endolymphatic sac

Summary

Summary: The blind pouch at the end of the endolymphatic duct. It is a storage reservoir for excess ENDOLYMPH, formed by the blood vessels in the membranous labyrinth.

Top Publications

  1. Rask Andersen H, DeMott J, Bagger Sjoback D, Salt A. Morphological changes of the endolymphatic sac induced by microinjection of artificial endolymph into the cochlea. Hear Res. 1999;138:81-90 pubmed
    Morphological changes of the endolymphatic sac were analyzed in guinea pigs following microinjection of artificial endolymph into the cochlea or withdrawal of a quantity of native endolymph...
  2. Hirai S, Cureoglu S, Schachern P, Hayashi H, Paparella M, Harada T. Large vestibular aqueduct syndrome: a human temporal bone study. Laryngoscope. 2006;116:2007-11 pubmed
    ..This study was undertaken to determine prevalence of LVAS in our temporal bone (TB) collection and its relationship to other systemic or otologic anomalies...
  3. Akiyama K, Miyashita T, Matsubara A, Mori N. The detailed localization pattern of Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter type 2 and its related ion transport system in the rat endolymphatic sac. J Histochem Cytochem. 2010;58:759-63 pubmed publisher
    The endolymphatic sac (ES) is a part of the membranous labyrinth...
  4. Kupferman M, Bigelow D, Carpentieri D, Bilaniuk L, Kazahaya K. Endolymphatic sac tumor in a 4-year-old boy. Otol Neurotol. 2004;25:782-6 pubmed
    b>Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELST) are rare, low-grade, locally aggressive papillary neoplasms. We present a case of a 4-year-old boy with an ELST, the youngest described in the literature.
  5. Dou H, Xu J, Wang Z, Smith A, Soleimani M, Karet F, et al. Co-expression of pendrin, vacuolar H+-ATPase alpha4-subunit and carbonic anhydrase II in epithelial cells of the murine endolymphatic sac. J Histochem Cytochem. 2004;52:1377-84 pubmed
    The endolymph in the endolymphatic sac (ES) is acidic (pH 6.6-7). Maintaining this acidic lumen is believed to be important for the normal function of the ES. The acid-base regulation mechanisms of the ES are unknown...
  6. Satoh H, Firestein G, Billings P, Harris J, Keithley E. Proinflammatory cytokine expression in the endolymphatic sac during inner ear inflammation. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2003;4:139-47 pubmed
    ..The role of the endolymphatic sac in this immune process is not clear...
  7. Pettit K, Henson M, Henson O, Gewalt S, Salt A. Quantitative anatomy of the guinea pig endolymphatic sac. Hear Res. 2002;174:1-8 pubmed
    The endolymphatic sac is believed to represent one of the primary loci for endolymph volume regulation in the inner ear...
  8. Kitahara T, Kubo T, Okumura S, Kitahara M. Effects of endolymphatic sac drainage with steroids for intractable Meniere's disease: a long-term follow-up and randomized controlled study. Laryngoscope. 2008;118:854-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Since Meniere's disease is thought to be triggered by an immune insult to the inner ear, we examined intraendolymphatic sac application of steroids as a new therapeutic strategy for intractable Meniere's disease...
  9. Michaels L. Origin of endolymphatic sac tumor. Head Neck Pathol. 2007;1:104-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the second literature report confirming the post-mortem site of origin of the "endolymphatic sac tumor"...
  10. Poulsen M, Gimsing S, Kosteljanetz M, Møller H, Brandt C, Thomsen C, et al. von Hippel-Lindau disease: surveillance strategy for endolymphatic sac tumors. Genet Med. 2011;13:1032-41 pubmed publisher
    Up to 16% of patients with the hereditary von Hippel-Lindau disease develop endolymphatic sac tumors of the inner ear...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Rask Andersen H, DeMott J, Bagger Sjoback D, Salt A. Morphological changes of the endolymphatic sac induced by microinjection of artificial endolymph into the cochlea. Hear Res. 1999;138:81-90 pubmed
    Morphological changes of the endolymphatic sac were analyzed in guinea pigs following microinjection of artificial endolymph into the cochlea or withdrawal of a quantity of native endolymph...
  2. Hirai S, Cureoglu S, Schachern P, Hayashi H, Paparella M, Harada T. Large vestibular aqueduct syndrome: a human temporal bone study. Laryngoscope. 2006;116:2007-11 pubmed
    ..This study was undertaken to determine prevalence of LVAS in our temporal bone (TB) collection and its relationship to other systemic or otologic anomalies...
  3. Akiyama K, Miyashita T, Matsubara A, Mori N. The detailed localization pattern of Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter type 2 and its related ion transport system in the rat endolymphatic sac. J Histochem Cytochem. 2010;58:759-63 pubmed publisher
    The endolymphatic sac (ES) is a part of the membranous labyrinth...
  4. Kupferman M, Bigelow D, Carpentieri D, Bilaniuk L, Kazahaya K. Endolymphatic sac tumor in a 4-year-old boy. Otol Neurotol. 2004;25:782-6 pubmed
    b>Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELST) are rare, low-grade, locally aggressive papillary neoplasms. We present a case of a 4-year-old boy with an ELST, the youngest described in the literature.
  5. Dou H, Xu J, Wang Z, Smith A, Soleimani M, Karet F, et al. Co-expression of pendrin, vacuolar H+-ATPase alpha4-subunit and carbonic anhydrase II in epithelial cells of the murine endolymphatic sac. J Histochem Cytochem. 2004;52:1377-84 pubmed
    The endolymph in the endolymphatic sac (ES) is acidic (pH 6.6-7). Maintaining this acidic lumen is believed to be important for the normal function of the ES. The acid-base regulation mechanisms of the ES are unknown...
  6. Satoh H, Firestein G, Billings P, Harris J, Keithley E. Proinflammatory cytokine expression in the endolymphatic sac during inner ear inflammation. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2003;4:139-47 pubmed
    ..The role of the endolymphatic sac in this immune process is not clear...
  7. Pettit K, Henson M, Henson O, Gewalt S, Salt A. Quantitative anatomy of the guinea pig endolymphatic sac. Hear Res. 2002;174:1-8 pubmed
    The endolymphatic sac is believed to represent one of the primary loci for endolymph volume regulation in the inner ear...
  8. Kitahara T, Kubo T, Okumura S, Kitahara M. Effects of endolymphatic sac drainage with steroids for intractable Meniere's disease: a long-term follow-up and randomized controlled study. Laryngoscope. 2008;118:854-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Since Meniere's disease is thought to be triggered by an immune insult to the inner ear, we examined intraendolymphatic sac application of steroids as a new therapeutic strategy for intractable Meniere's disease...
  9. Michaels L. Origin of endolymphatic sac tumor. Head Neck Pathol. 2007;1:104-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the second literature report confirming the post-mortem site of origin of the "endolymphatic sac tumor"...
  10. Poulsen M, Gimsing S, Kosteljanetz M, Møller H, Brandt C, Thomsen C, et al. von Hippel-Lindau disease: surveillance strategy for endolymphatic sac tumors. Genet Med. 2011;13:1032-41 pubmed publisher
    Up to 16% of patients with the hereditary von Hippel-Lindau disease develop endolymphatic sac tumors of the inner ear...
  11. Huang T, Lin C, Chang Y. Endolymphatic sac surgery for Meniére's disease. A cumulative study of twelve years' experience. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl. 1991;485:145-54 pubmed
    ..This not only accentuates the efficacy of revision surgery, but opens new areas of investigation into the underlying etiology of this elusive disease...
  12. Friberg U, Jansson B, Rask Andersen H, Bagger Sjoback D. Variations in surgical anatomy of the endolymphatic sac. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1988;114:389-94 pubmed
    Twenty-nine specimens of the extraosseous portion of the human endolymphatic sac (ES) were serially sectioned longitudinally. The length and width of the extraosseous ES were measured and the surface area was calculated...
  13. Kim S, Marcus D. Regulation of sodium transport in the inner ear. Hear Res. 2011;280:21-9 pubmed publisher
    ..homeostasis in each compartment of the inner ear, including the cochlea, saccule, semicircular canals and endolymphatic sac. The influx of Na(+) into endolymph of each of the organs is likely via passive diffusion, but these ..
  14. Lonser R, Kim H, Butman J, Vortmeyer A, Choo D, Oldfield E. Tumors of the endolymphatic sac in von Hippel-Lindau disease. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:2481-6 pubmed
  15. Salt A, Rask Andersen H. Responses of the endolymphatic sac to perilymphatic injections and withdrawals: evidence for the presence of a one-way valve. Hear Res. 2004;191:90-100 pubmed
    Although the endolymphatic sac (ES) is thought to be a primary site for endolymph volume regulation, we have limited knowledge of how it responds to volume and pressure changes...
  16. Durland W, Pyle G, Connor N. Endolymphatic sac decompression as a treatment for Meniere's disease. Laryngoscope. 2005;115:1454-7 pubmed
    b>Endolymphatic sac decompression is a surgical treatment option for patients with medically intractable Meniere's disease. However, effectiveness is debated because published data show great variability...
  17. Peters T, Tonnaer E, Kuijpers W, Curfs J. Changes in ultrastructural characteristics of endolymphatic sac ribosome-rich cells of the rat during development. Hear Res. 2003;176:94-104 pubmed
    It has recently been demonstrated that endolymphatic sac (ES) ribosome-rich (dark) cells respond to induced endolymph changes and are thus likely to be involved in endolymph homeostasis...
  18. Huang T. Endolymphatic sac surgery for Meniere's disease: experience with over 3000 cases. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2002;35:591-606 pubmed
    ....
  19. Stankovic K, Brown D, Alper S, Adams J. Localization of pH regulating proteins H+ATPase and Cl-/HCO3- exchanger in the guinea pig inner ear. Hear Res. 1997;114:21-34 pubmed
    ..staining for the Cl-/HCO3- exchanger; these included interdental cells and epithelial cells of the endolymphatic sac. Cochlear cell types with diffuse cytoplasmic staining for vH+ATPase and a basolaterally localized Cl-/HCO3- ..
  20. Schipper J, Maier W, Rosahl S, Van Velthoven V, Berlis A, Boedeker C, et al. Endolymphatic sac tumours: surgical management. J Otolaryngol. 2006;35:387-94 pubmed
    b>Endolymphatic sac tumours (ELSTs) have been known as an individual tumour entity only since 1984. ELSTs may occur either solitarily and sporadically or as a hereditary manifestation associated with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease...
  21. Sun Y, Wen W, Wu J, Song J, Guan H, Wang K, et al. Endolymphatic sac tumor: case report and review of the literature. Diagn Pathol. 2012;7:36 pubmed publisher
    b>Endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) is a rare neoplasm which can be encountered sporadically or in Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. Here we report a sporadic case of ELST in 31-year-old man...
  22. Thalmann I, Hughes I, Tong B, Ornitz D, Thalmann R. Microscale analysis of proteins in inner ear tissues and fluids with emphasis on endolymphatic sac, otoconia, and organ of Corti. Electrophoresis. 2006;27:1598-608 pubmed
    ..First, we demonstrate how quick-freezing and freeze drying prevents artifacts that arise from sampling endolymphatic sac (ES) content in the liquid state...
  23. Gouveris H, Lange G, Mann W. Intratympanic gentamicin treatment after endolymphatic sac surgery. Acta Otolaryngol. 2005;125:1180-3 pubmed
    ..Interval treatment with up to three intratympanic gentamicin injections once weekly effectively controlled vertigo while preserving hearing in patients with Ménière's disease and recurrent or resistant vertigo after saccotomy...
  24. Koesling S, Rasinski C, Amaya B. Imaging and clinical findings in large endolymphatic duct and sac syndrome. Eur J Radiol. 2006;57:54-62 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of LEDS in the own patient population and to present our experiences regarding imaging findings, clinical presentation and follow up...
  25. Skalova A, Sima R, Bohus P, Curik R, Lukas J, Michal M. Endolymphatic sac tumor (aggressive papillary tumor of middle ear and temporal bone): report of two cases with analysis of the VHL gene. Pathol Res Pract. 2008;204:599-606 pubmed publisher
    b>Endolymphatic sac tumor (Heffner tumor) (ELST) is a very rare nonmetastasizing, locally aggressive low-grade adenocarcinoma of endolymphatic sac origin, which is linked to von-Hippel-Lindau disease (VHLD)...
  26. Maekawa C, Kitahara T, Kizawa K, Okazaki S, Kamakura T, Horii A, et al. Expression and translocation of aquaporin-2 in the endolymphatic sac in patients with Meniere's disease. J Neuroendocrinol. 2010;22:1157-64 pubmed publisher
    ..that both plasma stress hormone, vasopressin (pAVP) and its receptor, V2 (V2R) expression in the inner ear endolymphatic sac were significantly higher in Meniere's patients...
  27. Vogel T, Vortmeyer A, Lubensky I, Lee Y, Furuta M, Ikejiri B, et al. Coexpression of erythropoietin and its receptor in endolymphatic sac tumors. J Neurosurg. 2005;103:284-8 pubmed
    ..The cell of origin and the reason for the particular organ distribution of the tumors remains unknown. Endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) is one of the lesions associated with VHL disease...
  28. Watanabe K, Tomiyama S, Jinnouchi K, Pawankar R, Yagi T. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the cochlea following immune response in the endolymphatic sac of guinea pigs. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 2001;63:155-9 pubmed
    ..in the cochlea of guinea pigs was performed after the injection of keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) into the endolymphatic sac. Morphological changes were observed in the cochlea of all animals after the injection of KLH...
  29. Kato B, LaRouere M, Bojrab D, Michaelides E. Evaluating quality of life after endolymphatic sac surgery: The Ménière's Disease Outcomes Questionnaire. Otol Neurotol. 2004;25:339-44 pubmed
    To develop a disease-specific instrument to measure the quality of life in patients with Ménière's disease and to assess quality-of-life outcomes after endolymphatic sac decompression.
  30. Raft S, Andrade L, Shao D, Akiyama H, Henkemeyer M, Wu D. Ephrin-B2 governs morphogenesis of endolymphatic sac and duct epithelia in the mouse inner ear. Dev Biol. 2014;390:51-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Efnb2 is required for growth and morphogenesis of the embryonic endolymphatic epithelium, a precursor of the endolymphatic sac (ES) and duct (ED), which mediate endolymph homeostasis...
  31. Schittenhelm J, Roser F, Tatagiba M, Beschorner R. Diagnostic value of EAAT-1 and Kir7.1 for distinguishing endolymphatic sac tumors from choroid plexus tumors. Am J Clin Pathol. 2012;138:85-9 pubmed publisher
    The endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) is a low-grade carcinoma originating in the ear. These extremely rare tumors are capable of invading the cerebellopontine angle and might be mistaken for choroid plexus tumors (CPTs) in this region...
  32. Danckwardt Lillieström N, Friberg U, Kinnefors A, Rask Andersen H. Stereocilia-like structures in the endolymphatic sac in Ménière's disease and acoustic neuroma. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 1998;60:190-7 pubmed
    ..Stereocilia-like structures were found in the luminal contents of the endolymphatic sac (ES) in all of these patients. The ES from 18 patients with acoustic neuroma were used as controls...
  33. Grunder S, Muller A, Ruppersberg J. Developmental and cellular expression pattern of epithelial sodium channel alpha, beta and gamma subunits in the inner ear of the rat. Eur J Neurosci. 2001;13:641-8 pubmed
    ..mRNA for the three channel-forming subunits (alpha, beta and gamma ENaC) in cochlea, vestibular system and endolymphatic sac. mRNA abundance increased during the first 12 days of life in cochlea and vestibular system, coinciding with ..
  34. Kitahara T, Horii A, Mishiro Y, Fukushima M, Kondoh K, Okumura S, et al. [Changes in plasma inner ear hormones after endolymphatic sac drainage and steroid-instillation surgery (EDSS)]. Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho. 2002;105:557-63 pubmed
    We treated 33 cases of intractable Meniere's disease with endolymphatic sac drainage and steroid-instillation surgery (EDSS), attaining good long-term results in vertigo and hearing...
  35. Colvin I, Beale T, Harrop Griffiths K. Long-term follow-up of hearing loss in children and young adults with enlarged vestibular aqueducts: relationship to radiologic findings and Pendred syndrome diagnosis. Laryngoscope. 2006;116:2027-36 pubmed
    ..between the hearing loss (HL) and the dimensions of the EVA, enlarged endolymphatic duct (EED), or enlarged endolymphatic sac (EES) was also investigated...
  36. Bambakidis N, Megerian C, Ratcheson R. Differential grading of endolymphatic sac tumor extension by virtue of von Hippel-Lindau disease status. Otol Neurotol. 2004;25:773-81 pubmed
    b>Endolymphatic sac tumors are aggressive papillary tumors of the temporal bone frequently associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease...
  37. Hamazaki S, Yoshida M, Yao M, Nagashima Y, Taguchi K, Nakashima H, et al. Mutation of von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene in a sporadic endolymphatic sac tumor. Hum Pathol. 2001;32:1272-6 pubmed
    b>Endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) is a low-grade adenocarcinoma of the temporal bone that is presumed to originate from the endolymphatic system...
  38. Kitahara T, Maekawa C, Kizawa K, Horii A, Doi K. Plasma vasopressin and V2 receptor in the endolymphatic sac in patients with delayed endolymphatic hydrops. Otol Neurotol. 2009;30:812-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To elucidate the relationship between stress and the inner ear, we examined the plasma antidiuretic stress hormone vasopressin (pAVP) and its type 2 receptor (V2R) expression in the endolymphatic sac in patients with DEH.
  39. Hu A, Parnes L. 10-year review of endolymphatic sac surgery for intractable meniere disease. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010;39:415-21 pubmed
    To review our 10-year experience of endolymphatic sac surgery (ESS) for intractable Meniere disease (MD).
  40. Gerlach Bank L, Cleveland A, Barald K. DAN directs endolymphatic sac and duct outgrowth in the avian inner ear. Dev Dyn. 2004;229:219-30 pubmed
    ....
  41. Kim H, Wangemann P. Failure of fluid absorption in the endolymphatic sac initiates cochlear enlargement that leads to deafness in mice lacking pendrin expression. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14041 pubmed publisher
    ..a malfunction of fluid transport in the connected compartments, which are the vestibular labyrinth and the endolymphatic sac. Embryonic inner ears from Slc26a4(+/-) and Slc26a4(-/-) mice were examined by confocal microscopy ex vivo ..
  42. Son E, Moon I, Kim S, Kim S, Choi J. Interferon-gamma suppresses Na+ -H+ exchanger in cultured human endolymphatic sac epithelial cells. J Cell Biochem. 2009;107:965-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We determined the functional and molecular expression of NHEs in cultured human endolymphatic sac (ES) epithelial cells and examined the effect of IFN-gamma on NHE function...
  43. Li X, Sanneman J, Harbidge D, Zhou F, Ito T, Nelson R, et al. SLC26A4 targeted to the endolymphatic sac rescues hearing and balance in Slc26a4 mutant mice. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003641 pubmed publisher
    ..anion exchanger expressed in a variety of epithelial cells in the cochlea, the vestibular labyrinth and the endolymphatic sac. Slc26a4 (Δ/Δ) mice are devoid of pendrin and develop a severe enlargement of the membranous labyrinth, ..
  44. Kim S, Park H, Choi H, Chung H, Choi J. Functional and molecular expression of epithelial sodium channels in cultured human endolymphatic sac epithelial cells. Otol Neurotol. 2009;30:529-34 pubmed publisher
    Epithelial sodium channels are expressed in cultured human endolymphatic sac (ES) epithelial (HESE) cells and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) expression is suppressed by interleukin 1beta.
  45. Butman J, Kim H, Baggenstos M, Ammerman J, Dambrosia J, Patsalides A, et al. Mechanisms of morbid hearing loss associated with tumors of the endolymphatic sac in von Hippel-Lindau disease. JAMA. 2007;298:41-8 pubmed
    b>Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELSTs) are associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease and cause irreversible sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and vestibulopathy...
  46. Cmejrek R, Megerian C. Obstructing lesions of the endolymphatic sac and duct mimicking Ménière's disease. Ear Nose Throat J. 2004;83:753-6 pubmed
    ..retrospective case series and literature review, we demonstrate that temporal bone lesions that obstruct the endolymphatic sac or duct can cause symptoms of Ménière's disease...
  47. Richard S, David P, Marsot Dupuch K, Giraud S, Beroud C, Resche F. Central nervous system hemangioblastomas, endolymphatic sac tumors, and von Hippel-Lindau disease. Neurosurg Rev. 2000;23:1-22; discussion 23-4 pubmed
    ..in patients with a VHL-related tumor without familial history and especially in case of hemangioblastoma or endolymphatic sac tumors...
  48. Kitahara T, Fukushima M, Uno Y, Mishiro Y, Kubo T. Up-regulation of cochlear aquaporin-3 mRNA expression after intra-endolymphatic sac application of dexamethasone. Neurol Res. 2003;25:865-70 pubmed
    The final aim of the present study is to see if the endolymphatic sac is really available as a drug delivery system to have effect on the inner ear organs...
  49. Bell D, Gidley P, Levine N, Fuller G. Endolymphatic sac tumor (aggressive papillary tumor of middle ear and temporal bone): sine qua non radiology-pathology and the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center experience. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2011;15:117-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) is a rare lesion of the skull base for which the origin has recently been ascertained...
  50. Kakigi A, Nishimura M, Takeda T, Taguchi D, Nishioka R. Expression of aquaporin1, 3, and 4, NKCC1, and NKCC2 in the human endolymphatic sac. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2009;36:135-9 pubmed publisher
    To locate aquaporin (AQP) 1, 3, and 4, Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC) 1 and 2 in the human endolymphatic sac (ES).
  51. Couloigner V, Loiseau A, Sterkers O, Amiel C, Ferrary E. Effect of locally applied drugs on the endolymphatic sac potential. Laryngoscope. 1998;108:592-8 pubmed
    ..disease, an inner ear disorder related to an endolymphatic hydrops, an alteration of the functioning of the endolymphatic sac has been proposed. The endolymphatic sac is assumed to be involved in the secretion/resorption of endolymph...
  52. Choo D, Shotland L, Mastroianni M, Glenn G, Van Waes C, Linehan W, et al. Endolymphatic sac tumors in von Hippel-Lindau disease. J Neurosurg. 2004;100:480-7 pubmed
    Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a hereditary multiple-neoplasia syndrome mapping to chromosome 3p25-26. Endolymphatic sac (ELS) tumors have been identified as a neoplastic manifestation of VHL disease...
  53. Huang T. Topical mitomycin C and cephalosporin in endolymphatic sac surgery. Laryngoscope. 2002;112:243-7 pubmed
    To determine whether intraoperative topical application of the drug mitomycin C to the endolymphatic sac area in conjunction with endolymphatic sac ballooning surgery (ESBS) can safely achieve longer-lasting relief from incapacitating, ..
  54. Ishida T, Hatae T, Nishi N, Araki N. Soluble megalin is accumulated in the lumen of the rat endolymphatic sac. Cell Struct Funct. 2006;31:77-85 pubmed
    The endolymphatic sac (ES) is believed to play an important role in maintaining homeostasis in the inner ear by the absorption and endocytosis of endolymph...
  55. Royaux I, Belyantseva I, Wu T, Kachar B, Everett L, Marcus D, et al. Localization and functional studies of pendrin in the mouse inner ear provide insight about the etiology of deafness in pendred syndrome. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2003;4:394-404 pubmed
    ..cells of the cristae ampullaris, utriculi, and sacculi as well as in the apical membrane of cells in the endolymphatic sac. Pds-knockout (Pds-/-) mice were found to lack pendrin immunoreactivity in all of these locations...
  56. Xenellis J, Linthicum F, Webster P, Lopez R. Basilar membrane displacement related to endolymphatic sac volume. Laryngoscope. 2004;114:1953-9 pubmed
    ..e., interscalar septum) in hydropic temporal bones is related to the intraosseous endolymphatic sac volume.
  57. Albers F, Van Benthem P, de Groot J. [Localization of Na/K ATP-ase in the inner ear]. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Belg. 1992;46:351-3 pubmed
    ..The cytochemical localization of Na/K ATP-ase is demonstrated in the guinea pig inner ear. The mechanism for cation regulation in the endolymphatic compartment is discussed...
  58. Møller M, Kirkeby S, Vikeså J, Nielsen F, Caye Thomasen P. The human endolymphatic sac expresses natriuretic peptides. Laryngoscope. 2017;127:E201-E208 pubmed publisher
    The function of the human endolymphatic sac (ES) has been enigmatic for decades. Hypotheses include controlling endolymphatic fluid homeostasis and inner ear immunological defense...
  59. Butman J, Nduom E, Kim H, Lonser R. Imaging detection of endolymphatic sac tumor-associated hydrops. J Neurosurg. 2013;119:406-11 pubmed publisher
    To determine if physiologically based MRI sequences can be used to detect endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST)-associated hydrops, the authors performed contrast-enhanced delayed FLAIR imaging in consecutive ELST patients with clinical ..
  60. Hultcrantz M, Bagger Sjoback D, Barbara M. Presence of glycosaminoglycans in the endolymphatic sac. Acta Otolaryngol. 1997;117:518-22 pubmed
    Earlier morphological investigations have revealed that the endolymph, which is present in the endolymphatic sac (ES) seems to differ from that found elsewhere in the labyrinth, in that it contains a stainable substance...
  61. Lim D, Moon S. Establishment of cell lines from the human middle and inner ear epithelial cells. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2011;720:15-25 pubmed publisher
    ..It has been suggested that the endolymphatic sac (ES) may play a critical role in the fluid homeostasis of the inner ear...
  62. Kang M, Khandelwal N, Singh P, Choudhary S, Mukherjee K. Imaging features of endolymphatic sac tumours: case report with review of literature. Australas Radiol. 2007;51 Suppl:B199-201 pubmed
    Papillary endolymphatic sac tumours (ELSTs) are rare lesions of the temporal bone often confused with other more common entities...