Summary: The fundamental dispositions and traits of humans. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
- de Melo Martin I. Defending human enhancement technologies: unveiling normativity. J Med Ethics. 2010;36:483-7 pubmed publisher..Once these problematic assumptions are rejected, it becomes clear that an adequate defence of human enhancement technologies requires more than a simple balance of their risks and benefits. ..
- Corradini A. On the normativity of human nature: some epistemological remarks. J Med Philos. 2003;28:239-54 pubmed..Reflection is conducted in the last section on the implications of metaethical discourse on human nature for applied ethics. ..
- Maxson P, Miranda M. Pregnancy intention, demographic differences, and psychosocial health. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2011;20:1215-23 pubmed publisher..Women with unwanted and mistimed pregnancies may appear similar demographically but are different psychosocially. Women with unwanted pregnancies have multiple risk factors and would benefit from targeted interventions. ..
- Gu G, Lee J, Kim J. Double loop control strategy with different time steps based on human characteristics. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012;2012:1925-8 pubmed publisher..The task involves pull-and-push movement with a two-degree-of-freedom robot, and the norm of the interaction force was obtained for each experiment as the measure of the cooperative control performance. ..
- Del Barco Collazos J. [The technological character of the human being]. Cuad Bioet. 2009;20:11-20 pubmed..Plough, airship and future apparatus are stages of the technical progress. The enormous human aptitude for making is due to the connexion between brain and hands. Technique ought be neither venerated nor feared but ruled. ..
- Kavanaugh J. Brainism: 'we are not our brains; we are embodied persons'. America (NY). 2005;193:8 pubmed
- Sparrow R. Better than men? Sex and the therapy/enhancement distinction. Kennedy Inst Ethics J. 2010;20:115-44 pubmed..The therapy/enhancement distinction therefore plays a crucial role in determining the ethics of interventions into the genetics of future generations. ..
- Lawler P. Restless souls. New Atlantis. 2004;4:42-6 pubmed
- Rubin C. Man or machine?. New Atlantis. 2004;4:31-7 pubmed
- Martínez Carbonell López A. [Bioethical arguments in Joseph Ratzinger's thinking]. Cuad Bioet. 2014;25:221-9 pubmed
- Ferrari M. Introduction. Hist Human Sci. 2010;23:1-14 pubmed..Each of these aims has its own problems and its own methods for solving them that endorse different epistemic virtues characteristic of science in different historical periods through a variety of "styles of science". ..
- Kimberly M. Reevaluating repugnance: a critical analysis of Leon Kass' writings on genetic reproductive technologies. Princet J Bioeth. 2002;5:8-24 pubmed
- Tintino G. From Darwinian to technological evolution: forgetting the human lottery. Cuad Bioet. 2014;25:387-95 pubmed..But, is this right? ..
- Carter D, Braunack Mayer A. The appeal to nature implicit in certain restrictions on public funding for assisted reproductive technology. Bioethics. 2011;25:463-71 pubmed publisher..Divergent opinions and policies concerning who should receive ART treatment and public funding are more easily understood in view of the centrality, complexity and fundamental nature of these questions. ..
- Kendler K, Myers J, Reichborn Kjennerud T. Borderline personality disorder traits and their relationship with dimensions of normative personality: a web-based cohort and twin study. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2011;123:349-59 pubmed publisher..In the general population, these four BPD dimensions reflect one underlying highly heritable factor. The association between normative personality and dimensions of BPD is complex with high degrees of genetic correlation. ..
- Sameroff A. A unified theory of development: a dialectic integration of nature and nurture. Child Dev. 2010;81:6-22 pubmed publisher..A unified theory of development is proposed to integrate personal change, context, regulation, and representational models of development. ..
- ..Any set of beliefs about the morality of abortion, infanticide and the killing of animals that is internally consistent and even minimally credible will therefore unavoidably contain some beliefs that are counterintuitive. ..
- Loike J, Tendler M. Revisiting the definition of homo sapiens. Kennedy Inst Ethics J. 2002;12:343-50 pubmed
- Cayuela Cayuela A. [The "evil ideology": description and critique of a policy against human nature]. Cuad Bioet. 2012;23:71-82 pubmed
- Lampe M. Science, human nature, and a new paradigm for ethics education. Sci Eng Ethics. 2012;18:543-9 pubmed publisher..The paradigm can merge traditional thinking about ethics from religious and philosophical perspectives with new ideas from applied evolutionary neuro-ethics. ..
- Wilson S, Haslam N. Humanness beliefs about behavior: an index and comparative human-nonhuman behavior judgments. Behav Res Methods. 2013;45:372-82 pubmed publisher..Taken together, these findings expand our understanding of lay conceptions of humanness and provide researchers of humanness with a wider range of validated stimuli to probe the boundaries of humanity. ..
- Moreno J. [Lamarck needs Darwin: the search for purpose in the study of evolution and of history]. Asclepio. 2009;61:233-48 pubmed..The permanent search of direction and intentionality in evolutionary processes by many scientists suggests the limited acceptance of materialistic explanations as those offered by Darwin's theory. ..
- Munson R, Davis L. Germ-line gene therapy and the medical imperative. Kennedy Inst Ethics J. 1992;2:137-58 pubmed..There is no moral reason, then, not to develop and employ germ-line gene therapy. Taking the offensive, we argue next that medicine has a prima facie moral obligation to do so. ..
- Rabow M, Evans C, Remen R. Professional formation and deformation: repression of personal values and qualities in medical education. Fam Med. 2013;45:13-8 pubmed..Educators must attend to both gains in professional competence and the personal qualities and values that are at risk in the course of professional development. ..
- Fins J. Border zones of consciousness: another immigration debate?. Am J Bioeth. 2007;7:51-4; discussion W1-4 pubmed
- FitzGerald K. Knowledge without wisdom: human genetic engineering without religious insight. Christ Bioeth. 2002;8:147-62 pubmed
- Smith B, Brogaard B. Sixteen days. J Med Philos. 2003;28:45-78 pubmed..Issues dealt with along the way include: modes of substance-formation, twinning, the nature of the intra-uterine environment, and the nature of the relation between fetus and mother (connection, parthood, dependence). ..
- Bayertz K. Human nature: how normative might it be?. J Med Philos. 2003;28:131-50 pubmed..It hereby comes to the conclusion that a precise definition of "human nature" is not possible for fundamental reasons, and that only a weak normativity can be warranted. ..
- Fukuyama F. Life, but not as we know it. New Sci. 2002;174:42-5 pubmed
- Pettit M. The con man as model organism: the methodological roots of Erving Goffman's dramaturgical self. Hist Human Sci. 2011;24:138-54 pubmed..The similarities between his own professional behavior and the activities of the confidence man may have suggested to Goffman the latter as a model for human nature. ..
- Hergott L. A piece of my mind. Galileo's grapes: recognizing those who helped make us who we are. JAMA. 2003;290:2235-6 pubmed
- Toth Fejel T. Humanity and nanotechnology--judging enhancements. Natl Cathol Bioeth Q. 2004;4:335-64 pubmed
- Allmark P. Health, happiness and health promotion. J Appl Philos. 2005;22:1-15 pubmed..This article claims that health promotion is best practiced in the light of an Aristotelian conception of the good life for humans and of the place of health within it. ..
- Pitman G. The evolution of human warfare. Philos Soc Sci. 2011;41:352-79 pubmed..The reasons for warfare changed when the common ancestor females began to immigrate into the groups of their choice, and again, during the agricultural revolution. ..
- Squier S, Waldby C. Our posthuman future: discussing the consequences of biotechnological advances. Hastings Cent Rep. 2005;35:4; author reply 6-7 pubmed
- Pluhar E. Experimentation on humans and nonhumans. Theor Med Bioeth. 2006;27:333-55 pubmed..I conclude by providing criteria for distinguishing ethical from unethical experimentation. ..
- Brewer M. The importance of being we: human nature and intergroup relations. Am Psychol. 2007;62:726-38 pubmed..b) security motives (belonging and distinctiveness) underlie universal in-group favoritism, and (c) attitudes toward out-groups vary as a function of intergroup relationships and associated threats to belonging and distinctiveness ..
- Pyles J, Garcia J, Hoffman D, Grossman E. Visual perception and neural correlates of novel 'biological motion'. Vision Res. 2007;47:2786-97 pubmed..We also identify a region in ventral temporal cortex 'selective' for non-human animations, which we suggest processes novel, dynamic objects. ..
- Milam E. Public science of the savage mind: contesting cultural anthropology in the Cold War classroom. J Hist Behav Sci. 2013;49:306-30 pubmed publisher..These mixed messages eventually undermined the long-term success of the program as public science. ..
- Rochat P. What is really wrong with a priori claims of universality? Sampling, validity, process level, and the irresistible drive to reduce. Behav Brain Sci. 2010;33:107-8 pubmed publisher..These need to be considered when assessing claims of universality regarding how the mind works "in general" - a dominant and highly rewarded drive in the behavioral and brain sciences. ..
- Lee C, Skrentny J. Race categorization and the regulation of business and science. Law Soc Rev. 2010;44:617-50 pubmed
- Lieberman P. On the nature and evolution of the neural bases of human language. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2002;Suppl 35:36-62 pubmed..Speech communication played a central role in this process. However, the process that ultimately resulted in the human brain may have started when our earliest hominid ancestors began to walk. ..
- Labriola P. German intellectual history and American romanticism: spirit, nature philosophy, and the occult. Yearb Ger Am Stud. 2002;37:79-90 pubmed
- Glannon W. Persons, metaphysics and ethics. Am J Bioeth. 2007;7:68-9; discussion W1-4 pubmed
- Gesang B. [Enhancement between self-realization and self-deception]. Ethik Med. 2006;18:10-26 pubmed..Arguments from J. Habermas against enhancement of children will be rejected. Under certain conditions enhancement is not morally unacceptable but it must be ensured that these conditions are fulfilled. ..
- Primm E, Piquero N, Piquero A, Regoli R. Investigating customer racial discrimination in the secondary baseball card market. Sociol Inq. 2011;81:110-32 pubmed..Subsequent analysis demonstrates that a player's race (white/non-white) rather than skin tone did have an effect as it interacts with Hall of Fame status to influence his rookie card price. ..
- Rambo W. Time to move on? Let's talk about it!. Pharos Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Med Soc. 2006;69:50 pubmed
- Austriaco N. How to navigate boundaries: a reply to The American Journal of Bioethics. Natl Cathol Bioeth Q. 2006;6:61-71 pubmed
- Persson I, Savulescu J. Moral Hard-Wiring and Moral Enhancement. Bioethics. 2017;31:286-295 pubmed publisher..Socio-cultural means are of great importance and there are currently no biomedical interventions for many hard-wired features. Nevertheless research is desirable because the influence of these features is greater than our critics think. ..
- Ghilardi G, Accoto D. Post-human and scientific research: how engineering carried out the project. Cuad Bioet. 2014;25:379-86 pubmed..We look then into the concept of participation as essential to the understanding of the notion of will, to overcome some roboethics' issues related to the adoption of the still dominant rationalistic paradigm. ..
- Siegel A. The moral insignificance of crossing species boundaries. Am J Bioeth. 2003;3:33-4 pubmed
- Fassino S, Amianto F, Sobrero C, Abbate Daga G. Does it exist a personality core of mental illness? A systematic review on core psychobiological personality traits in mental disorders. Panminerva Med. 2013;55:397-413 pubmed..Finally, these traits may be used to provide diagnostic, prognostic, quality of life and efficacy inferences on psychiatric treatments. ..
- Preston B. Synthetic biology as red herring. Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci. 2013;44:649-59 pubmed publisher..I conclude that a longer historical perspective casts new light on some important issues in philosophy of technology and environmental philosophy. ..
- Prusak B. Rethinking "Liberal eugenics": reflections and questions on Habermas on bioethics. Hastings Cent Rep. 2005;35:31-42 pubmed
- Hauskeller M. Believing in the dignity of human embryos. Hum Reprod Genet Ethics. 2011;17:53-65 pubmed
- Phelps E. The neuroscience of a person network. Am J Bioeth. 2007;7:49-50; discussion W1-4 pubmed
- Sturm T. Why did Kant reject physiological explanations in his anthropology?. Stud Hist Philos Sci. 2008;39:495-505 pubmed..The irrelevance thesis also changes his views of the goal and methodology of anthropology. Kant thereby argues for a distinctive approach in quest for a general 'science of man'. ..
- Boesch C. Away from ethnocentrism and anthropocentrism: towards a scientific understanding of "what makes us human". Behav Brain Sci. 2010;33:86-7 pubmed publisher..Only after removing ethnocentrism and anthropocentrism will we be able to progress in our understanding of "what makes us human." ..