P, Kirwan A, Ohlendieck K. Drastic increase of myosin light chain MLC-2 in senescent skeletal muscle indicates fast-to-slow fibre transition in sarcopenia of old age. Eur J Cell Biol. 2009;88:685-700 pubmed publisher
  34. Celegato B, Capitanio D, Pescatori M, Romualdi C, Pacchioni B, Cagnin S, et al. Parallel protein and transcript profiles of FSHD patient muscles correlate to the D4Z4 arrangement and reveal a common impairment of slow to fast fibre differentiation and a general deregulation of MyoD-dependent genes. Proteomics. 2006;6:5303-21 pubmed
  35. Juel C. Na+-K+-ATPase in rat skeletal muscle: muscle fiber-specific differences in exercise-induced changes in ion affinity and maximal activity. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;296:R125-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The changes in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase ion affinity are expected to influence muscle ion balance during muscle contraction. ..
  36. Harber M, Konopka A, Douglass M, Minchev K, Kaminsky L, Trappe T, et al. Aerobic exercise training improves whole muscle and single myofiber size and function in older women. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;297:R1452-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Progressive aerobic exercise training should be considered a viable exercise modality to combat sarcopenia in the elderly population. ..
  37. Wicke W, Wasicky R, Brugger P, Kaminski S, Lukas J. Histochemical and immunohistochemical study on muscle fibers in human extraocular muscle spindles. Exp Eye Res. 2007;84:670-9 pubmed
    ..In particular, the occurrence of anomalous fibers might reflect dynamic neuronal processes and might be necessary for modulating and adapting processes in advancing age, as well as maintaining proprioceptive input during the whole life. ..
  38. Mu X, Brown L, Liu Y, Schneider M. Roles of the calcineurin and CaMK signaling pathways in fast-to-slow fiber type transformation of cultured adult mouse skeletal muscle fibers. Physiol Genomics. 2007;30:300-12 pubmed
    ..Moreover, neither the calcineurin nor the CaMK pathway alone could maximally activate the transformation, and coordination of the two pathways is required to accomplish a complete fast-to-slow fiber type transformation. ..
  39. Del Prete Z, Musaro A, Rizzuto E. Measuring mechanical properties, including isotonic fatigue, of fast and slow MLC/mIgf-1 transgenic skeletal muscle. Ann Biomed Eng. 2008;36:1281-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Isotonic fatigue behavior did not differ between transgenic and wild-type muscles, suggesting that the ability of mIgf-1 transgenic muscle to generate a considerable higher absolute power did not affect its resistance to fatigue. ..
  40. Pun S, Santos A, Saxena S, Xu L, Caroni P. Selective vulnerability and pruning of phasic motoneuron axons in motoneuron disease alleviated by CNTF. Nat Neurosci. 2006;9:408-19 pubmed
    ..Thus, motoneuron disease involves predictable, selective vulnerability patterns by physiological subtypes of axons, episodes of abrupt pruning in the target region and compensation by resistant axons. ..
  41. Rusu L, Călina M, Avramescu E, Păun E, Vasilescu M. Neuromuscular investigation in diabetic polyneuropathy. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2009;50:283-90 pubmed
    ..Also, values of Dm help us to assess the muscle tonus, elasticity and response to electrostimulus. We consider that this method helps the clinicians to have a prediction of a future polyneuropathy at diabetic patients...
  42. Wilwert J, Madhoun N, Coughlin D. Parvalbumin correlates with relaxation rate in the swimming muscle of sheepshead and kingfish. J Exp Biol. 2006;209:227-37 pubmed
    ..The red muscle of southern kingfish, Menticirrhus americanus (Pisces, F. Scianidae) showed a pattern similar to the red muscle of sheepshead. ..
  43. Jokic N, Gonzalez de Aguilar J, Pradat P, Dupuis L, Echaniz Laguna A, Muller A, et al. Nogo expression in muscle correlates with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis severity. Ann Neurol. 2005;57:553-6 pubmed
    ..Nogo-A immunoreactivity was observed selectively in atrophic slow-twitch type I fibers. These results suggest that Nogo expression in muscle is a marker of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis severity. ..
  44. Patel V, Worrall S, Emery P, Preedy V. Protein adduct species in muscle and liver of rats following acute ethanol administration. Alcohol Alcohol. 2005;40:485-93 pubmed
    ..Our objective was to test the hypothesis that in muscle a variety of different adduct species are formed after acute alcohol exposure and that unreduced adducts predominate...
  45. Gollapudi S, Lin D. Experimental determination of sarcomere force-length relationship in type-I human skeletal muscle fibers. J Biomech. 2009;42:2011-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The broader experimental F-L curve compared to the standard model implies that human muscle has functionally a wider operating length range where its force-generating capacity is not compromised. ..
  46. Tannerstedt J, Apró W, Blomstrand E. Maximal lengthening contractions induce different signaling responses in the type I and type II fibers of human skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009;106:1412-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings also suggest that p70(S6k) is activated, at least in part, via pathways not involving Akt-mTOR and MAPK...
  47. Saito T, Yamane A, Kaneko S, Ogawa T, Ikawa T, Saito K, et al. Changes in the lingual muscles of obese rats induced by high-fat diet feeding. Arch Oral Biol. 2010;55:803-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To elucidate the influences of obesity on the properties and volume of lingual (genioglossus and geniohyoid) muscles in obese rats...
  48. Mrowczynski W, Celichowski J, Krutki P. Interspecies differences in the force-frequency relationship of the medial gastrocnemius motor units. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2006;57:491-501 pubmed
    ..Thus it seems that interspecies differences in the twitch contraction times do not fully explain different force-frequency relationships in mammalian skeletal muscles. ..
  49. Korach Andre M, Gounarides J, Deacon R, Beil M, Sun D, Gao J, et al. Age and muscle-type modulated role of intramyocellular lipids in the progression of insulin resistance in nondiabetic Zucker rats. Metabolism. 2005;54:522-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, proper timing may govern the success of a pharmacological studies aimed at measuring the impact of insulin-sensitizing drugs on IMCL. ..
  50. Jackson D, Ellis C, Shoemaker J. Estrogen modulates the contribution of neuropeptide Y to baseline hindlimb blood flow control in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010;298:R1351-7 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no change in Y(2)R expression or peptidase activity among the groups. These data support the hypothesis that estrogen blunts Y(1)R activation in the rat hindlimb through an effect on Y(1)R expression and NPY concentration. ..
  51. Ravosa M, Ning J, Costley D, Daniel A, Stock S, Stack M. Masticatory biomechanics and masseter fiber-type plasticity. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2010;10:46-55 pubmed
  52. Danieli Betto D, Esposito A, Germinario E, Sandonà D, Martinello T, Jakubiec Puka A, et al. Deficiency of alpha-sarcoglycan differently affects fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscles. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005;289:R1328-37 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, this study revealed profound distinctive biochemical and physiological modifications in fast- and slow-twitch muscles resulting from alpha-sarcoglycan deficiency. ..
  53. Habouzit E, Richard H, Sanchez H, Koulmann N, Serrurier B, Monnet R, et al. Decreased muscle ACE activity enhances functional response to endurance training in rats, without change in muscle oxidative capacity or contractile phenotype. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009;107:346-53 pubmed publisher
  54. Dahmane R, Djordjevic S, Simunic B, Valencic V. Spatial fiber type distribution in normal human muscle Histochemical and tensiomyographical evaluation. J Biomech. 2005;38:2451-9 pubmed
    ..90,P<0.001). These findings suggest that the contraction time obtained by TMG may be useful for non-invasive examining of muscle fiber types spatial distribution in humans...
  55. Kadi F, Charifi N, Henriksson J. The number of satellite cells in slow and fast fibres from human vastus lateralis muscle. Histochem Cell Biol. 2006;126:83-7 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our results show that there is no fibre type-specific distribution of satellite cells in a human skeletal muscle with mixed fibre type composition...
  56. Munoz Jareno N, Lopez Martinez A, Martin Fernandez Mayoralas D, Meizoso Latova T, Cabello A. [Cap myopathy: a case report]. Rev Neurol. 2007;45:669-71 pubmed
    ..Cap myopathy is a rare congenital disease caused by an alteration in the structure of the fibre, with disorganised myofibrils at the edges. Since it was first described, only a few cases have been reported in the literature...
  57. de Wilde J, Mohren R, van den Berg S, Boekschoten M, Dijk K, de Groot P, et al. Short-term high fat-feeding results in morphological and metabolic adaptations in the skeletal muscle of C57BL/6J mice. Physiol Genomics. 2008;32:360-9 pubmed
    ..Together with increased saturation of phospholipids of the mitochondrial membrane this can result in decreased mitochondrial function, which is a hallmark observed in insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes...
  58. Ohira Y, Yoshinaga T, Ohara M, Kawano F, Wang X, Higo Y, et al. The role of neural and mechanical influences in maintaining normal fast and slow muscle properties. Cells Tissues Organs. 2006;182:129-42 pubmed
  59. Pandorf C, Jiang W, Qin A, Bodell P, Baldwin K, Haddad F. Calcineurin plays a modulatory role in loading-induced regulation of type I myosin heavy chain gene expression in slow skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;297:R1037-48 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that Cn has a modulatory role in MHC transcription, rather than a role as a primary regulator of slow MHC gene expression...
  60. Huey K, McCall G, Zhong H, Roy R. Modulation of HSP25 and TNF-alpha during the early stages of functional overload of a rat slow and fast muscle. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2007;102:2307-14 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the initial responses of pHSP25 and TNF-alpha to mechanical stress and inflammation associated with FO are greater in a fast than slow extensor muscle...
  61. Rab M, Haslik W, Frey M. [Free functional muscle transplantation for facial reanimation: experimental comparison between the one- and two-stage approach]. Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir. 2010;42:115-23 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate functional results of either one- or two-staged free muscle transplantation, the scutuloauricularis model in the New Zealand white rabbits was used...
  62. Siu P, Alway S. Age-related apoptotic responses to stretch-induced hypertrophy in quail slow-tonic skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2005;289:C1105-13 pubmed
    ..Moreover, discrepant apoptotic responses to muscle overload in young and aged muscles may account in part for the age-related decline in the capability for muscle hypertrophy...
  63. Schilling N, Deban S. Fiber-type distribution of the perivertebral musculature in Ambystoma. J Morphol. 2010;271:200-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Cranio-caudally, neither the fiber-type composition nor the a-csa changed dramatically, possibly reflecting the need to perform well in both aquatic and terrestrial habitats...
  64. Rousse I, St Amour A, Darabid H, Robitaille R. Synapse-glia interactions are governed by synaptic and intrinsic glial properties. Neuroscience. 2010;167:621-32 pubmed publisher
    ..As a whole, these results indicate that PSC responsiveness at NMJs of slow- and fast-twitch muscles differ not only according to the level of activity of their synaptic partner but also in accordance with inherent glial properties...
  65. Svetic V, Hollway G, Elworthy S, Chipperfield T, Davison C, Adams R, et al. Sdf1a patterns zebrafish melanophores and links the somite and melanophore pattern defects in choker mutants. Development. 2007;134:1011-22 pubmed
    ..We thus identify Sdf1 as a key molecule in pigment pattern formation, adding to the growing inventory of its roles in embryonic development...
  66. Anttila K, Mänttäri S. Ultrastructural differences and histochemical characteristics in swimming muscles between wild and reared Atlantic salmon. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2009;196:249-57 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, some aspects of contractile machinery in swimming muscles of wild and reared salmon are compared...
  67. Banzet S, Koulmann N, Sanchez H, Serrurier B, Peinnequin A, Bigard A. Musclin gene expression is strongly related to fast-glycolytic phenotype. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;353:713-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that musclin is produced by myocytes in a highly fiber-type specific manner and that physiological changes in type IIb MHC lead to coordinated musclin expression...
  68. Wang Y, Szczesna Cordary D, Craig R, Diaz Perez Z, Guzman G, Miller T, et al. Fast skeletal muscle regulatory light chain is required for fast and slow skeletal muscle development. FASEB J. 2007;21:2205-14 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, in this study we demonstrate that the Mylpf gene is critically important for fast and slow skeletal muscle development...
  69. Losada M, Torres S, Hernández N, Lippo M, Sosa A. Muscle arteriolar and venular reactivity in two models of hypertensive rats. Microvasc Res. 2005;69:142-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, a preferential action for bradykinin was observed on upstream arterioles but not on venules. This effect was not observed for adenosine...
  70. Sun B, Cao X, Zhang L, Liu C, Ni H, Cheng J, et al. Daily 4-h head-up tilt is effective in preventing muscle but not bone atrophy due to simulated microgravity. J Gravit Physiol. 2003;10:29-38 pubmed
    ..Daily 4-h HUT, as 4-h STD, is also ineffective in attenuating adverse changes in bone mass, but seems partially effective in preventing declines in mechanical properties due to simulated microgravity...
  71. Sun B, Feng H, Zhang L, Wang Y. [Daily 4-h standing can prevent soleus atrophy induced by 4 weeks tail suspension in rats]. Space Med Med Eng (Beijing). 2005;18:12-5 pubmed
    ..To observe the effects of intermittent standing in counteracting the soleus atrophy induced by simulated microgravity...
  72. Hamdi M, Mutungi G. Dihydrotestosterone activates the MAPK pathway and modulates maximum isometric force through the EGF receptor in isolated intact mouse skeletal muscle fibres. J Physiol. 2010;588:511-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These are mediated through the EGF receptor and one of their main physiological functions is the enhancement of force production in fast twitch skeletal muscle fibres...
  73. Munkvik M, Lunde P, Sejersted O. Causes of fatigue in slow-twitch rat skeletal muscle during dynamic activity. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;297:R900-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Although metabolic changes may account for the changes of F(max), -dF/dt, and V(0), dephosphorylation of MLC2s may be involved in the fatigue seen as sustained slower contraction velocities and decreased muscle shortening...
  74. Vogt T, Fritz A. Computer-aided analysis of muscle fibre conduction velocity in neuromuscular diseases. Neurol Sci. 2006;27:51-7 pubmed
    ..Using different statistical parameters to describe the spectrum of muscle fibre conduction properties provides a sensitive tool to evaluate functional impairment in mild myopathies and to separate them from mild neuropathies...
  75. Lovering R, Anderson L. Architecture and fiber type of the pyramidalis muscle. Anat Sci Int. 2008;83:294-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results show that this is a muscle of mixed fiber type composition, similar to the rectus abdominus, and that the estimated forces generated by this muscle are relatively small...
  76. Westwood F, Scott R, Marsden A, Bigley A, Randall K. Rosuvastatin: characterization of induced myopathy in the rat. Toxicol Pathol. 2008;36:345-52 pubmed publisher
  77. Hegedus J, Putman C, Gordon T. Time course of preferential motor unit loss in the SOD1 G93A mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neurobiol Dis. 2007;28:154-64 pubmed
    ..We conclude that size of motoneurons, their axons, and their motor unit size are important determinants of motoneuron susceptibility in ALS...
  78. Davis J, Epstein N. Mechanistic role of movement and strain sensitivity in muscle contraction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:6140-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Reaction amplitudes confirm a strain-invariant equilibrium constant and thus a strain-insensitive ratio of pretension- to tension-generating states as work is done...
  79. Rana Z, Gundersen K, Buonanno A. Activity-dependent repression of muscle genes by NFAT. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:5921-6 pubmed publisher
  80. David G, Nguyen K, Barrett E. Early vulnerability to ischemia/reperfusion injury in motor terminals innervating fast muscles of SOD1-G93A mice. Exp Neurol. 2007;204:411-20 pubmed
    ..Early vulnerability of fast motor terminals to I/R injury thus may signal, and possibly contribute to, early events involved in motor neuron death...
  81. ter Veld F, Nicolay K, Jeneson J. Increased resistance to fatigue in creatine kinase deficient muscle is not due to improved contractile economy. Pflugers Arch. 2006;452:342-8 pubmed
    ..The results show that the adaptive response to loss of CK function does not involve any major change to contractile economy of skeletal muscle...
  82. Adachi T, Kikuchi N, Yasuda K, Anahara R, Gu N, Matsunaga T, et al. Fibre type distribution and gene expression levels of both succinate dehydrogenase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha of fibres in the soleus muscle of Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Exp Physiol. 2007;92:449-55 pubmed
    ..We have also discovered that the expression levels of the oxidative metabolism-related genes, PGC-1alpha and SDH, decreased in type I and type II fibres, respectively, of ZDF rats...
  83. Murakami S, Fujino H, Takeda I, Momota R, Kumagishi K, Ohtsuka A. Comparison of capillary architecture between slow and fast muscles in rats using a confocal laser scanning microscope. Acta Med Okayama. 2010;64:11-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, we conclude that slow oxidative muscle possess a rich capillary structure to provide demanded oxygen, and VEGF might be involved in the formation and/or maintenance of this highly capillarized architecture...
  84. Vadaszova A, Hudecova S, Krizanova O, Soukup T. Levels of myosin heavy chain mRNA transcripts and protein isoforms in the fast extensor digitorum longus muscle of 7-month-old rats with chronic thyroid status alterations. Physiol Res. 2006;55:707-10 pubmed
    ..The characteristic phenotype differences between soleus and EDL muscles remain, however, preserved even after 7 months of thyroid hormone status alteration...