epithelioid cells

Summary

Summary: Characteristic cells of granulomatous hypersensitivity. They appear as large, flattened cells with increased endoplasmic reticulum. They are believed to be activated macrophages that have differentiated as a result of prolonged antigenic stimulation. Further differentiation or fusion of epithelioid cells is thought to produce multinucleated giant cells (GIANT CELLS).

Top Publications

  1. L Abbate C, Cipriano I, Perez Hurtado E, Leao S, Carneiro C, Machado J. TGF-?-mediated sustained ERK1/2 activity promotes the inhibition of intracellular growth of Mycobacterium avium in epithelioid cells surrogates. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21465 pubmed publisher
    ..peritoneal macrophages through a process of differentiation induced by IL-4 overlap several features of epithelioid cells found in granulomas...
  2. Pan C, Jong Y, Chai C, Huang S, Chen Y. Comparative genomic hybridization study of perivascular epithelioid cell tumor: molecular genetic evidence of perivascular epithelioid cell tumor as a distinctive neoplasm. Hum Pathol. 2006;37:606-12 pubmed
    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) is a neoplasm composed chiefly of HMB-45-positive epithelioid cells with clear to granular cytoplasm and a perivascular distribution...
  3. Mustafa T, Wiker H, Mørkve O, Sviland L. Differential expression of mycobacterial antigen MPT64, apoptosis and inflammatory markers in multinucleated giant cells and epithelioid cells in granulomas caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Virchows Arch. 2008;452:449-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to compare the epithelioid cells (ECs) and multinucleated giant cells (MGCs) in the granulomas caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex ..
  4. de Saint Aubain Somerhausen N, Gomez Galdon M, Bouffioux B, Courtin C, Theunis A, Vogeleer M, et al. Clear cell 'sugar' tumor (PEComa) of the skin: a case report. J Cutan Pathol. 2005;32:441-4 pubmed
    ..Antibodies to S-100 protein, melan-A, cytokeratins, and smooth muscle actin were negative. This first case of cutaneous PEComa of the CCST type expands the differential diagnosis of clear cell/granular cell tumors of the skin...
  5. Iyengar P, DeAngelis D, Greenberg M, Taylor G. Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of the orbit: a case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2005;8:98-104 pubmed
    ..The histologic features, immunohistochemical profile, ultrastructural studies, and molecular studies led us to favor a diagnosis of PEComa. The prognosis of this entity is undetermined due largely to the small number of reported cases...
  6. Svec A, Velenska Z. Renal epithelioid angiomyolipoma--a close mimic of renal cell carcinoma. Report of a case and review of the literature. Pathol Res Pract. 2005;200:851-6 pubmed
    ..Histologically, it was solid, highly cellular, with occasional microcysts, composed of medium to large epithelioid cells with clear or oxyphilic cytoplasm, short spindle cells, and numerous giant multinucleated cells...
  7. Evert M, Wardelmann E, Nestler G, Schulz H, Roessner A, Rocken C. Abdominopelvic perivascular epithelioid cell sarcoma (malignant PEComa) mimicking gastrointestinal stromal tumour of the rectum. Histopathology. 2005;46:115-7 pubmed
  8. Fink D, Marsden D, Edwards L, Camaris C, Hacker N. Malignant perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) arising in the broad ligament. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2004;14:1036-9 pubmed
    ..epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) is an extremely rare mesenchymal neoplasm mostly composed of HMB-45-positive epithelioid cells with clear-to-eosinophilic cytoplasm, a propensity for perivascular distribution and a coexpression of ..
  9. Gronchi A, Diment J, Colecchia M, Fiore M, Santinami M. Atypical pleomorphic epithelioid angiomyolipoma localized to the pelvis: a case report and review of the literature. Histopathology. 2004;44:292-5 pubmed
    ..We report the first case of atypical pleomorphic angiomyolipoma in a man, arising from the pouch of Douglas and extending to the entire abdominal cavity...
  10. Cipriano I, Mariano M, Freymuller E, Carneiro C. Murine macrophages cultured with IL-4 acquire a phenotype similar to that of epithelioid cells from granulomatous inflammation. Inflammation. 2003;27:201-11 pubmed
    b>Epithelioid cells (ECs) found in granulomas are thought to derive from mononuclear phagocytes. Although GM-CSF and/or IL-4 are known to promote cell differentiation their role in the development of ECs has never been demonstrated...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. L Abbate C, Cipriano I, Perez Hurtado E, Leao S, Carneiro C, Machado J. TGF-?-mediated sustained ERK1/2 activity promotes the inhibition of intracellular growth of Mycobacterium avium in epithelioid cells surrogates. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21465 pubmed publisher
    ..peritoneal macrophages through a process of differentiation induced by IL-4 overlap several features of epithelioid cells found in granulomas...
  2. Pan C, Jong Y, Chai C, Huang S, Chen Y. Comparative genomic hybridization study of perivascular epithelioid cell tumor: molecular genetic evidence of perivascular epithelioid cell tumor as a distinctive neoplasm. Hum Pathol. 2006;37:606-12 pubmed
    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) is a neoplasm composed chiefly of HMB-45-positive epithelioid cells with clear to granular cytoplasm and a perivascular distribution...
  3. Mustafa T, Wiker H, Mørkve O, Sviland L. Differential expression of mycobacterial antigen MPT64, apoptosis and inflammatory markers in multinucleated giant cells and epithelioid cells in granulomas caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Virchows Arch. 2008;452:449-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to compare the epithelioid cells (ECs) and multinucleated giant cells (MGCs) in the granulomas caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex ..
  4. de Saint Aubain Somerhausen N, Gomez Galdon M, Bouffioux B, Courtin C, Theunis A, Vogeleer M, et al. Clear cell 'sugar' tumor (PEComa) of the skin: a case report. J Cutan Pathol. 2005;32:441-4 pubmed
    ..Antibodies to S-100 protein, melan-A, cytokeratins, and smooth muscle actin were negative. This first case of cutaneous PEComa of the CCST type expands the differential diagnosis of clear cell/granular cell tumors of the skin...
  5. Iyengar P, DeAngelis D, Greenberg M, Taylor G. Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of the orbit: a case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2005;8:98-104 pubmed
    ..The histologic features, immunohistochemical profile, ultrastructural studies, and molecular studies led us to favor a diagnosis of PEComa. The prognosis of this entity is undetermined due largely to the small number of reported cases...
  6. Svec A, Velenska Z. Renal epithelioid angiomyolipoma--a close mimic of renal cell carcinoma. Report of a case and review of the literature. Pathol Res Pract. 2005;200:851-6 pubmed
    ..Histologically, it was solid, highly cellular, with occasional microcysts, composed of medium to large epithelioid cells with clear or oxyphilic cytoplasm, short spindle cells, and numerous giant multinucleated cells...
  7. Evert M, Wardelmann E, Nestler G, Schulz H, Roessner A, Rocken C. Abdominopelvic perivascular epithelioid cell sarcoma (malignant PEComa) mimicking gastrointestinal stromal tumour of the rectum. Histopathology. 2005;46:115-7 pubmed
  8. Fink D, Marsden D, Edwards L, Camaris C, Hacker N. Malignant perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) arising in the broad ligament. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2004;14:1036-9 pubmed
    ..epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) is an extremely rare mesenchymal neoplasm mostly composed of HMB-45-positive epithelioid cells with clear-to-eosinophilic cytoplasm, a propensity for perivascular distribution and a coexpression of ..
  9. Gronchi A, Diment J, Colecchia M, Fiore M, Santinami M. Atypical pleomorphic epithelioid angiomyolipoma localized to the pelvis: a case report and review of the literature. Histopathology. 2004;44:292-5 pubmed
    ..We report the first case of atypical pleomorphic angiomyolipoma in a man, arising from the pouch of Douglas and extending to the entire abdominal cavity...
  10. Cipriano I, Mariano M, Freymuller E, Carneiro C. Murine macrophages cultured with IL-4 acquire a phenotype similar to that of epithelioid cells from granulomatous inflammation. Inflammation. 2003;27:201-11 pubmed
    b>Epithelioid cells (ECs) found in granulomas are thought to derive from mononuclear phagocytes. Although GM-CSF and/or IL-4 are known to promote cell differentiation their role in the development of ECs has never been demonstrated...
  11. Birkhaeuser F, Ackermann C, Flueckiger T, Guenin M, Kern B, Tondelli P, et al. First description of a PEComa (perivascular epithelioid cell tumor) of the colon: report of a case and review of the literature. Dis Colon Rectum. 2004;47:1734-7 pubmed
    ..The therapy consists of the radical resection. An adjuvant therapy is not known. Recommended is a close and long-term follow-up clinically and by CT scan...
  12. Kim H, Lim S, Choi H, Park K. Malignant clear-cell myomelanocytic tumor of broad ligament--a case report. Virchows Arch. 2006;448:867-70 pubmed
    ..Further study for proper subclassification of the PEComa family should be validated, not by anatomic site but by clinical behavior...
  13. Chinen L, Cipriano I, de Oliveira R, Leão S, Mariano M, Carneiro C. Recombinant interleukin-4-treated macrophages, epithelioid cell surrogates, harbor and arrest Mycobacterium avium multiplication in vitro. Microbes Infect. 2006;8:965-73 pubmed
    ..for 7 days with recombinant interleukin-4 (rIL-4) acquire morphological and functional characteristics of epithelioid cells (ECs) found in granulomatous lesions...
  14. Folpe A, Mentzel T, Lehr H, Fisher C, Balzer B, Weiss S. Perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms of soft tissue and gynecologic origin: a clinicopathologic study of 26 cases and review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol. 2005;29:1558-75 pubmed
    ..occasionally associated with the tuberous sclerosis complex, are defined by the presence of perivascular epithelioid cells that coexpress muscle and melanocytic markers...
  15. Rigby H, Yu W, Schmidt M, Fernandez C. Lack of response of a metastatic renal perivascular epithelial cell tumor (PEComa) to successive courses of DTIC based-therapy and imatinib mesylate. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2005;45:202-6 pubmed
    ..This report highlights the first documented case of the use of imatinib for PEComa. Lack of response and adverse effects of the drug required discontinuation of therapy...
  16. Banerjee S, Eyden B, Trenholm P, Sheikh M, Wakamatsu K, Ancans J, et al. Monotypic angiomyolipoma of the nasal cavity: a heretofore undescribed occurrence. Int J Surg Pathol. 2001;9:309-15 pubmed
    ..Initial assessment of the lesion indicated malignant melanoma, but the immunostaining and histologic features indicated monotypic angiomyolipoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such case in the nasal cavity...
  17. Fadare O. Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) of the uterus: an outcome-based clinicopathologic analysis of 41 reported cases. Adv Anat Pathol. 2008;15:63-75 pubmed publisher
    ..cell tumors (PEComas), a poorly defined neoplasm that is characterized by varying amounts of spindle and epithelioid cells with clear to eosinophilic cytoplasm that display immunoreactivity for melanocytic markers, most frequently ..
  18. Mai K, Belanger E. Perivascular epithelioid cell tumour (PEComa) of the soft tissue. Pathology. 2006;38:415-20 pubmed
    PEComa is a rare tumour developing from perivascular epithelioid cells (PEC) and is characterised by positive immunoreactivity for HMB45...
  19. Leclerc J, Marchal F, Stines J, Regent D. [Epithelioid renal angiomyolipoma: benign or malignant tumor?]. J Radiol. 2003;84:851-4 pubmed
    ..Epithelioid angiomyolipoma is a rare variant of angiomyolipoma characterized by epithelioid cells that mimic renal cell carcinoma and is potentially malignant...
  20. Greene L, Mount S, Schned A, Cooper K. Recurrent perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of the uterus (PEComa): an immunohistochemical study and review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol. 2003;90:677-81 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this report is to provide information that may be used to predict the future behavior of this tumor...
  21. Yanai H, Matsuura H, Sonobe H, Shiozaki S, Kawabata K. Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of the jejunum. Pathol Res Pract. 2003;199:47-50 pubmed
    ..The tumor consisted of nests of epithelioid cells with clear to granular eosinophilic cytoplasm. The nests were separated by thin fibrovascular septa...
  22. Sadeghi S, Krigman H, Maluf H. Perivascular epithelioid clear cell tumor of the common bile duct. Am J Surg Pathol. 2004;28:1107-10 pubmed
    ..During a short follow-up period following a conservative local excision, our patient remains free of disease...
  23. Mentzel T, Reisshauer S, Rutten A, Hantschke M, Soares de Almeida L, Kutzner H. Cutaneous clear cell myomelanocytic tumour: a new member of the growing family of perivascular epithelioid cell tumours (PEComas). Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of seven cases. Histopathology. 2005;46:498-504 pubmed
  24. Harris G, McCulloch T, Perks G, Fisher C. Malignant perivascular epithelioid cell tumour ("PEComa") of soft tissue: a unique case. Am J Surg Pathol. 2004;28:1655-8 pubmed
    Tumours of perivascular epithelioid cells (PEComas) are being increasingly reported at visceral and somatic sites...
  25. Pan C, Yang A, Chiang H. Malignant perivascular epithelioid cell tumor involving the prostate. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2003;127:E96-8 pubmed
    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) is a neoplasm chiefly composed of HMB-45-positive epithelioid cells with clear-to-granular cytoplasm and a perivascular distribution...
  26. Agaimy A, Wünsch P. Perivascular epithelioid cell sarcoma (malignant PEComa) of the ileum. Pathol Res Pract. 2006;202:37-41 pubmed
    ..clear cytoplasm, perivascular distribution, and combined myomelanocytic features, so-called perivascular epithelioid cells (PECs). These lesions are being increasingly referred to as PEComas...
  27. Fujita J, Ohtsuki Y, Suemitsu I, Yamadori I, Shigeto E, Shiode M, et al. Immunohistochemical distribution of epithelioid cell, myofibroblast, and transforming growth factor-beta1 in the granuloma caused by Mycobacterium avium intracellulare complex pulmonary infection. Microbiol Immunol. 2002;46:67-74 pubmed
    The present study was designed to evaluate the distribution of epithelioid cells, myofibroblasts, and TGF-beta1 in the formation of granuloma caused by Mycobacterium avium intracellulare complex (MAC) lung infection...
  28. Lau S, Marchevsky A, McKenna R, Luthringer D. Malignant monotypic epithelioid angiomyolipoma of the retroperitoneum. Int J Surg Pathol. 2003;11:223-8 pubmed
    ..of angiomyolipoma, occurring primarily in the kidney and characterized by a predominance of HMB-45-positive epithelioid cells. EAML is generally considered a benign neoplasm, though rare cases exhibiting malignant behavior have been ..
  29. Huang K, Huang C, Chung S, Pu Y, Shun C, Chen J. Malignant epithelioid angiomyolipoma of the kidney. J Formos Med Assoc. 2007;106:S51-4 pubmed
    ..Epithelioid AML is a potentially aggressive tumor. The prognosis is poor in metastatic disease. HMB-45 immunoreactivity is a useful marker to make diagnosis...
  30. Froio E, Piana S, Cavazza A, Valli R, Abrate M, Gardini G. Multifocal PEComa (PEComatosis) of the female genital tract associated with endometriosis, diffuse adenomyosis, and endometrial atypical hyperplasia. Int J Surg Pathol. 2008;16:443-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We interpret these foci as the result of a widespread proliferation of perivascular epithelioid cells (PEC). Because of the diffuse quality of the process, the designation of PEComatosis seems warranted.
  31. Folpe A, Kwiatkowski D. Perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms: pathology and pathogenesis. Hum Pathol. 2010;41:1-15 pubmed publisher
  32. Parfitt J, Keith J, Megyesi J, Ang L. Metastatic PEComa to the brain. Acta Neuropathol. 2006;112:349-51 pubmed
  33. Parfitt J, Bella A, Wehrli B, Izawa J. Primary PEComa of the bladder treated with primary excision and adjuvant interferon-alpha immunotherapy: a case report. BMC Urol. 2006;6:20 pubmed
    ..Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms of uncertain malignant potential, which have in common the co-expression of muscle and melanocytic immunohistochemical markers...
  34. Pan C, Yu I, Yang A, Chiang H. Clear cell myomelanocytic tumor of the urinary bladder. Am J Surg Pathol. 2003;27:689-92 pubmed
    ..This case, in association with the expanding list of perivascular epithelioid cell tumor reported in different sites, suggests that this type of neoplasm may be ubiquitous...
  35. Ong A, Pinto P, Kim F, Kavoussi L. Recurrent renal epithelioid angiomyolipoma. Urology. 2003;61:1035 pubmed
    ..Recently, a variety of epithelioid angiomyolipomas with malignant potential have been described. We report an adrenal recurrence in a patient who had a cellular angiomyolipoma removed 4 years earlier...
  36. Bosincu L, Rocca P, Martignoni G, Nogales F, Longa L, Maccioni A, et al. Perivascular epithelioid cell (PEC) tumors of the uterus: a clinicopathologic study of two cases with aggressive features. Mod Pathol. 2005;18:1336-42 pubmed
    ..immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of two unusual tumors of the uterus composed of spindle and epithelioid cells strongly positive for HMB45...
  37. Martignoni G, Pea M, Reghellin D, Zamboni G, Bonetti F. PEComas: the past, the present and the future. Virchows Arch. 2008;452:119-32 pubmed
    ..Its success could provide the rationale for the use of the same drug in other lesions composed of PECs, especially in the malignant ones...
  38. Kenerson H, Folpe A, Takayama T, Yeung R. Activation of the mTOR pathway in sporadic angiomyolipomas and other perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms. Hum Pathol. 2007;38:1361-71 pubmed
    ..This suggests the possibility that mTOR inhibitors such as rapamycin may be therapeutic for this class of disease...
  39. Liang S, Pearl M, Liu J, Hwang S, Tornos C. "Malignant" uterine perivascular epithelioid cell tumor, pelvic lymph node lymphangioleiomyomatosis, and gynecological pecomatosis in a patient with tuberous sclerosis: a case report and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2008;27:86-90 pubmed
    ..This is only the second reported PEComa associated with pecomatosis and the fourth PEComa described in a patient with TBS. The clinical significance of pecomatosis is still uncertain but seems to be seen only in patients with TBS...
  40. Okabe T. [Origin of epithelioid cells in sarcoid granuloma]. Nihon Rinsho. 2002;60:1714-9 pubmed
    Sarcoid epithelioid cells are believed to be a variant of tissue macrophages, which are derived from circulating monocytes in blood. Formation of monocytes and macrophages are controlled by hematopoietic growth factors, i.e...
  41. Silva E, Bodurka D, Scouros M, Ayala A. A uterine leiomyosarcoma that became positive for HMB45 in the metastasis. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2005;9:43-5 pubmed
    Uterine smooth muscle tumors are usually spindle cell lesions, but a minority is composed of epithelioid cells. Foci of clear cells can be found in these latter tumors...
  42. Darai E, Bazot M, Barranger E, Detchev R, Cortez A. Epithelioid angiomyolipoma of the uterus: a case report. J Reprod Med. 2004;49:578-81 pubmed
    ..Epithelioid angiomyolipoma is a recently recognized pathologic entity. The occurrence of epithelioid angiomyolipoma in thefemale genital tract is rare...
  43. Parfitt J, Bella A, Izawa J, Wehrli B. Malignant neoplasm of perivascular epithelioid cells of the liver. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2006;130:1219-22 pubmed
    Neoplasms of perivascular epithelioid cells (PEComas) have in common the coexpression of muscle and melanocytic immunohistochemical markers...
  44. Ong L, Hwang W, Wong A, Chan M, Chui C. Perivascular epithelioid cell tumour of the vagina in an 8 year old girl. J Pediatr Surg. 2007;42:564-6 pubmed
    ..Our case highlights the importance of an accurate initial diagnosis, and we stress the importance of regular surveillance over a significant period...
  45. Hornick J, Fletcher C. Sclerosing PEComa: clinicopathologic analysis of a distinctive variant with a predilection for the retroperitoneum. Am J Surg Pathol. 2008;32:493-501 pubmed publisher
    ..The tumors were composed of cords and trabeculae of cytologically uniform bland epithelioid cells with palely eosinophilic, granular to clear cytoplasm and round nuclei with small nucleoli, embedded in ..
  46. Busam K, Sung J, Wiesner T, von Deimling A, Jungbluth A. Combined BRAF(V600E)-positive melanocytic lesions with large epithelioid cells lacking BAP1 expression and conventional nevomelanocytes. Am J Surg Pathol. 2013;37:193-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The lesions described herein may represent a peculiar combined melanocytic nevus variant. However, longer follow-up and more studies are needed to determine the biological potential of the BAP1-negative melanocyte proliferations...
  47. Clay M, Gibson P, Lowell J, Cooper K. Microscopic uterine lymphangioleiomyomatosis perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasm: a case report with the earliest manifestation of this enigmatic neoplasm. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2011;30:71-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Though these lesions are comprised of histologically and immunohistochemically distinctive perivascular epithelioid cells, their diagnosis is controversial and some investigators question their existence entirely...
  48. Weinreb I, Howarth D, Latta E, Ghazarian D, Chetty R. Perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms (PEComas): four malignant cases expanding the histopathological spectrum and a description of a unique finding. Virchows Arch. 2007;450:463-70 pubmed
    ..These tumours may manifest largely as sarcomas appearing to be undifferentiated and should be considered in their differential diagnosis...
  49. Hornick J, Fletcher C. PEComa: what do we know so far?. Histopathology. 2006;48:75-82 pubmed
    ..This review examines the members of the PEComa family, with an emphasis on lesions arising outside of the kidney, lung and liver, and discusses preliminary evidence for pathological features that might predict malignant behaviour...
  50. Koutlas I, Pambuccian S, Jessurun J, Manivel J, Gopalakrishnan R. Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of the oral mucosa. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2005;129:690-3 pubmed
    ..Histologically, the tumor was composed of large elongated or epithelioid cells with granular cytoplasm...
  51. Andersen H, Mahmood S, Tkach V, Cohn M, Kustikova O, Grigorian M, et al. The ability of Fos family members to produce phenotypic changes in epithelioid cells is not directly linked to their transactivation potentials. Oncogene. 2002;21:4843-8 pubmed
    ..We therefore conclude that c-Fos, Fra-1 and Fra-2 differently activate transcription of target genes and induce morphological changes in epithelioid carcinoma cells in a manner not directly linked to their transactivation potentials...
  52. Folpe A, McKenney J, Li Z, Smith S, Weiss S. Clear cell myomelanocytic tumor of the thigh: report of a unique case. Am J Surg Pathol. 2002;26:809-12 pubmed
    ..Histologic examination showed the classic features of CCMMT, and immunohistochemical studies confirmed co-expression of smooth muscle actin, HMB-45, and microphthalmia transcription factor...
  53. Insabato L, De Rosa G, Terracciano L, Fazioli F, Di Santo F, Rosai J. Primary monotypic epithelioid angiomyolipoma of bone. Histopathology. 2002;40:286-90 pubmed
    ..epithelioid angiomyolipoma is a distinct and definable variant of angiomyolipoma, composed of monomorphous epithelioid cells that show HMB45 immunoreactivity...
  54. Nuciforo P, O Hara C. Correspondence re: Bonetti F, Martignoni G, Colato C, Manfrin E, Gambacorta M, Faleri M, et al. Abdominopelvic sarcoma of perivascular epithelioid cells. Report of four cases in young women, one with tuberous sclerosis. Mod Pathol 2001;14:563-8. And . Mod Pathol. 2002;15:87-90 pubmed
  55. Vang R, Kempson R. Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor ('PEComa') of the uterus: a subset of HMB-45-positive epithelioid mesenchymal neoplasms with an uncertain relationship to pure smooth muscle tumors. Am J Surg Pathol. 2002;26:1-13 pubmed
    The family of lesions thought to be composed at least in part of perivascular epithelioid cells, characterized as HMB-45-positive epithelioid cells with clear to eosinophilic granular cytoplasm and a propensity for a perivascular ..
  56. Tazelaar H, Batts K, Srigley J. Primary extrapulmonary sugar tumor (PEST): a report of four cases. Mod Pathol. 2001;14:615-22 pubmed
    ..This has given rise to the concept that clear cell tumors are neoplasms of so-called perivascular epithelioid cells--PEComas...
  57. Bonetti F, Martignoni G, Colato C, Manfrin E, Gambacorta M, Faleri M, et al. Abdominopelvic sarcoma of perivascular epithelioid cells. Report of four cases in young women, one with tuberous sclerosis. Mod Pathol. 2001;14:563-8 pubmed
    ..We consider them as sarcomas composed of a pure population of uncommitted perivascular epithelioid cell, that lack modulation toward smooth muscle or adipose cells...
  58. Folpe A, Goodman Z, Ishak K, Paulino A, Taboada E, Meehan S, et al. Clear cell myomelanocytic tumor of the falciform ligament/ligamentum teres: a novel member of the perivascular epithelioid clear cell family of tumors with a predilection for children and young adults. Am J Surg Pathol. 2000;24:1239-46 pubmed
    ..quot; The differential diagnosis of these tumors includes clear cell sarcoma of tendons and aponeuroses, leiomyosarcoma, and angiomyolipoma...
  59. Ishioka S, Wiwien H, Hiyama K, Maeda A, Yamakido M. New monoclonal antibodies against the epithelioid cells in sarcoid granulomas. Exp Lung Res. 1999;25:663-70 pubmed
    ..developed an anti-Kveim monoclonal antibody, IHY-1, which reacts with sarcoid granulomas as well as with epithelioid cells of various granulomatous diseases including tuberculosis...
  60. Manganoni A, Farisoglio C, Lonati A, Zorzi F, Tucci G, Pinton P. Cutaneous epithelioid malignant schwannoma: review of the literature and case report. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2009;62:e318-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We can conclude that malignant epithelioid schwannoma in the skin and subcutis is eminently curable if treated with wide local excision...
  61. Salviato T, Altavilla G, Busatto G, Pizzolitto S, Falconieri G. Diffuse intra-abdominal clear cell myomelanocytic tumor: report of an unusual presentation of "PEComatosis" simulating peritoneal mesothelioma. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2006;10:352-6 pubmed
    ..The origin of this particular lesion is briefly discussed in light of the recent literature published on the subject...
  62. Pujol R, Gallardo F, Servitje O, Marti R, Bordes R, García Muret M, et al. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma with secondary epithelioid granulomatous cutaneous involvement: a clinicopathologic study of four cases. J Dermatol. 2005;32:541-8 pubmed
    ..early lesions), granulomatous panniculitis was noted in one patient and in one patient with AILD, masses of epithelioid cells were noted...