cochlear duct

Summary

Summary: A spiral tube that is firmly suspended in the bony shell-shaped part of the cochlea. This ENDOLYMPH-filled cochlear duct begins at the vestibule and makes 2.5 turns around a core of spongy bone (the modiolus) thus dividing the PERILYMPH-filled spiral canal into two channels, the SCALA VESTIBULI and the SCALA TYMPANI.

Top Publications

  1. Kakigi A, Salt A, Takeda T. Effect of artificial endolymph injection into the cochlear duct on perilymph potassium. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 2010;71 Suppl 1:16-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the relationship between endolymphatic hydrops and perilymphatic potassium...
  2. Yamane H, Takayama M, Sunami K, Sakamoto H, Imoto T, Anniko M. Blockage of reuniting duct in Meniere's disease. Acta Otolaryngol. 2010;130:233-9 pubmed publisher
  3. Yamamoto N, Okano T, Ma X, Adelstein R, Kelley M. Myosin II regulates extension, growth and patterning in the mammalian cochlear duct. Development. 2009;136:1977-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results also provide insights into the cellular mechanisms that are required for the formation of highly ordered cellular patterns...
  4. Sienknecht U, Fekete D. Comprehensive Wnt-related gene expression during cochlear duct development in chicken. J Comp Neurol. 2008;510:378-95 pubmed publisher
    The avian cochlear duct houses both a vestibular and auditory sensory organ (the lagena macula and basilar papilla, respectively), which each have a distinct structure and function...
  5. Burton Q, Cole L, Mulheisen M, Chang W, Wu D. The role of Pax2 in mouse inner ear development. Dev Biol. 2004;272:161-75 pubmed
    ..Lack of Pax2 affects tissue specification within the cochlear duct, particularly regions between the sensory tissue and the stria vascularis...
  6. Satoh H, Kawasaki K, Kihara I, Nakano Y. Importance of type IV collagen, laminin, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan in the regulation of labyrinthine fluid in the rat cochlear duct. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 1998;255:285-8 pubmed
    ..such as type IV collagen, laminin, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), was investigated in the rat cochlear duct. Immunofluorescence demonstrated that type IV collagen, laminin and HSPG were distributed along capillaries in ..
  7. Mizuta K, Saito A, Watanabe T, Nagura M, Arakawa M, Shimizu F, et al. Ultrastructural localization of megalin in the rat cochlear duct. Hear Res. 1999;129:83-91 pubmed
    ..In the present study, localization of megalin was examined using a post-embedding immunogold method in the rat cochlear duct. Marginal cells of the stria vascularis were labeled on the apical surface, but not on the basolateral surface...
  8. Minowa O, Ikeda K, Sugitani Y, Oshima T, Nakai S, Katori Y, et al. Altered cochlear fibrocytes in a mouse model of DFN3 nonsyndromic deafness. Science. 1999;285:1408-11 pubmed
    ..The findings suggest that these fibrocytes, which are mesenchymal in origin and for which a role in potassium ion homeostasis has been postulated, may play a critical role in auditory function...
  9. Brown D, Chihara Y, Wang Y. Changes in utricular function during artificial endolymph injections in guinea pigs. Hear Res. 2013;304:70-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These changes are comparable to the sudden or fluctuating functional changes in Ménière's sufferers, and support the hypothesis that endolymphatic hydrops can directly cause some symptoms of this syndrome. ..
  10. Giebel W, Wei N. [The early postnatal development of the hamster cochlea]. Laryngorhinootologie. 2001;80:725-30 pubmed
    ..In the apical turn the epithelial layer of the cochlear duct is undifferentiated, whereas in the basal turn the papilla basilaris (Kölliker's organ), the lateral wall and ..

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Kakigi A, Salt A, Takeda T. Effect of artificial endolymph injection into the cochlear duct on perilymph potassium. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 2010;71 Suppl 1:16-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the relationship between endolymphatic hydrops and perilymphatic potassium...
  2. Yamane H, Takayama M, Sunami K, Sakamoto H, Imoto T, Anniko M. Blockage of reuniting duct in Meniere's disease. Acta Otolaryngol. 2010;130:233-9 pubmed publisher
  3. Yamamoto N, Okano T, Ma X, Adelstein R, Kelley M. Myosin II regulates extension, growth and patterning in the mammalian cochlear duct. Development. 2009;136:1977-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results also provide insights into the cellular mechanisms that are required for the formation of highly ordered cellular patterns...
  4. Sienknecht U, Fekete D. Comprehensive Wnt-related gene expression during cochlear duct development in chicken. J Comp Neurol. 2008;510:378-95 pubmed publisher
    The avian cochlear duct houses both a vestibular and auditory sensory organ (the lagena macula and basilar papilla, respectively), which each have a distinct structure and function...
  5. Burton Q, Cole L, Mulheisen M, Chang W, Wu D. The role of Pax2 in mouse inner ear development. Dev Biol. 2004;272:161-75 pubmed
    ..Lack of Pax2 affects tissue specification within the cochlear duct, particularly regions between the sensory tissue and the stria vascularis...
  6. Satoh H, Kawasaki K, Kihara I, Nakano Y. Importance of type IV collagen, laminin, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan in the regulation of labyrinthine fluid in the rat cochlear duct. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 1998;255:285-8 pubmed
    ..such as type IV collagen, laminin, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), was investigated in the rat cochlear duct. Immunofluorescence demonstrated that type IV collagen, laminin and HSPG were distributed along capillaries in ..
  7. Mizuta K, Saito A, Watanabe T, Nagura M, Arakawa M, Shimizu F, et al. Ultrastructural localization of megalin in the rat cochlear duct. Hear Res. 1999;129:83-91 pubmed
    ..In the present study, localization of megalin was examined using a post-embedding immunogold method in the rat cochlear duct. Marginal cells of the stria vascularis were labeled on the apical surface, but not on the basolateral surface...
  8. Minowa O, Ikeda K, Sugitani Y, Oshima T, Nakai S, Katori Y, et al. Altered cochlear fibrocytes in a mouse model of DFN3 nonsyndromic deafness. Science. 1999;285:1408-11 pubmed
    ..The findings suggest that these fibrocytes, which are mesenchymal in origin and for which a role in potassium ion homeostasis has been postulated, may play a critical role in auditory function...
  9. Brown D, Chihara Y, Wang Y. Changes in utricular function during artificial endolymph injections in guinea pigs. Hear Res. 2013;304:70-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These changes are comparable to the sudden or fluctuating functional changes in Ménière's sufferers, and support the hypothesis that endolymphatic hydrops can directly cause some symptoms of this syndrome. ..
  10. Giebel W, Wei N. [The early postnatal development of the hamster cochlea]. Laryngorhinootologie. 2001;80:725-30 pubmed
    ..In the apical turn the epithelial layer of the cochlear duct is undifferentiated, whereas in the basal turn the papilla basilaris (Kölliker's organ), the lateral wall and ..
  11. Liu M, Pereira F, Price S, Chu M, Shope C, Himes D, et al. Essential role of BETA2/NeuroD1 in development of the vestibular and auditory systems. Genes Dev. 2000;14:2839-54 pubmed
    ..There are also defects in differentiation and patterning of the cochlear duct and sensory epithelium and loss of the dorsal cochlear nucleus...
  12. Goldfeld M, Glaser B, Nassir E, Gomori J, Hazani E, Bishara N. CT of the ear in Pendred syndrome. Radiology. 2005;235:537-40 pubmed
    ..To prospectively determine the structural anomalies of the inner ear by using thin-section computed tomography (CT) in an extended family with Pendred syndrome...
  13. Kuijpers W, Tonnaer E, Peters T, Ramaekers F. Expression of intermediate filament proteins in the mature inner ear of the rat and guinea pig. Hear Res. 1991;52:133-46 pubmed
    ..The great resemblance of the intermediate filament protein expression patterns in the inner ear of the rat and guinea pig indicates a close similarity between the different epitopes...
  14. Ando M, Takeuchi S. Postnatal vascular development in the lateral wall of the cochlear duct of gerbils: quantitative analysis by electron microscopy and confocal laser microscopy. Hear Res. 1998;123:148-56 pubmed
  15. Akagi N, Takumida M, Anniko M. Effect of acute endolymphatic hydrops overload on the endolymphatic sac. Acta Otolaryngol. 2008;128:239-44 pubmed
    ..Homeostasis of endolymph volume is a complex mechanism, in which the endolymphatic sac (ES) may play an important role...
  16. Kelley M. Cellular commitment and differentiation in the organ of Corti. Int J Dev Biol. 2007;51:571-83 pubmed
    ..cochlea, develops from a subset of cells located along the dorsal side (referred to as the floor) of the cochlear duct. Over the course of embryonic development, cells within the developing organ of Corti become committed to ..
  17. Lilleväli K, Matilainen T, Karis A, Salminen M. Partially overlapping expression of Gata2 and Gata3 during inner ear development. Dev Dyn. 2004;231:775-81 pubmed
    ..Gata2 is predominantly expressed in the dorsal vestibular system, Gata3 was detected mainly in the ventral cochlear duct and ganglion...
  18. Ando M, Edamatsu M, Fukuizumi S, Takeuchi S. Cellular localization of facilitated glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1) in the cochlear stria vascularis: its possible contribution to the transcellular glucose pathway. Cell Tissue Res. 2008;331:763-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The three-dimensional relationship between marginal cells and basal cells might contribute to the transcellular glucose pathway from perilymph to intrastrial space...
  19. Liu F, Huang W, Wang Z, Chen Q, Liu X, Li S, et al. Noninvasive evaluation of endolymphatic space in healthy volunteers using magnetic resonance imaging. Acta Otolaryngol. 2011;131:247-57 pubmed publisher
    ..A new method for noninvasive standard evaluation of normal endolymphatic space and endolymphatic hydrops using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is indicated...
  20. Wang Y, Sun Y, Chang Q, Ahmad S, Zhou B, Kim Y, et al. Early postnatal virus inoculation into the scala media achieved extensive expression of exogenous green fluorescent protein in the inner ear and preserved auditory brainstem response thresholds. J Gene Med. 2013;15:123-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study aimed to define a suitable strategy for preserving hearing after viral inoculation directly into the scala media performed at various postnatal developmental stages...
  21. Zenner H. [Mechanism of hearing and cochlear physiology]. Otolaryngol Pol. 2002;56:657-60 pubmed
  22. Anniko M, Arnold W. Microtubule-associated proteins in adult human sensory organs. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 1995;57:78-81 pubmed
    ..In contrast to such a pattern, both MAP-1 and MAP-2 were identified in the human vestibular organs, thus identifying a subpopulation of centrally located nerve calyces and possibly also the apical portion of vestibular hair cells...
  23. Asami K, Nakashima T, Morisaki H, Akanabe K, Kuno K, Yanagita N. Effects of hypercapnia on cochlear and cerebral blood flow in rabbits. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 1995;57:239-44 pubmed
    ..It is considered that the rabbit, in which thick bone surrounds the cochlea, is a good model for the experimental evaluation of the laser Doppler technique used in the clinical measurement of CoBF...
  24. Marcus D, Chiba T. K+ and Na+ absorption by outer sulcus epithelial cells. Hear Res. 1999;134:48-56 pubmed
    ..thus depends on active secretion of K+ accompanied by absorption of Na+ by epithelial cells enclosing the cochlear duct. The para-sensory cells which participate in the absorption of Na+ (down to the uniquely low level of 1 mM) ..
  25. Steel K, Kros C. A genetic approach to understanding auditory function. Nat Genet. 2001;27:143-9 pubmed
    ..We review here some of the major advances in our understanding of auditory function resulting from the recent rapid progress in identification of genes involved in deafness...
  26. Jiang L, Jin R, Xu J, Ji Y, Zhang M, Zhang X, et al. Hair cell regeneration or the expression of related factors that regulate the fate specification of supporting cells in the cochlear ducts of embryonic and posthatch chickens. Hear Res. 2016;332:17-28 pubmed publisher
    ..These data and the obtained dynamic changes of the cells labeled for BrdU, Sox2, Atoh1/Math1, PV or p27(kip1) are useful for understanding supporting cell behaviors and their fate specification during hair cell regeneration. ..
  27. Sellick P, Robertson D, Patuzzi R. The effect of BAPTA and 4AP in scala media on transduction and cochlear gain. Hear Res. 2006;211:7-15 pubmed
    ..The effect of 4AP and BAPTA on neural threshold and the receptor current represented by CM may be explained by their action on OHC transduction without the involvement of IHCs...
  28. Wu R, Hoshino T. Changes in off-lesion endocochlear potential following localized lesion in the lateral wall. Acta Otolaryngol. 1999;119:550-4 pubmed
    ..001). Conversely, no significant change was measured at any site located basal to the lesion. These findings suggest that the decrease in EP assumes the form of a gradient from the lower to upper turns in the guinea pig cochlea...
  29. Chen M, Webster P, Yang E, Linthicum F. Presbycusic neuritic degeneration within the osseous spiral lamina. Otol Neurotol. 2006;27:316-22 pubmed
    ..To describe a neglected anatomic variant occurring with presbycusis...
  30. Pau H, Fagan P, Oleskevich S. Locating the scala media in the fixed human temporal bone for therapeutic access: a preliminary study. J Laryngol Otol. 2006;120:914-5 pubmed
    ..To investigate the location of the scala media in relation to the round window niche in human temporal bones...
  31. May Simera H, Kelley M. Examining planar cell polarity in the mammalian cochlea. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;839:157-71 pubmed publisher
  32. Yamanishi T, Katsu K, Funahashi J, Yumoto E, Yokouchi Y. Dan is required for normal morphogenesis and patterning in the developing chick inner ear. Dev Growth Differ. 2007;49:13-26 pubmed
    ..both a severe reduction in the size of the ed/es and moderate deformities of the semicircular canals and cochlear duct. Depletion of Dan also caused suppression of Nkx5...
  33. Bok J, Dolson D, Hill P, Ruther U, Epstein D, Wu D. Opposing gradients of Gli repressor and activators mediate Shh signaling along the dorsoventral axis of the inner ear. Development. 2007;134:1713-22 pubmed
    ..Formation of the ventral-most otic region, the distal cochlear duct, requires robust Gli2/3A function...
  34. Girotto G, Abdulhadi K, Buniello A, Vozzi D, Licastro D, D Eustacchio A, et al. Linkage study and exome sequencing identify a BDP1 mutation associated with hereditary hearing loss. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e80323 pubmed publisher
    ..within the endothelial cells in the stria vascularis, as well as in mesenchyme-derived cells surrounding the cochlear duct. The identification of the BDP1 mutation increases our knowledge of the molecular bases of Nonsyndromic ..
  35. Chi F, Liang Q, Wang Z. Effects of hyperbaric therapy on function and morphology of Guinea pig cochlea with endolymphatic hydrops. Otol Neurotol. 2004;25:553-8 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to investigate the effect on experimental endolymphatic hydrops in guinea pigs after hyperbaric therapy...
  36. Sellick P. Long term effects of BAPTA in scala media on cochlear function. Hear Res. 2007;231:13-22 pubmed
    ..These results may have a bearing on the mechanisms behind permanent threshold shift...
  37. Dunaway G, Mhaskar Y, Armour G, Whitworth C, Rybak L. Migration of cochlear lateral wall cells. Hear Res. 2003;177:1-11 pubmed
    ..These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that marginal cells were replaced by underlying cells. Cell migration appears to be an important mechanism for preserving the function and structure of the stria vascularis...
  38. Patuzzi R. Ion flow in stria vascularis and the production and regulation of cochlear endolymph and the endolymphatic potential. Hear Res. 2011;277:4-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Also discussed are the circulation of K(+) within the cochlea, and the chloride, salt and water balance of scala media and stria vascularis, and what transport processes may be required to maintain such a balance...
  39. Fredelius L, Bamonte F, Dionisotti S, Ongini E, Wersall J. Auditory impairment in guinea pigs treated with isepamicin. J Chemother. 1995;7 Suppl 2:71-6 pubmed
    ..The greatest damage was observed at 225 mg/kg/day, with no difference between isepamicin and amikacin. Isepamicin 100 mg/kg/day produced no impairment in auditory function and very little change in the morphology of the organ of Corti...
  40. Brown D, Hartsock J, Gill R, Fitzgerald H, Salt A. Estimating the operating point of the cochlear transducer using low-frequency biased distortion products. J Acoust Soc Am. 2009;125:2129-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Low-frequency biased DPOAEs might provide a diagnostic tool to objectively diagnose abnormal displacements of the OC, as might occur with endolymphatic hydrops...
  41. Vlastarakos P, Nikolopoulos T, Tavoulari E, Papacharalambous G, Tzagaroulakis A, Dazert S. Sensory cell regeneration and stem cells: what we have already achieved in the management of deafness. Otol Neurotol. 2008;29:758-68 pubmed publisher
  42. Yu Q, Wang Y, Chang Q, Wang J, Gong S, Li H, et al. Virally expressed connexin26 restores gap junction function in the cochlea of conditional Gjb2 knockout mice. Gene Ther. 2014;21:71-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Such a treatment performed at early postnatal stages resulted in a partial rescue of disease phenotypes in the cochlea of the mutant mice. ..
  43. Robertson N, Skvorak A, Yin Y, Weremowicz S, Johnson K, Kovatch K, et al. Mapping and characterization of a novel cochlear gene in human and in mouse: a positional candidate gene for a deafness disorder, DFNA9. Genomics. 1997;46:345-54 pubmed
    ..mCoch-5B2 was genetically mapped in the mouse to chromosome 12, in a region of homologous synteny with human 14q11.2-q13, which contains the asp1 (audiogenic seizure prone) locus in the mouse...
  44. Katano H, Sato Y, Tsutsui Y, Sata T, Maeda A, Nozawa N, et al. Pathogenesis of cytomegalovirus-associated labyrinthitis in a guinea pig model. Microbes Infect. 2007;9:183-91 pubmed
    ..GPCMV-infected cells mainly in the scala tympani, scala vestibule and spinal ganglion, but rarely in the cochlear duct. Injection of GPCMV to 5-week pregnant guinea pigs resulted in severe labyrinthitis in fetuses...
  45. Manley G, Kirk D. BAPTA induces frequency shifts in vivo of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions of the bobtail lizard. Audiol Neurootol. 2005;10:248-57 pubmed
    ..The direction and degree of frequency shifts were consistent with in vitro and in vivo data showing the effects of changing calcium concentrations in the endolymph directly...
  46. DeMaria T. Localization of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae endotoxin in the middle and inner ear during experimental otitis media. Acta Otolaryngol. 1999;119:583-7 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate that endotoxin shed by NTHi during otitis media penetrates the inner ear and binds to both tissue components and inflammatory cells in both the middle and inner ear...
  47. Goodyear R, Kwan T, Oh S, Raphael Y, Richardson G. The cell adhesion molecule BEN defines a prosensory patch in the developing avian otocyst. J Comp Neurol. 2001;434:275-88 pubmed
    ..The regenerating hair and supporting cells do not express BEN, highlighting a molecular difference between the processes of development and regeneration...
  48. Sekiya T, Kojima K, Matsumoto M, Kim T, Tamura T, Ito J. Cell transplantation to the auditory nerve and cochlear duct. Exp Neurol. 2006;198:12-24 pubmed
    ..In the undamaged nerve, migration was more limited, but the cells showed more signs of neuronal differentiation. This highlights an important balance between tissue damage and the potential for repair...
  49. Duncan J, Fritzsch B. Continued expression of GATA3 is necessary for cochlear neurosensory development. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62046 pubmed publisher
    ..Foxg1(Cre)?Gata3(f/f) mice show recombination of Gata3 around E8.5 but continue to develop a cochlear duct without differentiated hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons...
  50. Kim C, Kim Y, Choi B, Lee H, Oh S, Kim Y. Expression of osmotic stress protein 94 in murine endolymphatic hydrops model. Acta Otolaryngol. 2012;132 Suppl 1:S118-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The up-regulation of osmotic stress protein 94 (OSP94) in the murine endolymphatic hydrops (EH) models suggests that OSP94 might be involved in cellular adaptation in response to ionic and osmotic stress in the murine inner ear...
  51. Fritzsch B, Jahan I, Pan N, Kersigo J, Duncan J, Kopecky B. Dissecting the molecular basis of organ of Corti development: Where are we now?. Hear Res. 2011;276:16-26 pubmed publisher
    This review summarizes recent progress in our understanding of the molecular basis of cochlear duct growth, specification of the organ of Corti, and differentiation of the different types of hair cells...
  52. Kakigi A, Okada T, Takeda T, Takeda S, Nishioka R, Taguchi D, et al. Endocytosis of microperoxidase in marginal cells is mainly regulated by RhoA signaling cascade, but not by Rho-associated protein kinase, myosin light-chain kinase and myosin phosphatase. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 2011;73:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The main endocytotic pathway of MPO did not depend on the Rho-associated protein kinase molecular switch or actin/myosin motor system, but was mainly regulated by the RhoA signaling cascade...
  53. Koo S, Hill J, Hwang C, Lin Z, Millen K, Wu D. Lmx1a maintains proper neurogenic, sensory, and non-sensory domains in the mammalian inner ear. Dev Biol. 2009;333:14-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, aberrant and ectopic sensory organs are observed; most striking among these is vestibular-like hair cells located in the cochlear duct.
  54. Gehr D, Werner Y. Age effects and size effects in the ears of gekkonomorph lizards: inner ear. Hear Res. 2005;200:38-50 pubmed
    ..Otoconial mass, as measured by its volume, was correlated with animal length both interspecifically and intraspecifically...
  55. Imamura S, Adams J. Distribution of gentamicin in the guinea pig inner ear after local or systemic application. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2003;4:176-95 pubmed
  56. Stevens C, Davies A, Battista S, Lewis J, Fekete D. Forced activation of Wnt signaling alters morphogenesis and sensory organ identity in the chicken inner ear. Dev Biol. 2003;261:149-64 pubmed
    ..Retrovirus-mediated misexpression of Wnt3a also gave rise to ectopic vestibular patches in the cochlear duct. In situ hybridization revealed that genes for three Frizzled receptors, c-Fz1, c-Fz7, and c-Fz10, are ..
  57. Curtis L, Garg L, Rarey K. Ca(2+)-ATPases in the cochlear duct. Acta Otolaryngol. 1997;117:553-8 pubmed
  58. Szymko Y, Zwislocki J, Hertig L. Enhanced cochlear responses after sound exposure. Hear Res. 1997;110:164-78 pubmed
    ..In some preparations, both sensitivity loss at lower SPLs and enhancement at higher SPLs occurred simultaneously, suggesting involvement of two different mechanisms...
  59. Valk W, Wit H, Albers F. Rupture of Reissner's membrane during acute endolymphatic hydrops in the guinea pig: a model for Ménière's disease?. Acta Otolaryngol. 2006;126:1030-5 pubmed
    ..This might be consistent with the hypothesis that an endolymphatic hydrops is a marker of disordered inner ear homeostasis rather than the cause of the clinical symptoms of Ménière's disease...
  60. Dickson K, Bhakar A, Barker P. TRAF6-dependent NF-kB transcriptional activity during mouse development. Dev Dyn. 2004;231:122-7 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that NF-kB transcriptional activity is present in a broad range of structures during development and that TRAF6 plays a critical role mediating developmental NF-kB activation in many but not all tissues...
  61. Freeman D, Hendrix D, Shah D, Fan L, Weiss T. Effect of lymph composition on an in vitro preparation of the alligator lizard cochlea. Hear Res. 1993;65:83-98 pubmed
    The effects of different artificial lymphs on the cochlear duct of the alligator lizard were studied in an in vitro preparation...
  62. May Simera H. Evaluation of Planar-Cell-Polarity Phenotypes in Ciliopathy Mouse Mutant Cochlea. J Vis Exp. 2016;:53559 pubmed publisher
    ..Defects in convergence and extension are manifested as a shortening of the cochlear duct and/or changes in cellular patterning, which can be quantified following dissection from developing mouse ..