hoof and claw

Summary

Summary: Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.

Top Publications

  1. Bergsten C. Effects of conformation and management system on hoof and leg diseases and lameness in dairy cows. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2001;17:1-23, v pubmed
    ..This article describes relationships between hoof health and some of these factors as well as methods for prevention of lameness on a herd basis...
  2. Fleckman P, Jaeger K, Silva K, Sundberg J. Comparative anatomy of mouse and human nail units. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2013;296:521-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that the mouse nail unit shares major characteristics with the human nail unit and overall represents a very similar structure, useful for the investigation of nail diseases and nail biology...
  3. Ducro B, Bovenhuis H, Back W. Heritability of foot conformation and its relationship to sports performance in a Dutch Warmblood horse population. Equine Vet J. 2009;41:139-43 pubmed
    ..Negative conformational traits, such as asymmetrical or 'uneven' forefeet would possibly diminish performance...
  4. Kofler J, Hangl A, Pesenhofer R, Landl G. Evaluation of claw health in heifers in seven dairy farms using a digital claw trimming protocol and claw data analysis system. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2011;124:272-81 pubmed
  5. Machado V, Caixeta L, McArt J, Bicalho R. The effect of claw horn disruption lesions and body condition score at dry-off on survivability, reproductive performance, and milk production in the subsequent lactation. J Dairy Sci. 2010;93:4071-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Absence of CHDL did not have a significant effect on milk yield. These findings highlight the importance of claw health and BCS at the end of lactation on future survival and performance...
  6. Ramsey G, Hunter P, Nash M. The effect of hoof angle variations on dorsal lamellar load in the equine hoof. Equine Vet J. 2011;43:536-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In the treatment of laminitis it is believed that reducing tension in the deep digital flexor tendon by raising the palmar angle of the hoof can reduce the load on the dorsal lamellae, allowing them to heal or prevent further damage...
  7. Cramer G, Lissemore K, Guard C, Leslie K, Kelton D. Herd- and cow-level prevalence of foot lesions in Ontario dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci. 2008;91:3888-95 pubmed publisher
    ..5 to 17.3 for hoof horn lesions and 28.0 to 38.7 for infectious lesions. In summary, foot lesions diagnosed at the time of hoof trimming are common in Ontario, and appropriate treatment for hoof horn lesions is low...
  8. Kuley E, Ozogul F, Ozogul Y, Olgunoglu A. Comparison of fatty acid and proximate compositions of the body and claw of male and female blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) from different regions of the Mediterranean coast. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2008;59:573-80 pubmed
    ..The total n3 was detected as 27.33% in body meat whereas it was 24.39% in claw meat of the male crab from Akyatan Lagoon. Those values were almost similar in the body and claw meat of female crab from Akyatan Lagoon...
  9. Muggli E, Sauter Louis C, Braun U, Nuss K. Length asymmetry of the bovine digits. Vet J. 2011;188:295-300 pubmed publisher
    ..In the fore-limb claws, the tenomuscular attachment to the trunk may be involved in a more even weight distribution and in a shift of weight to the medial claw...
  10. Wild J, Kubke M, Pena J. A pathway for predation in the brain of the barn owl (Tyto alba): projections of the gracile nucleus to the "claw area" of the rostral wulst via the dorsal thalamus. J Comp Neurol. 2008;509:156-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The results are discussed in the context of somatosensory projections, primarily in this and other avian species...

Detail Information

Publications85

  1. Bergsten C. Effects of conformation and management system on hoof and leg diseases and lameness in dairy cows. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2001;17:1-23, v pubmed
    ..This article describes relationships between hoof health and some of these factors as well as methods for prevention of lameness on a herd basis...
  2. Fleckman P, Jaeger K, Silva K, Sundberg J. Comparative anatomy of mouse and human nail units. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2013;296:521-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that the mouse nail unit shares major characteristics with the human nail unit and overall represents a very similar structure, useful for the investigation of nail diseases and nail biology...
  3. Ducro B, Bovenhuis H, Back W. Heritability of foot conformation and its relationship to sports performance in a Dutch Warmblood horse population. Equine Vet J. 2009;41:139-43 pubmed
    ..Negative conformational traits, such as asymmetrical or 'uneven' forefeet would possibly diminish performance...
  4. Kofler J, Hangl A, Pesenhofer R, Landl G. Evaluation of claw health in heifers in seven dairy farms using a digital claw trimming protocol and claw data analysis system. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2011;124:272-81 pubmed
  5. Machado V, Caixeta L, McArt J, Bicalho R. The effect of claw horn disruption lesions and body condition score at dry-off on survivability, reproductive performance, and milk production in the subsequent lactation. J Dairy Sci. 2010;93:4071-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Absence of CHDL did not have a significant effect on milk yield. These findings highlight the importance of claw health and BCS at the end of lactation on future survival and performance...
  6. Ramsey G, Hunter P, Nash M. The effect of hoof angle variations on dorsal lamellar load in the equine hoof. Equine Vet J. 2011;43:536-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In the treatment of laminitis it is believed that reducing tension in the deep digital flexor tendon by raising the palmar angle of the hoof can reduce the load on the dorsal lamellae, allowing them to heal or prevent further damage...
  7. Cramer G, Lissemore K, Guard C, Leslie K, Kelton D. Herd- and cow-level prevalence of foot lesions in Ontario dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci. 2008;91:3888-95 pubmed publisher
    ..5 to 17.3 for hoof horn lesions and 28.0 to 38.7 for infectious lesions. In summary, foot lesions diagnosed at the time of hoof trimming are common in Ontario, and appropriate treatment for hoof horn lesions is low...
  8. Kuley E, Ozogul F, Ozogul Y, Olgunoglu A. Comparison of fatty acid and proximate compositions of the body and claw of male and female blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) from different regions of the Mediterranean coast. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2008;59:573-80 pubmed
    ..The total n3 was detected as 27.33% in body meat whereas it was 24.39% in claw meat of the male crab from Akyatan Lagoon. Those values were almost similar in the body and claw meat of female crab from Akyatan Lagoon...
  9. Muggli E, Sauter Louis C, Braun U, Nuss K. Length asymmetry of the bovine digits. Vet J. 2011;188:295-300 pubmed publisher
    ..In the fore-limb claws, the tenomuscular attachment to the trunk may be involved in a more even weight distribution and in a shift of weight to the medial claw...
  10. Wild J, Kubke M, Pena J. A pathway for predation in the brain of the barn owl (Tyto alba): projections of the gracile nucleus to the "claw area" of the rostral wulst via the dorsal thalamus. J Comp Neurol. 2008;509:156-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The results are discussed in the context of somatosensory projections, primarily in this and other avian species...
  11. Pastell M, Hanninen L, de Passillé A, Rushen J. Measures of weight distribution of dairy cows to detect lameness and the presence of hoof lesions. J Dairy Sci. 2010;93:954-60 pubmed publisher
    ..71) and NRS >or=3.5 (AUC=0.88). There was no relationship between LWR and NRS for cows with digital dermatitis. Measurement of how cows distribute their weight when standing holds promise as a method of automated detection of lameness...
  12. Guedes A, Matthews N, Hood D. Effect of ketamine hydrochloride on the analgesic effects of tramadol hydrochloride in horses with signs of chronic laminitis-associated pain. Am J Vet Res. 2012;73:610-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the effects of ketamine hydrochloride on the analgesic effects of tramadol hydrochloride in horses with signs of pain associated with naturally occurring chronic laminitis...
  13. Busshardt P, Gorb S. Walking on smooth and rough ground: activity and timing of the claw retractor muscle in the beetle Pachnoda marginata peregrina (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae). J Exp Biol. 2013;216:319-28 pubmed publisher
    ..The adjustments cause differences in onset and end of activity, as well as in spike frequency of the involved muscle units...
  14. Birn Jeffery A, Miller C, Naish D, Rayfield E, Hone D. Pedal claw curvature in birds, lizards and mesozoic dinosaurs--complicated categories and compensating for mass-specific and phylogenetic control. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50555 pubmed publisher
    ..Ground-dweller' claws are less curved and relatively dorsoventrally deep relative to those of other behavioural categories; beyond this it is difficult to assign an explicit category to a claw based purely on geometry...
  15. Homberger D, Ham K, Ogunbakin T, Bonin J, Hopkins B, Osborn M, et al. The structure of the cornified claw sheath in the domesticated cat (Felis catus): implications for the claw-shedding mechanism and the evolution of cornified digital end organs. J Anat. 2009;214:620-43 pubmed publisher
    ..This built-in shedding mechanism maintains sharp claw tips and ensures the freeing of the claws from the substrate...
  16. Lappin M, Hawley J. Presence of Bartonella species and Rickettsia species DNA in the blood, oral cavity, skin and claw beds of cats in the United States. Vet Dermatol. 2009;20:509-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The combination of Bartonella species serological test results with Bartonella species PCR or culture is likely to give the most accurate information concerning the current infection status of individual cats...
  17. Milinovich G, Klieve A, Pollitt C, Trott D. Microbial events in the hindgut during carbohydrate-induced equine laminitis. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 2010;26:79-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Although these studies are not definitive, they provide the foundations for future work to determine the source of laminitis trigger factors and their mechanisms of action...
  18. Geor R. Current concepts on the pathophysiology of pasture-associated laminitis. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 2010;26:265-76 pubmed publisher
  19. Tulli M, Cruz F, Herrel A, Vanhooydonck B, Abdala V. The interplay between claw morphology and microhabitat use in neotropical iguanian lizards. Zoology (Jena). 2009;112:379-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Performance measures and biomechanical analyses of claw function may consequently be better suited to explain the evolution of claw shape in relation to habitat use in this group...
  20. Berry S, Read D, Walker R, Famula T. Clinical, histologic, and bacteriologic findings in dairy cows with digital dermatitis (footwarts) one month after topical treatment with lincomycin hydrochloride or oxytetracycline hydrochloride. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2010;237:555-60 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare the effectiveness of lincomycin and oxytetracycline for treatment of digital dermatitis (DD) in dairy cows through gross visual examination, histologic evaluation, and bacteriologic evaluation...
  21. Alibardi L, Jaeger K, Dalla Valle L, Eckhart L. Ultrastructural localization of hair keratin homologs in the claw of the lizard Anolis carolinensis. J Morphol. 2011;272:363-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The data on the ultrastructural localization of hair keratin homologs facilitate a comparison of lizard claws and mammalian hard epidermal appendages containing hair keratins...
  22. Namitome K, Kano R, Sekiguchi M, Iwasaki T, Kaneshima T, Nishifuji K. Isolation of Fusarium sp. from a claw of a dog with onychomycosis. J Vet Med Sci. 2011;73:965-9 pubmed
    ..To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report of canine onychomycosis in which Fusarium sp. was isolated from the affected claw...
  23. Carter R, Engiles J, Megee S, Senoo M, Galantino Homer H. Decreased expression of p63, a regulator of epidermal stem cells, in the chronic laminitic equine hoof. Equine Vet J. 2011;43:543-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Abnormal epidermal stem cell regulation may contribute to the pathogenesis of equine chronic laminitis...
  24. Fröjmark A, Schuster J, Sobol M, Entesarian M, Kilander M, Gabrikova D, et al. Mutations in Frizzled 6 cause isolated autosomal-recessive nail dysplasia. Am J Hum Genet. 2011;88:852-860 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our combined results show that FZD6 mutations can result in severe defects in nail and claw formation through reduced or abolished membranous FZD(6) levels and several nonfunctional WNT-FZD pathways...
  25. Van Hemert C, Handel C, Blake J, Swor R, O Hara T. Microanatomy of passerine hard-cornified tissues: beak and claw structure of the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus). J Morphol. 2012;273:226-40 pubmed publisher
  26. Nielsen C, Stengärde L, Bergsten C, Emanuelson U. Relationship between herd-level incidence rate of energy-related postpartum diseases, general risk factors and claw lesions in individual dairy cows recorded at maintenance claw trimming. Acta Vet Scand. 2013;55:55 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the association between herd-level incidence rate of displaced abomasum and clinical ketosis, general risk factors, and claw lesions in individual cows recorded at maintenance claw trimming...
  27. Frosth S, Slettemeås J, Jørgensen H, Angen O, Aspan A. Development and comparison of a real-time PCR assay for detection of Dichelobacter nodosus with culturing and conventional PCR: harmonisation between three laboratories. Acta Vet Scand. 2012;54:6 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to develop a TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay for detection of D. nodosus and to compare its performance with culturing and conventional PCR...
  28. Vits A, Weitzenbürger D, Hamann H, Distl O. Production, egg quality, bone strength, claw length, and keel bone deformities of laying hens housed in furnished cages with different group sizes. Poult Sci. 2005;84:1511-9 pubmed
    ..Claw shortening devices in furnished cages seemed satisfactory, because claws were generally short. However, the occurrence of keel bone deformities due to the intensive use of perches seemed to be a problem of furnished cages. ..
  29. van der Waaij E, Holzhauer M, Ellen E, Kamphuis C, de Jong G. Genetic parameters for claw disorders in Dutch dairy cattle and correlations with conformation traits. J Dairy Sci. 2005;88:3672-8 pubmed
    ..13 (SH) to -0.91 (CL). Genetic correlations with the rear leg conformation traits were lower, ranging from 0.04 (ID with rear leg side view) to -0.69 (IP with rear leg rear view)...
  30. Tomlinson D, Mülling C, Fakler T. Invited review: formation of keratins in the bovine claw: roles of hormones, minerals, and vitamins in functional claw integrity. J Dairy Sci. 2004;87:797-809 pubmed
    ..A growing body of evidence suggests that hormones, vitamins, minerals, and trace elements play critical roles in the normal development of claw horn and correct keratin formation. ..
  31. Webster A. Effects of housing and two forage diets on the development of claw horn lesions in dairy cows at first calving and in first lactation. Vet J. 2001;162:56-65 pubmed
  32. Konig S, Wu X, Gianola D, Heringstad B, Simianer H. Exploration of relationships between claw disorders and milk yield in Holstein cows via recursive linear and threshold models. J Dairy Sci. 2008;91:395-406 pubmed
    ..Structural equation models are of increasing importance in genetic evaluations, and this study showed the possible application of recursive systems, even for categorical data. ..
  33. Nuss K, Paulus N. Measurements of claw dimensions in cows before and after functional trimming: a post-mortem study. Vet J. 2006;172:284-92 pubmed
  34. Milinovich G, Trott D, Burrell P, Croser E, Al Jassim R, Morton J, et al. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of hindgut bacteria associated with the development of equine laminitis. Environ Microbiol. 2007;9:2090-100 pubmed
  35. Wagner I, Rees C, Dunstan R, Credille K, Hood D. Evaluation of systemic immunologic hyperreactivity after intradermal testing in horses with chronic laminitis. Am J Vet Res. 2003;64:279-83 pubmed
    ..To determine whether systemic immunologic hyperreactivity exists in horses with chronic laminitis, compared with responses for nonlaminitic horses...
  36. Somers J, Schouten W, Frankena K, Noordhuizen Stassen E, Metz J. Development of claw traits and claw lesions in dairy cows kept on different floor systems. J Dairy Sci. 2005;88:110-20 pubmed
    ..The M2 lesions generally did not cure effectively after claw trimming, and frequent use of footbaths resulted in a poor prognosis for recovery...
  37. Murray R, Downham D, Clarkson M, Faull W, Hughes J, Manson F, et al. Epidemiology of lameness in dairy cattle: description and analysis of foot lesions. Vet Rec. 1996;138:586-91 pubmed
    ..There was a significant seasonal effect in the reporting of lesions. ..
  38. Moore D, Berry S, Truscott M, Koziy V. Efficacy of a nonantimicrobial cream administered topically for treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2001;219:1435-8 pubmed
  39. Hultgren J, Manske T, Bergsten C. Associations of sole ulcer at claw trimming with reproductive performance, udder health, milk yield, and culling in Swedish dairy cattle. Prev Vet Med. 2004;62:233-51 pubmed
    ..No associations could be shown between sole ulcer and first-service conception risk in the second study year, the number of services per conception, clinical mastitis, high milk somatic-cell counts or culling...
  40. Offer J, Logue D, Offer N, Marsden M. The effect of concentrate composition on lameness and hoof health in dairy cows. Vet J. 2004;167:111-3 pubmed
  41. Amory J, Barker Z, Wright J, Mason S, Blowey R, Green L. Associations between sole ulcer, white line disease and digital dermatitis and the milk yield of 1824 dairy cows on 30 dairy cow farms in England and Wales from February 2003-November 2004. Prev Vet Med. 2008;83:381-91 pubmed
    ..They also highlight the importance of milk loss when estimating the economic impact of SU and WLD on the farms profitability...
  42. Johnson P, Ganjam V, Slight S, Kreeger J, Messer N. Tissue-specific dysregulation of cortisol metabolism in equine laminitis. Equine Vet J. 2004;36:41-5 pubmed
    ..Changes in integumentary (skin and hoof lamellar) 11beta-HSD activity occurring during laminitis could affect the extent to which GCs are involved in its development...
  43. Fjeldaas T, Sogstad A, Østerås O. Claw trimming routines in relation to claw lesions, claw shape and lameness in Norwegian dairy herds housed in tie stalls and free stalls. Prev Vet Med. 2006;73:255-71 pubmed
    ..The routine claw trimming performed in Norwegian free stalls has not had the desired effects on claw lesions and abnormal claw shapes. Routine trimming in tie stalls, however, seems to have prevented claw disorders...
  44. Leonard F, O CONNELL J, O Farrell K. Effect of different housing conditions on behaviour and foot lesions in Friesian heifers. Vet Rec. 1994;134:490-4 pubmed
    ..The better conditions provided by the Dutch Comfort cubicles were associated with better claw health and this effect was partially mediated through the increased time spent lying down by the heifers in these cubicles. ..
  45. Shearer J, van Amstel S. Functional and corrective claw trimming. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2001;17:53-72 pubmed
  46. Hernandez J, Shearer J, Webb D. Effect of lameness on the calving-to-conception interval in dairy cows. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2001;218:1611-4 pubmed
  47. Manske T, Hultgren J, Bergsten C. Topical treatment of digital dermatitis associated with severe heel-horn erosion in a Swedish dairy herd. Prev Vet Med. 2002;53:215-31 pubmed
    ..The copper solution had no significant preventive effect on healthy feet. ..
  48. Amory J, Kloosterman P, Barker Z, Wright J, Blowey R, Green L. Risk factors for reduced locomotion in dairy cattle on nineteen farms in The Netherlands. J Dairy Sci. 2006;89:1509-15 pubmed
    ..17) and feeding corn silage to heifers compared with not doing so (increase in locomotion score = 0.10). The results provide a framework for hypotheses for future investigations of risk factors for high locomotion scores. ..
  49. Starke A, Heppelmann M, Beyerbach M, Rehage J. Septic arthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint in cattle: comparison of digital amputation and joint resection by solar approach. Vet Surg. 2007;36:350-9 pubmed
    ..The higher expenditure for JRES can be justified only for young, valuable cattle. ..
  50. Tarlton J, Holah D, Evans K, Jones S, Pearson G, Webster A. Biomechanical and histopathological changes in the support structures of bovine hooves around the time of first calving. Vet J. 2002;163:196-204 pubmed
  51. Clark C, Petrie L, Waldner C, Wendell A. Characteristics of the bovine claw associated with the presence of vertical fissures (sandcracks). Can Vet J. 2004;45:585-93 pubmed
    ..The importance of these findings and the implications for the prevention of fissure formation are discussed...
  52. Leach K, Logue D, Kempson S, Offer J, Ternent H, Randall J. Claw lesions in dairy cattle: development of sole and white line haemorrhages during the first lactation. Vet J. 1997;154:215-25 pubmed
    ..It is proposed that an initial insult to the corium primarily affects the laminar region and that corium damage increases with the resulting alteration in the physical forces on the sole...
  53. Hamrick M. Development and evolution of the mammalian limb: adaptive diversification of nails, hooves, and claws. Evol Dev. 2001;3:355-63 pubmed
    ..The prevalence of convergences and parallelisms in nail and claw structure among mammals underscores the existence of multiple morphogenetic pathways for evolutionary change in distal limb appendages...
  54. Livesey C, Marsh C, Metcalf J, Laven R. Hock injuries in cattle kept in straw yards or cubicles with rubber mats or mattresses. Vet Rec. 2002;150:677-9 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that replacing mats with mattresses in cubicles can result in a significant reduction in traumatic hock injury...
  55. Braddy S, Poschmann M, Tetlie O. Giant claw reveals the largest ever arthropod. Biol Lett. 2008;4:106-9 pubmed
    ..A phylogenetic analysis of the pterygotid clade reveals that Jaekelopterus is sister-taxon to the genus Acutiramus, and is among the most derived members of the pterygotids, in contrast to earlier suggestions...
  56. Sogstad A, Østerås O, Fjeldaas T. Bovine claw and limb disorders related to reproductive performance and production diseases. J Dairy Sci. 2006;89:2519-28 pubmed
    ..4). Our study shows that claw disorders are associated with poorer reproductive performance and some production diseases...
  57. O DRISCOLL K, Boyle L, French P, Hanlon A. The effect of out-wintering pad design on hoof health and locomotion score of dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2008;91:544-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Low correlations between hardness and pathologies indicate that other factors are involved in the development of hoof pathologies. Confining dry dairy cows on OWP does not increase locomotion scores or lameness incidence...
  58. Manning P, Payne D, Pennicott J, Barrett P, Ennos R. Dinosaur killer claws or climbing crampons?. Biol Lett. 2006;2:110-2 pubmed
  59. van der Tol P, van der Beek S, Metz J, Noordhuizen Stassen E, Back W, Braam C, et al. The effect of preventive trimming on weight bearing and force balance on the claws of dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci. 2004;87:1732-8 pubmed
    ..e., the wall) will be subjected to the highest pressures...
  60. Borderas T, Pawluczuk B, de Passillé A, Rushen J. Claw hardness of dairy cows: relationship to water content and claw lesions. J Dairy Sci. 2004;87:2085-93 pubmed
    ..The relationship between hardness and claw lesions indicates that cows with softer claws are at greater risk for lameness...
  61. Jones E, Viñuela Fernandez I, Eager R, Delaney A, Anderson H, Patel A, et al. Neuropathic changes in equine laminitis pain. Pain. 2007;132:321-31 pubmed
    ..This study provides novel evidence for a neuropathic component to the chronic pain state associated with equine laminitis, indicating that anti-neuropathic analgesic treatment may well have a role in the management of this condition...
  62. Manske T, Hultgren J, Bergsten C. Prevalence and interrelationships of hoof lesions and lameness in Swedish dairy cows. Prev Vet Med. 2002;54:247-63 pubmed
    ..Abnormal claw shape was strongly associated with sole ulcer (r(s)=0.41 at cow level)-suggesting the importance of maintaining a correct claw shape for the prevention of hoof-horn lesions...
  63. Livesey C, Metcalf J, Laven R. Effect of concentrate composition and cubicle bedding on the development of hoof haemorrhages in Holstein heifers after calving. Vet Rec. 2003;152:735-9 pubmed
    ..However, the change had no significant effect on the development of hoof horn haemorrhages. The change of bedding material also had no significant effect on the development of hoof horn haemorrhages...
  64. Nakamura M, Ishikawa O. The localization of label-retaining cells in mouse nails. J Invest Dermatol. 2008;128:728-30 pubmed
  65. Holzhauer M, Hardenberg C, Bartels C, Frankena K. Herd- and cow-level prevalence of digital dermatitis in the Netherlands and associated risk factors. J Dairy Sci. 2006;89:580-8 pubmed
    ..6) compared with no access to pasture. Finally, cows in small-sized herds (<45 cows) affected with HYP were at lower risk (OR = 0.6) for DD than were cows affected with HYP in medium- and large-sized herds (60 to 85 cows per herd)...
  66. Warnick L, Janssen D, Guard C, Grohn Y. The effect of lameness on milk production in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2001;84:1988-97 pubmed
    ..The inconsistent results between farms may have resulted from differences in the relative frequencies of specific causes of lameness in the two herds and in the way lame cows were identified and defined for the study...
  67. Kuwano A, Ueno T, Katayama Y, Nishiyama T, Arai K. Unilateral basement membrane zone alteration of the regenerated laminar region in equine chronic laminitis. J Vet Med Sci. 2005;67:685-91 pubmed
    ..It might be related with recurrence of this disease...
  68. Greenough P, Vermunt J. Evaluation of subclinical laminitis in a dairy herd and observations on associated nutritional and management factors. Vet Rec. 1991;128:11-7 pubmed
  69. Gustås P, Johnston C, Roepstorff L, Drevemo S, Lanshammar H. Relationships between fore- and hindlimb ground reaction force and hoof deceleration patterns in trotting horses. Equine Vet J. 2004;36:737-42 pubmed
    ..In the forelimb, there are indications that the period of horizontal deceleration of the hoof is related to the attenuation of shockwaves. In the hindlimb, information about the hoof deceleration has been lacking...
  70. Booth C, Warnick L, Grohn Y, Maizon D, Guard C, Janssen D. Effect of lameness on culling in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2004;87:4115-22 pubmed
    ..7; 95% confidence interval=1.3 to 6.0). Foot warts were not associated with decreased survival in this analysis. Lameness was never associated with increased survival in any of the models...
  71. Lin M, Kopan R. Long-range, nonautonomous effects of activated Notch1 on tissue homeostasis in the nail. Dev Biol. 2003;263:343-59 pubmed
    ..These data support the existence of a novel, cell-nonautonomous role for Notch in maintaining homeostasis of stratified squamous epithelia by indirectly promoting mitosis in basally located cells...
  72. Koenig S, Sharifi A, Wentrot H, Landmann D, Eise M, Simianer H. Genetic parameters of claw and foot disorders estimated with logistic models. J Dairy Sci. 2005;88:3316-25 pubmed
    ..Routine recording of claw data will offer a new chance to improve claw health within the population as was elaborated by different scenarios applying selection index procedures...
  73. Singh S, Ward W, Lautenbach K, Hughes J, Murray R. Behaviour of first lactation and adult dairy cows while housed and at pasture and its relationship with sole lesions. Vet Rec. 1993;133:469-74 pubmed
    ..The patterns of lying and other activities of first lactation and adult cows while they were housed were quite different from those while they were at pasture...
  74. Sogstad A, Fjeldaas T, Osterås O. Lameness and claw lesions of the Norwegian red dairy cattle housed in free stalls in relation to environment, parity and stage of lactation. Acta Vet Scand. 2005;46:203-17 pubmed
    ..As new free stalls are being built, it is important to optimise the conditions for claw health...
  75. Ettema J, Capion N, Hill A. The association of hoof lesions at claw trimming with test-day milk yield in Danish Holsteins. Prev Vet Med. 2007;79:224-43 pubmed
    ..This pattern was not as clearly present for the other lesions...
  76. Manske T, Hultgren J, Bergsten C. The effect of claw trimming on the hoof health of Swedish dairy cattle. Prev Vet Med. 2002;54:113-29 pubmed
    ..86), sole ulcer (OR=0.59) and white-line fissure or double sole (OR=0.71)-but not of moderate-to-severe heel-horn erosion or dermatitis (OR=0.96). Acute hoof treatments between claw trimmings were more common in the NAT group (OR=2.02)...
  77. Darbas A, Jaegle M, Walbeehm E, van den Burg H, Driegen S, Broos L, et al. Cell autonomy of the mouse claw paw mutation. Dev Biol. 2004;272:470-82 pubmed
    ..Within the Schwann cell, clp affects a myelin-related signaling pathway that regulates periaxin and Krox-20 expression, but not Oct-6...
  78. Somers J, Frankena K, Noordhuizen Stassen E, Metz J. Prevalence of claw disorders in Dutch dairy cows exposed to several floor systems. J Dairy Sci. 2003;86:2082-93 pubmed
    ..This indicates that the level of DD infection has increased considerably over the last 10 yr in The Netherlands...
  79. Vokey F, Guard C, Erb H, Galton D. Effects of alley and stall surfaces on indices of claw and leg health in dairy cattle housed in a free-stall barn. J Dairy Sci. 2001;84:2686-99 pubmed
    ..All claw measurements were correlated; however, toe angle was most strongly correlated with the other two. In this experiment, stall and alley configurations did not lead to significant differences in several indices of lameness...
  80. Heinonen M, Oravainen J, Orro T, Seppä Lassila L, Ala Kurikka E, Virolainen J, et al. Lameness and fertility of sows and gilts in randomly selected loose-housed herds in Finland. Vet Rec. 2006;159:383-7 pubmed
    ..7 times the odds of being lame than Landrace or crossbred animals. Higher parity and the use of roughage decreased the odds of the sows not becoming pregnant; however, lameness was not a risk factor for non-pregnancy...
  81. Abbott K, Lewis C. Current approaches to the management of ovine footrot. Vet J. 2005;169:28-41 pubmed
    ..This article reviews these strategies and makes recommendations for steps to reduce the spread of footrot between flocks and to reduce the incidence of footrot within UK flocks...
  82. Sogstad A, Fjeldaas T, Østerås O, Forshell K. Prevalence of claw lesions in Norwegian dairy cattle housed in tie stalls and free stalls. Prev Vet Med. 2005;70:191-209 pubmed
    ..Agreements between some of the claw lesions were revealed. The study confirms that in Norwegian dairy cattle, most claw lesions are more prevalent in free stalls than in tie stalls...
  83. Jørgensen B. Osteochondrosis/osteoarthrosis and claw disorders in sows, associated with leg weakness. Acta Vet Scand. 2000;41:123-38 pubmed
    ..Overgrown claws were strongly associated with leg weakness indicating the need for claw trimming in sow populations...
  84. Kofler J. Clinical study of toe ulcer and necrosis of the apex of the distal phalanx in 53 cattle. Vet J. 1999;157:139-47 pubmed
    ..Of these, the treatment was successful in 20 animals. The healing period ranged from 16-60 days when one claw was affected and from 43-53 days when two claws were affected. In five cattle, the digit was amputated...
  85. Vermunt J, Greenough P. Sole haemorrhages in dairy heifers managed under different underfoot and environmental conditions. Br Vet J. 1996;152:57-73 pubmed
    ..01). This study shows that sole haemorrhages do occur in the claws of dairy heifers managed either indoors or in dry lots, and permanent damage to the claws of these young cattle may already have occurred before they reach maturity...