anaplasma phagocytophilum

Summary

Summary: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ANAPLASMA, family ANAPLASMATACEAE, formerly called Ehrlichia phagocytophila or Ehrlichia equi. This organism is tick-borne (IXODES) and causes disease in horses and sheep. In humans, it causes human granulocytic EHRLICHIOSIS.

Top Publications

  1. Halos L, Vourc h G, Cotte V, Gasqui P, Barnouin J, Boulous H, et al. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia sp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from France. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1078:316-9 pubmed
    ..A total of 4701 Ixodes ricinus, collected during the summer of 2003, were analyzed for three pathogens. DNA was detected from the three pathogens. Co-detection of more than one pathogen was observed. ..
  2. Stuen S, Torsteinbø W, Bergstrom K, Bårdsen K. Superinfection occurs in Anaplasma phagocytophilum infected sheep irrespective of infection phase and protection status. Acta Vet Scand. 2009;51:41 pubmed publisher
    b>Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in domestic ruminants is widespread in the coastal areas of southern Norway. The bacteria may persist in mammalian hosts. Several genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum exist...
  3. Bown K, Lambin X, Telford G, Heyder Bruckner D, Ogden N, Birtles R. The common shrew (Sorex araneus): a neglected host of tick-borne infections?. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11:947-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Of 647 blood samples collected from shrews, 121 (18.7%) showed evidence of infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and 196 (30.3%) with Babesia microti. By comparison, of 1505 blood samples from field voles, 96 (6...
  4. Ladbury G, Stuen S, Thomas R, Bown K, Woldehiwet Z, Granquist E, et al. Dynamic transmission of numerous Anaplasma phagocytophilum genotypes among lambs in an infected sheep flock in an area of anaplasmosis endemicity. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:1686-91 pubmed publisher
    The transmission dynamics of Anaplasma phagocytophilum strains circulating within juvenile members of a sheep flock grazing on an Ixodes ricinus-infested pasture in southern Norway were monitored...
  5. Asman M, Nowak M, Cuber P, Strzelczyk J, Szilman E, Szilman P, et al. The risk of exposure to Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Babesia sp. and co-infections in Ixodes ricinus ticks on the territory of Niepo?omice forest (southern Poland). Ann Parasitol. 2013;59:13-9 pubmed
    ..PCR was used to detect tick-borne pathogens with primers specific for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Babesia sp...
  6. Zygner W, Gorski P, Wedrychowicz H. Detection of the DNA of Borrelia afzelii, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia canis in blood samples from dogs in Warsaw. Vet Rec. 2009;164:465-7 pubmed
    ..to two veterinary laboratories in Warsaw and tested for the DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia canis and Hepatozoon canis...
  7. Pan L, Zhang L, Wang G, Liu Q, Yu Y, Wang S, et al. Rapid, simple, and sensitive detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum by loop-mediated isothermal amplification of the msp2 gene. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:4117-20 pubmed publisher
    b>Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the causative agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, which is prevalent throughout China...
  8. Yang J, Liu Z, Guan G, Liu Q, Li Y, Chen Z, et al. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ruminants, rodents and ticks in Gansu, north-western China. J Med Microbiol. 2013;62:254-8 pubmed publisher
    The zoonotic rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum has a broad geographical distribution and a high degree of biological and clinical diversity...
  9. Billeter S, Spencer J, Griffin B, Dykstra C, Blagburn B. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in domestic felines in the United States. Vet Parasitol. 2007;147:194-8 pubmed
    b>Anaplasma phagocytophilum is among the more common tick-borne disease agents in the United States. It is of veterinary and public health significance as dogs, cats, and human beings are known to be susceptible. A...
  10. Rejmanek D, Foley P, Barbet A, Foley J. Antigen variability in Anaplasma phagocytophilum during chronic infection of a reservoir host. Microbiology. 2012;158:2632-41 pubmed
    b>Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligately intracellular, tick-transmitted, bacterial pathogen of humans and other animals. In order to evade host immunity during the course of infection, A...

Detail Information

Publications112 found, 100 shown here

  1. Halos L, Vourc h G, Cotte V, Gasqui P, Barnouin J, Boulous H, et al. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia sp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from France. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1078:316-9 pubmed
    ..A total of 4701 Ixodes ricinus, collected during the summer of 2003, were analyzed for three pathogens. DNA was detected from the three pathogens. Co-detection of more than one pathogen was observed. ..
  2. Stuen S, Torsteinbø W, Bergstrom K, Bårdsen K. Superinfection occurs in Anaplasma phagocytophilum infected sheep irrespective of infection phase and protection status. Acta Vet Scand. 2009;51:41 pubmed publisher
    b>Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in domestic ruminants is widespread in the coastal areas of southern Norway. The bacteria may persist in mammalian hosts. Several genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum exist...
  3. Bown K, Lambin X, Telford G, Heyder Bruckner D, Ogden N, Birtles R. The common shrew (Sorex araneus): a neglected host of tick-borne infections?. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11:947-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Of 647 blood samples collected from shrews, 121 (18.7%) showed evidence of infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and 196 (30.3%) with Babesia microti. By comparison, of 1505 blood samples from field voles, 96 (6...
  4. Ladbury G, Stuen S, Thomas R, Bown K, Woldehiwet Z, Granquist E, et al. Dynamic transmission of numerous Anaplasma phagocytophilum genotypes among lambs in an infected sheep flock in an area of anaplasmosis endemicity. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:1686-91 pubmed publisher
    The transmission dynamics of Anaplasma phagocytophilum strains circulating within juvenile members of a sheep flock grazing on an Ixodes ricinus-infested pasture in southern Norway were monitored...
  5. Asman M, Nowak M, Cuber P, Strzelczyk J, Szilman E, Szilman P, et al. The risk of exposure to Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Babesia sp. and co-infections in Ixodes ricinus ticks on the territory of Niepo?omice forest (southern Poland). Ann Parasitol. 2013;59:13-9 pubmed
    ..PCR was used to detect tick-borne pathogens with primers specific for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Babesia sp...
  6. Zygner W, Gorski P, Wedrychowicz H. Detection of the DNA of Borrelia afzelii, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia canis in blood samples from dogs in Warsaw. Vet Rec. 2009;164:465-7 pubmed
    ..to two veterinary laboratories in Warsaw and tested for the DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia canis and Hepatozoon canis...
  7. Pan L, Zhang L, Wang G, Liu Q, Yu Y, Wang S, et al. Rapid, simple, and sensitive detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum by loop-mediated isothermal amplification of the msp2 gene. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:4117-20 pubmed publisher
    b>Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the causative agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, which is prevalent throughout China...
  8. Yang J, Liu Z, Guan G, Liu Q, Li Y, Chen Z, et al. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ruminants, rodents and ticks in Gansu, north-western China. J Med Microbiol. 2013;62:254-8 pubmed publisher
    The zoonotic rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum has a broad geographical distribution and a high degree of biological and clinical diversity...
  9. Billeter S, Spencer J, Griffin B, Dykstra C, Blagburn B. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in domestic felines in the United States. Vet Parasitol. 2007;147:194-8 pubmed
    b>Anaplasma phagocytophilum is among the more common tick-borne disease agents in the United States. It is of veterinary and public health significance as dogs, cats, and human beings are known to be susceptible. A...
  10. Rejmanek D, Foley P, Barbet A, Foley J. Antigen variability in Anaplasma phagocytophilum during chronic infection of a reservoir host. Microbiology. 2012;158:2632-41 pubmed
    b>Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligately intracellular, tick-transmitted, bacterial pathogen of humans and other animals. In order to evade host immunity during the course of infection, A...
  11. Woldehiwet Z. Immune evasion and immunosuppression by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of tick-borne fever of ruminants and human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Vet J. 2008;175:37-44 pubmed
    b>Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of tick-borne fever (TBF) in sheep and cattle and human granulocytic anaplasmosis, has the unique ability to infect and multiply within neutrophils, eosinophils and monocytes, cells at the ..
  12. Nieto N, Foley J, Bettaso J, Lane R. Reptile infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis. J Parasitol. 2009;95:1165-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in multiple species of lizards and snakes from enzootic sites in northern California, described the ..
  13. Cochez C, Ducoffre G, Vandenvelde C, Luyasu V, Heyman P. Human anaplasmosis in Belgium: a 10-year seroepidemiological study. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2011;2:156-9 pubmed publisher
    Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is a tick-borne rickettsial infection of neutrophils caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Although the pathogen was known as a veterinary agent as early as 1932, the link with human disease was first ..
  14. Krucken J, Schreiber C, Maaz D, Kohn M, Demeler J, Beck S, et al. A novel high-resolution melt PCR assay discriminates Anaplasma phagocytophilum and "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis". J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:1958-61 pubmed publisher
    ..melt PCR were used to detect and discriminate "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Both bacterial species were frequently found in Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes hexagonus but virtually ..
  15. Cao W, Zhan L, He J, Foley J, de Vlas S, Wu X, et al. Natural Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection of ticks and rodents from a forest area of Jilin Province, China. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;75:664-8 pubmed
    Polymerase chain reaction integrated with sequence analysis was carried out to investigate the natural Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in ticks and rodents from a forest area of Jilin Province, China. Four (4...
  16. Barandika J, Hurtado A, García Esteban C, Gil H, Escudero R, Barral M, et al. Tick-borne zoonotic bacteria in wild and domestic small mammals in northern Spain. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:6166-71 pubmed
    The prevalence and diversity of tick-borne zoonotic bacteria (Borrelia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Coxiella burnetii, and spotted fever group rickettsiae) infecting 253 small mammals captured in the Basque Country (Spain) were ..
  17. Adamska M, Skotarczak B. Wild game as a reservoir of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in north-western Poland. Wiad Parazytol. 2007;53:103-7 pubmed
    The aim of the study was to determine the role of game animals as reservoirs of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, a bacteria species transmitted by Ixodes ricinus ticks, from north-western Poland (Zachodniopomorskie vovoidship)...
  18. Hoar B, Nieto N, Rhodes D, Foley J. Evaluation of sequential coinfection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma marginale in cattle. Am J Vet Res. 2008;69:1171-8 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether sequelae of infection differed among single versus double infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum or Anaplasma marginale, with and without tick salivary extract, in cattle. Eighteen 13-month old steers...
  19. Cockwill K, Taylor S, Snead E, Dickinson R, Cosford K, Malek S, et al. Granulocytic anaplasmosis in three dogs from Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Can Vet J. 2009;50:835-40 pubmed
    ..Lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, and splenomegaly were identified in all dogs. Inclusions were identified within the cytoplasm of blood neutrophils, and infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction.
  20. Ebani V, Verin R, Fratini F, Poli A, Cerri D. Molecular survey of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from central Italy. J Wildl Dis. 2011;47:699-703 pubmed
    ..The specimens were tested by two nested PCR assays to detect DNA of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, etiologic agent of granulocytic ehrlichiosis of animals and humans, and DNA of Ehrlichia canis, which ..
  21. Dolan M, Schulze T, Jordan R, Dietrich G, Schulze C, Hojgaard A, et al. Elimination of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in rodent reservoirs and Ixodes scapularis ticks using a doxycycline hyclate-laden bait. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;85:1114-20 pubmed publisher
    ..reservoirs and reduce infection rates in questing Ixodes scapularis ticks for Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The doxycycline-laden bait was formulated at a concentration of 500 mg/kg and delivered during the ..
  22. Lin M, den Dulk Ras A, Hooykaas P, Rikihisa Y. Anaplasma phagocytophilum AnkA secreted by type IV secretion system is tyrosine phosphorylated by Abl-1 to facilitate infection. Cell Microbiol. 2007;9:2644-57 pubmed
    b>Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, is an obligate intracellular bacterium of granulocytes. A. phagocytophilum specifically induces tyrosine phosphorylation of a 160 kDa protein (P160) in host cells...
  23. Uehlinger F, Clancey N, Lofstedt J. Granulocytic anaplasmosis in a horse from Nova Scotia caused by infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Can Vet J. 2011;52:537-40 pubmed
    ..Morulae were detected in granulocytes. Ananaplasma phagocytophilum infection was confirmed by serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The horse responded to treatment with oxytetracycline. ..
  24. Overzier E, Pfister K, Thiel C, Herb I, Mahling M, Silaghi C. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks: comparison of prevalences and partial 16S rRNA gene variants in urban, pasture, and natural habitats. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013;79:1730-4 pubmed publisher
    Urban, natural, and pasture areas were investigated for prevalences and 16S rRNA gene variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks...
  25. Sultana H, Neelakanta G, Kantor F, Malawista S, Fish D, Montgomery R, et al. Anaplasma phagocytophilum induces actin phosphorylation to selectively regulate gene transcription in Ixodes scapularis ticks. J Exp Med. 2010;207:1727-43 pubmed publisher
    b>Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of human anaplasmosis, persists in ticks and mammals. We show that A...
  26. De La Fuente J, Almazan C, Blouin E, Naranjo V, Kocan K. Reduction of tick infections with Anaplasma marginale and A. phagocytophilum by targeting the tick protective antigen subolesin. Parasitol Res. 2006;100:85-91 pubmed
    ..become infected with two tick-borne pathogens, Anaplasma marginale which causes bovine anaplasmosis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of human granulocytin anaplasmosis. For the A...
  27. Walk S, Xu G, Stull J, Rich S. Correlation between tick density and pathogen endemicity, New Hampshire. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:585-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Pathogens were more prevalent in areas of high tick density, suggesting a correlation between tick establishment and pathogen endemicity. Infection rates in ticks correlated with disease frequency in humans...
  28. Magnarelli L, Williams S, Norris S, Fikrig E. Serum antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti in recaptured white-footed mice. J Wildl Dis. 2013;49:294-302 pubmed publisher
    ..Connecticut, United States to measure changes in antibody titers for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti in Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mice)...
  29. Stuen S, Granquist E, Silaghi C. Anaplasma phagocytophilum--a widespread multi-host pathogen with highly adaptive strategies. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2013;3:31 pubmed publisher
    The bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum has for decades been known to cause the disease tick-borne fever (TBF) in domestic ruminants in Ixodes ricinus-infested areas in northern Europe...
  30. Foglia Manzillo V, Cappiello S, Oliva G. Tick-transmitted diseases in dogs: clinicopathological findings. Parassitologia. 2006;48:135-6 pubmed
    ..tick-transmitted diseases observed in Italy, due to Ehrlichia canis and Babesia canis, and most rarely Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma platys...
  31. Stuen S, Bergstrom K. [Human anaplasmosis--a hidden disease in Norway?]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2008;128:2579-81 pubmed
    ..Human anaplasmosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis when faced with a patient with influenzae-like symptoms 1-3 weeks after a tick bite. ..
  32. Hansen M, Christoffersen M, Thuesen L, Petersen M, Bojesen A. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Danish horses. Acta Vet Scand. 2010;52:3 pubmed publisher
    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum are able to infect horses. However, the extend to which Danish horses are infected and seroconvert due to these two bacteria is unknown...
  33. Chen G, Severo M, Sakhon O, Choy A, Herron M, Felsheim R, et al. Anaplasma phagocytophilum dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase 1 affects host-derived immunopathology during microbial colonization. Infect Immun. 2012;80:3194-205 pubmed publisher
    b>Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen that provokes an acute inflammatory response during mammalian infection. The illness caused by A...
  34. Franke J, Fritzsch J, Tomaso H, Straube E, Dorn W, Hildebrandt A. Coexistence of pathogens in host-seeking and feeding ticks within a single natural habitat in Central Germany. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:6829-36 pubmed publisher
    ..their natural transmission cycles, the ticks were tested for the presence of Lyme disease borreliae, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae, Francisella tularensis, and babesiae. Altogether, 20...
  35. Rejmanek D, Bradburd G, Foley J. Molecular characterization reveals distinct genospecies of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from diverse North American hosts. J Med Microbiol. 2012;61:204-12 pubmed publisher
    b>Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne pathogen that infects humans, domestic animals and wildlife throughout the Holarctic...
  36. Huang B, Troese M, Howe D, Ye S, Sims J, Heinzen R, et al. Anaplasma phagocytophilum APH_0032 is expressed late during infection and localizes to the pathogen-occupied vacuolar membrane. Microb Pathog. 2010;49:273-84 pubmed publisher
    b>Anaplasma phagocytophilum infects neutrophils and myeloid, endothelial, and tick cell lines to reside within a host cell-derived vacuole that is indispensible for its survival...
  37. De Sousa R, Lopes de Carvalho I, Santos A, Bernardes C, Milhano N, Jesus J, et al. Role of the lizard Teira dugesii as a potential host for Ixodes ricinus tick-borne pathogens. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:3767-9 pubmed publisher
  38. Silaghi C, Woll D, Hamel D, Pfister K, Mahling M, Pfeffer M. Babesia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing ticks, ticks parasitizing rodents and the parasitized rodents--analyzing the host-pathogen-vector interface in a metropolitan area. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:191 pubmed publisher
    The aims of this study were to evaluate the host-tick-pathogen interface of Babesia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in restored areas in both questing and host-attached Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus and their small ..
  39. Bowman D, Little S, Lorentzen L, Shields J, Sullivan M, Carlin E. Prevalence and geographic distribution of Dirofilaria immitis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in dogs in the United States: results of a national clinic-based serologic survey. Vet Parasitol. 2009;160:138-48 pubmed publisher
    ..to, four vector-borne disease agents, Dirofilaria immitis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in order to assess geographic trends in rates of positive tests...
  40. Ybañez A, Matsumoto K, Kishimoto T, Inokuma H. Molecular analyses of a potentially novel Anaplasma species closely related to Anaplasma phagocytophilum detected in sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) in Japan. Vet Microbiol. 2012;157:232-6 pubmed publisher
    An Anaplasma species closely related to Anaplasma phagocytophilum detected in sika deer in Hokkaido, Japan was molecularly analyzed using 16S rRNA, citrate synthase (gltA), and heat-shock operon (groEL) gene sequences...
  41. Xiong Q, Rikihisa Y. Subversion of NPC1 pathway of cholesterol transport by Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Cell Microbiol. 2012;14:560-76 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligatory intracellular and cholesterol-robbing bacterium, which causes human granulocytic ..
  42. Jin H, Wei F, Liu Q, Qian J. Epidemiology and control of human granulocytic anaplasmosis: a systematic review. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012;12:269-74 pubmed publisher
    Granulocytic anaplasmosis caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne zoonosis worldwide...
  43. Overzier E, Pfister K, Herb I, Mahling M, Böck G, Silaghi C. Detection of tick-borne pathogens in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), in questing ticks (Ixodes ricinus), and in ticks infesting roe deer in southern Germany. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2013;4:320-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp...
  44. Jahn P, Zeman P, Bezdekova B, Praskova I. Equine granulocytic anaplasmosis in the Czech Republic. Vet Rec. 2010;166:646-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The diagnosis was based on clinical signs, the detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum morulae in neutrophils in blood smears, serology and molecular methods. Pyrexia (39.8 to 41...
  45. Domingos M, Trotta M, Briend Marchal A, Medaille C. Anaplasmosis in two dogs in France and molecular and phylogenetic characterization of Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Vet Clin Pathol. 2011;40:215-21 pubmed publisher
    Two dogs in France were diagnosed with Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection by real-time PCR...
  46. Thomas V, Fikrig E. Anaplasma phagocytophilum specifically induces tyrosine phosphorylation of ROCK1 during infection. Cell Microbiol. 2007;9:1730-7 pubmed
    b>Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an obligate intracellular pathogen that persists within polymorphonuclear leucocytes, is the second most common tick-borne agent in North America...
  47. Thomas V, Samanta S, Fikrig E. Anaplasma phagocytophilum increases cathepsin L activity, thereby globally influencing neutrophil function. Infect Immun. 2008;76:4905-12 pubmed publisher
    b>Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, is an unusual obligate intracellular pathogen that persists in neutrophils. A...
  48. Zhan L, Cao W, Chu C, Jiang B, Zhang F, Liu W, et al. Tick-borne agents in rodents, China, 2004-2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1904-8 pubmed publisher
    ..and autonomous regions of mainland People's Republic of China were tested by PCRs for tick-borne agents (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, spotted fever group rickettsiae, and Francisella tularensis)...
  49. Spitalska E, Literak I, Kocianova E, Taragel ová V. The importance of Ixodes arboricola in transmission of Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the Czech Republic, Central Europe. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11:1235-41 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Anaplasma phagocytophilum was found only in two I. ricinus nymphs collected from E. rubecula and P. major...
  50. Schorn S, Pfister K, Reulen H, Mahling M, Silaghi C. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:135 pubmed publisher
    ..Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated.
  51. McCall J, Baker C, Mather T, Chester S, McCall S, Irwin J, et al. The ability of a topical novel combination of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene to protect dogs from Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infections transmitted by Ixodes scapularis. Vet Parasitol. 2011;179:335-42 pubmed publisher
    ..beagle dogs that had not been exposed to ticks and were seronegative for Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum were randomly assigned to four groups of eight dogs each. Control group 1 was not treated...
  52. Silaghi C, Liebisch G, Pfister K. Genetic variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from 14 equine granulocytic anaplasmosis cases. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:161 pubmed publisher
    Equine Granulocytic Anaplasmosis (EGA) is caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, a tick-transmitted, obligate intracellular bacterium. In Europe, it is transmitted by Ixodes ricinus. A large number of genetic variants of A...
  53. Woldehiwet Z. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ruminants in Europe. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1078:446-60 pubmed
    ..of the granulocytic ehrlichiae affecting ruminants, horses, and humans as variants of the same species, Anaplasma phagocytophilum. TBF and pasture fever are characterized by high fever, recurrent bacteremia, neutropenia, ..
  54. Niu H, Yamaguchi M, Rikihisa Y. Subversion of cellular autophagy by Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Cell Microbiol. 2008;10:593-605 pubmed
    b>Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, is an obligatory intracellular pathogen...
  55. Galindo R, Ayoubi P, Garcia Perez A, Naranjo V, Kocan K, Gortazar C, et al. Differential expression of inflammatory and immune response genes in sheep infected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2008;126:27-34 pubmed publisher
    b>Anaplasma phagocytophilum infects a wide variety of host species and causes the diseases tick-borne fever (TBF) in ruminants and granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans, horses and dogs...
  56. Bakken J, Dumler S. Human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2008;22:433-48, viii pubmed publisher
    ..This article focuses on the diagnosis and management of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum.
  57. Novakova M, Vichova B, Majlathova V, Lesnakova A, Pochybova M, Petko B. First case of human granulocytic anaplasmosis from Slovakia. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2010;17:173-5 pubmed
    ..We present the first case of HGA from Slovakia confirmed by nested PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene fragment of A. phagocytophilum...
  58. Magnarelli L, Williams S, Fikrig E. Seasonal prevalence of serum antibodies to whole cell and recombinant antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in white-tailed deer in Connecticut. J Wildl Dis. 2010;46:781-90 pubmed
    ..for total antibodies to whole-cell or recombinant antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the respective causative agents of Lyme borreliosis and human granulocytic anaplasmosis...
  59. Schorn S, Pfister K, Reulen H, Mahling M, Manitz J, Thiel C, et al. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2011;2:196-203 pubmed publisher
    ..this study was to investigate the tick abundance (ticks/100 m(2)) in urban areas and the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Collection of ticks was performed by the flagging method in selected Bavarian public parks in a 2-year ..
  60. Mircean V, Dumitrache M, Györke A, Pantchev N, Jodies R, Mihalca A, et al. Seroprevalence and geographic distribution of Dirofilaria immitis and tick-borne infections (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Ehrlichia canis) in dogs from Romania. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012;12:595-604 pubmed publisher
    ..Westbrook, ME) for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Ehrlichia canis antibodies, and for Dirofilaria immitis antigen...
  61. Franzen P, Berg A, Aspan A, Gunnarsson A, Pringle J. Death of a horse infected experimentally with Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Vet Rec. 2007;160:122-5 pubmed
    A 19-year-old horse that was one of a group of six horses infected experimentally with Anaplasma phagocytophilum for a study of the pathogenesis of equine granulocytic ehrlichiosis died suddenly two days after first showing clinical ..
  62. Stuen S. Anaplasma phagocytophilum - the most widespread tick-borne infection in animals in Europe. Vet Res Commun. 2007;31 Suppl 1:79-84 pubmed
    The bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum (formerly Ehrlichia phagocytophila) may cause infection in several animal species including human...
  63. Zeidner N, Massung R, Dolan M, Dadey E, Gabitzsch E, Dietrich G, et al. A sustained-release formulation of doxycycline hyclate (Atridox) prevents simultaneous infection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi transmitted by tick bite. J Med Microbiol. 2008;57:463-8 pubmed publisher
    ..with that of a single injection of sustained-release doxycycline in a model of Lyme borreliosis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection...
  64. Milutinović M, Masuzawa T, Tomanović S, Radulović Z, Fukui T, Okamoto Y. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Francisella tularensis and their co-infections in host-seeking Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in Serbia. Exp Appl Acarol. 2008;45:171-83 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of 287 ticks were examined by PCR technique for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Francisella tularensis. The highest prevalence rate was that for B. burgdorferi sensu lato (42...
  65. Kocianova E, Kost anová Z, Stefanidesová K, Spitalska E, Boldis V, Hucková D, et al. Serologic evidence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infections in patients with a history of tick bite in central Slovakia. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2008;120:427-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The circulation of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ticks and wild animals has been observed in natural foci in this area for several years...
  66. Mazepa A, Kidd L, Young K, Trepanier L. Clinical presentation of 26 anaplasma phagocytophilum-seropositive dogs residing in an endemic area. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2010;46:405-12 pubmed
    ..phagocytophilum-endemic areas. If moderate to severe thrombocytopenia is present, testing for concurrent B. burgdorferi infection may be warranted...
  67. Dark M, Lundgren A, Barbet A. Determining the repertoire of immunodominant proteins via whole-genome amplification of intracellular pathogens. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36456 pubmed publisher
    ..both techniques to the model obligate intracellular pathogen Anaplasma marginale and the human pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum, in order to examine the ability of phi29 amplification to determine the sequence of genes allowing for ..
  68. Wormser G, Aguero Rosenfeld M, Cox M, Nowakowski J, Nadelman R, Holmgren D, et al. Differences and similarities between culture-confirmed human granulocytic anaplasmosis and early lyme disease. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:954-8 pubmed publisher
    Lyme disease is transmitted by the bite of certain Ixodes ticks, which can also transmit Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the cause of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA). Although culture can be used to identify patients infected with A...
  69. Shukla S, Aswani V, Stockwell P, Reed K. Contribution of polymorphisms in ankA, gltA, and groESL in defining genetic variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:2312-5 pubmed
    ..polymorphisms in polymorphic genes (ankA, gltA, and groESL) from 16S rRNA gene-based genetic variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from dogs in the western United States defined at least two sets of multigene polymorphisms to further ..
  70. Wamsley H, Barbet A. In situ detection of Anaplasma spp. by DNA target-primed rolling-circle amplification of a padlock probe and intracellular colocalization with immunofluorescently labeled host cell von Willebrand factor. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:2314-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of differential interference contrast microscopy and von Willebrand factor immunofluorescence, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma marginale were successfully localized in situ within intact cultured mammalian cells...
  71. Granquist E, Bårdsen K, Bergstrom K, Stuen S. Variant -and individual dependent nature of persistent Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. Acta Vet Scand. 2010;52:25 pubmed publisher
    b>Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the causative agent of tick-borne fever in ruminants and human granulocytotropic anaplasmosis (HGA)...
  72. Hildebrandt A, Fritzsch J, Franke J, Sachse S, Dorn W, Straube E. Co-circulation of emerging tick-borne pathogens in Middle Germany. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11:533-7 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp. Overall, 13...
  73. Scorpio D, Dumler J, Barat N, Cook J, Barat C, Stillman B, et al. Comparative strain analysis of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection and clinical outcomes in a canine model of granulocytic anaplasmosis. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11:223-9 pubmed publisher
    A pilot study was conducted to determine whether existing human or canine strains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum would reproduce clinical disease in experimentally inoculated dogs similar to dogs with naturally acquired granulocytic ..
  74. Nieder M, Silaghi C, Hamel D, Pfister K, Schmäschke R, Pfeffer M. Tick-borne fever caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Germany: first laboratory confirmed case in a dairy cattle herd. Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere. 2012;40:101-6 pubmed
    ..in neutrophilic granulocytes in their blood smears, positive signals in real-time PCR specific for Anaplasma phagocytophilum using DNA extracted from their buffy coats, and demonstration of specific antibodies in their sera ..
  75. Sukumaran B, Ogura Y, Pedra J, Kobayashi K, Flavell R, Fikrig E. Receptor interacting protein-2 contributes to host defense against Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2012;66:211-9 pubmed publisher
    The Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the causative agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), an emerging tick-borne infectious disease occurring worldwide...
  76. Xiong Q, Wang X, Rikihisa Y. High-cholesterol diet facilitates Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection and up-regulates macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and CXCR2 expression in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. J Infect Dis. 2007;195:1497-503 pubmed
    b>Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligatory intracellular bacterium that infects granulocytes and causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA)...
  77. de Carvalho I, Milhano N, Santos A, Almeida V, Barros S, de Sousa R, et al. Detection of Borrelia lusitaniae, Rickettsia sp. IRS3, Rickettsia monacensis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ixodes ricinus collected in Madeira Island, Portugal. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2008;8:575-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Rickettsia spp., and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Sequence analysis demonstrated 8 (2.7%) ticks infected with B. lusitaniae, 60 (20%) with Rickettsia spp...
  78. Nieto N, Foley J. Meta-analysis of coinfection and coexposure with Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in humans, domestic animals, wildlife, and Ixodes ricinus-complex ticks. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2009;9:93-102 pubmed publisher
    b>Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which causes granulocytic anaplasmosis, and Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme borreliosis, are transmitted in multiple Holarctic regions by the same Ixodes sp...
  79. Nowak M, Cieniuch S, Stanczak J, Siuda K. Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Amblyomma flavomaculatum ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from lizard Varanus exanthematicus imported to Poland. Exp Appl Acarol. 2010;51:363-71 pubmed publisher
    ..None of the tested ticks was positive for the gltA gene of Rickettsia spp. DNA of 16S rRNA gene from Anaplasma phagocytophilum was amplified and sequenced from two adult A...
  80. Skuballa J, Petney T, Pfäffle M, Taraschewski H. Molecular detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) and its ticks. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2010;10:1055-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this species may play a role in human contact with zoonotic diseases. Here we report the presence of the pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum in hedgehogs and their ticks in Germany.
  81. Hapunik J, Vichova B, Karbowiak G, Wita I, Bogdaszewski M, Pet Ko B. Wild and farm breeding cervids infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2011;18:73-7 pubmed
    The main goal of our study was to determine the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infections in wild cervids living in north-eastern part of Poland. Material used in the study was gathered between the years 2004- 2008...
  82. Roellig D, Fang Q. Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ixodid ticks from equine-inhabited sites in the Southeastern United States. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012;12:330-2 pubmed publisher
    b>Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a vector-borne, obligate intracellular bacterium that invades the neutrophils and eosinophils of infected individuals, causing granulocytic anaplasmosis...
  83. Jilintai -, Seino N, Hayakawa D, Suzuki M, Hata H, Kondo S, et al. Molecular survey for Anaplasma bovis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in cattle in a pastureland where sika deer appear in Hokkaido, Japan. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2009;62:73-5 pubmed
    Anaplasma bovis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection were examined by species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction in cattle in a pastureland where sika deer appear in Hokkaido, Japan...
  84. Xiong Q, Lin M, Rikihisa Y. Cholesterol-dependent anaplasma phagocytophilum exploits the low-density lipoprotein uptake pathway. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000329 pubmed publisher
    ..Certain bacteria, such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum, also require cholesterol; it is unknown, however, how this cholesterol-dependent obligatory ..
  85. Rar V, Epikhina T, Livanova N, Panov V, Doroschenko E, Pukhovskaya N, et al. Genetic variability of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ixodes persulcatus ticks and small mammals in the Asian part of Russia. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11:1013-21 pubmed publisher
    ..of small mammals collected in Ural, Siberia, and Far East of Russia were assayed for the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum by nested PCR based on the 16S rRNA gene. Totally, A...
  86. Richter D, Kohn C, Matuschka F. Absence of Borrelia spp., Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing adult Dermacentor reticulatus ticks. Parasitol Res. 2013;112:107-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, or Anaplasma phagocytophilum, we collected questing adults in the outskirts of Berlin, Germany, examined them for the presence of DNA ..
  87. Johnston E, Tsao J, Muñoz J, Owen J. Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in American robins and gray catbirds: an assessment of reservoir competence and disease in captive wildlife. J Med Entomol. 2013;50:163-70 pubmed
    b>Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Dumler et al.) is the bacterial agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, an emerging infectious disease. The main vector of A...
  88. Manzano Román R, Almazan C, Naranjo V, Blouin E, Kocan K, De La Fuente J. Expression of perilipin in human promyelocytic cells in response to Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection results in modified lipid metabolism. J Med Microbiol. 2008;57:159-63 pubmed publisher
    The obligate intracellular pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum is transmitted by ticks and causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis, tick-borne fever of ruminants, and equine and canine granulocytic anaplasmosis...
  89. Carpi G, Bertolotti L, Pecchioli E, Cagnacci F, Rizzoli A. Anaplasma phagocytophilum groEL gene heterogeneity in Ixodes ricinus larvae feeding on roe deer in Northeastern Italy. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2009;9:179-84 pubmed publisher
    b>Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne pathogen with both veterinary and human health implications...
  90. Zeman P, Jahn P. An entropy-optimized multilocus approach for characterizing the strains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infecting horses in the Czech Republic. J Med Microbiol. 2009;58:423-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen that has measurable genetic heterogeneity across its geographical range and reservoir spectrum...
  91. Rosef O, Paulauskas A, Radzijevskaja J. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in relation to the density of wild cervids. Acta Vet Scand. 2009;51:47 pubmed publisher
    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum have been considered as pathogens in animals and humans. The role of wild cervids in the epidemiology is not clear...
  92. Rikihisa Y. Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis: subversive manipulators of host cells. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2010;8:328-39 pubmed publisher
    Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. cause several emerging human infectious diseases. Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis are transmitted between mammals by blood-sucking ticks and replicate inside mammalian white blood ..
  93. Giudice E, Giannetto C, Furco V, Alongi A, Torina A. Anaplasma phagocytophilum seroprevalence in equids: a survey in Sicily (Italy). Parasitol Res. 2012;111:951-5 pubmed publisher
    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in Equidae and investigate the possibility of exposure to the organism in Sicily (Southern Italy)...