follistatin

Summary

Summary: A broadly distributed protein that binds directly to ACTIVINS. It functions as an activin antagonist, inhibits FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion, regulates CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and plays an important role in embryogenesis. Follistatin is a single glycosylated polypeptide chain of approximately 37-kDa and is not a member of the inhibin family (INHIBINS). Follistatin also binds and neutralizes many members of the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA family.

Top Publications

  1. Gao X, Hu H, Zhu J, Xu Z. Identification and characterization of follistatin as a novel angiogenin-binding protein. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:5505-10 pubmed
    ..In this study, follistatin was identified as a binding partner of angiogenin by a yeast two-hybrid screen and confirmed by a pull-down ..
  2. Ciarmela P, Florio P, Sigurdardottir M, Toti P, Maguer Satta V, Rimokh R, et al. Follistatin-related gene expression, but not follistatin expression, is decreased in human endometrial adenocarcinoma. Eur J Endocrinol. 2004;151:251-7 pubmed
    ..In the present study we evaluated the expression of two inhibitory activin A ligands, follistatin and follistatin-related gene (FLRG), in endometrial adenocarcinoma and in age-matched healthy human endometrium...
  3. Hurwitz J, Santoro N. Inhibins, activins, and follistatin in the aging female and male. Semin Reprod Med. 2004;22:209-17 pubmed
    Dimeric inhibins, activins, and follistatin (FS) were all initially characterized as reproductive endocrine hormones that regulate follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion...
  4. Yao H, Matzuk M, Jorgez C, Menke D, Page D, Swain A, et al. Follistatin operates downstream of Wnt4 in mammalian ovary organogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2004;230:210-5 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that follistatin (Fst), which encodes a TGFbeta superfamily binding protein, is a downstream component of Wnt4 signaling...
  5. Rodino Klapac L, Haidet A, Kota J, Handy C, Kaspar B, Mendell J. Inhibition of myostatin with emphasis on follistatin as a therapy for muscle disease. Muscle Nerve. 2009;39:283-96 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Follistatin has emerged as a powerful antagonist of myostatin that can increase muscle mass and strength...
  6. Pentek J, Parker L, Wu A, Arora K. Follistatin preferentially antagonizes activin rather than BMP signaling in Drosophila. Genesis. 2009;47:261-73 pubmed publisher
    ..One such regulator, Follistatin (Fst), functions as an inhibitor of both activin and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) subfamilies of TGF-beta ..
  7. Harrison C, Chan K, Robertson D. Activin-A binds follistatin and type II receptors through overlapping binding sites: generation of mutants with isolated binding activities. Endocrinology. 2006;147:2744-53 pubmed
    b>Follistatin is a potent extracellular antagonist of members of the TGFbeta superfamily that use activin type II receptors (ActRII/IIB) as part of their signaling complex...
  8. Ciccone N, Dunn I, Sharp P. Increased food intake stimulates GnRH-I, glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit and follistatin mRNAs, and ovarian follicular numbers in laying broiler breeder hens. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2007;33:62-76 pubmed
    ..ovarian follicles and gonadotropin releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I), glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit and follistatin mRNAs...
  9. Miller T, Kim S, Yamanaka K, Hester M, Umapathi P, Arnson H, et al. Gene transfer demonstrates that muscle is not a primary target for non-cell-autonomous toxicity in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:19546-51 pubmed
    ..Use of a deletable mutant gene to diminish mutant SOD1 from muscle did not affect onset or survival. Finally, follistatin expression encoded by adeno-associated virus chronically inhibited myostatin and produced sustained increases ..
  10. Antsiferova M, Klatte J, Bodo E, Paus R, Jorcano J, Matzuk M, et al. Keratinocyte-derived follistatin regulates epidermal homeostasis and wound repair. Lab Invest. 2009;89:131-41 pubmed publisher
    ..activation of activin in the epidermis and hair follicles by generation of mice lacking the activin antagonist follistatin in keratinocytes. We observed enhanced keratinocyte proliferation in the tail epidermis of these animals...

Detail Information

Publications60

  1. Gao X, Hu H, Zhu J, Xu Z. Identification and characterization of follistatin as a novel angiogenin-binding protein. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:5505-10 pubmed
    ..In this study, follistatin was identified as a binding partner of angiogenin by a yeast two-hybrid screen and confirmed by a pull-down ..
  2. Ciarmela P, Florio P, Sigurdardottir M, Toti P, Maguer Satta V, Rimokh R, et al. Follistatin-related gene expression, but not follistatin expression, is decreased in human endometrial adenocarcinoma. Eur J Endocrinol. 2004;151:251-7 pubmed
    ..In the present study we evaluated the expression of two inhibitory activin A ligands, follistatin and follistatin-related gene (FLRG), in endometrial adenocarcinoma and in age-matched healthy human endometrium...
  3. Hurwitz J, Santoro N. Inhibins, activins, and follistatin in the aging female and male. Semin Reprod Med. 2004;22:209-17 pubmed
    Dimeric inhibins, activins, and follistatin (FS) were all initially characterized as reproductive endocrine hormones that regulate follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion...
  4. Yao H, Matzuk M, Jorgez C, Menke D, Page D, Swain A, et al. Follistatin operates downstream of Wnt4 in mammalian ovary organogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2004;230:210-5 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that follistatin (Fst), which encodes a TGFbeta superfamily binding protein, is a downstream component of Wnt4 signaling...
  5. Rodino Klapac L, Haidet A, Kota J, Handy C, Kaspar B, Mendell J. Inhibition of myostatin with emphasis on follistatin as a therapy for muscle disease. Muscle Nerve. 2009;39:283-96 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Follistatin has emerged as a powerful antagonist of myostatin that can increase muscle mass and strength...
  6. Pentek J, Parker L, Wu A, Arora K. Follistatin preferentially antagonizes activin rather than BMP signaling in Drosophila. Genesis. 2009;47:261-73 pubmed publisher
    ..One such regulator, Follistatin (Fst), functions as an inhibitor of both activin and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) subfamilies of TGF-beta ..
  7. Harrison C, Chan K, Robertson D. Activin-A binds follistatin and type II receptors through overlapping binding sites: generation of mutants with isolated binding activities. Endocrinology. 2006;147:2744-53 pubmed
    b>Follistatin is a potent extracellular antagonist of members of the TGFbeta superfamily that use activin type II receptors (ActRII/IIB) as part of their signaling complex...
  8. Ciccone N, Dunn I, Sharp P. Increased food intake stimulates GnRH-I, glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit and follistatin mRNAs, and ovarian follicular numbers in laying broiler breeder hens. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2007;33:62-76 pubmed
    ..ovarian follicles and gonadotropin releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I), glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit and follistatin mRNAs...
  9. Miller T, Kim S, Yamanaka K, Hester M, Umapathi P, Arnson H, et al. Gene transfer demonstrates that muscle is not a primary target for non-cell-autonomous toxicity in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:19546-51 pubmed
    ..Use of a deletable mutant gene to diminish mutant SOD1 from muscle did not affect onset or survival. Finally, follistatin expression encoded by adeno-associated virus chronically inhibited myostatin and produced sustained increases ..
  10. Antsiferova M, Klatte J, Bodo E, Paus R, Jorcano J, Matzuk M, et al. Keratinocyte-derived follistatin regulates epidermal homeostasis and wound repair. Lab Invest. 2009;89:131-41 pubmed publisher
    ..activation of activin in the epidermis and hair follicles by generation of mice lacking the activin antagonist follistatin in keratinocytes. We observed enhanced keratinocyte proliferation in the tail epidermis of these animals...
  11. Eichberger T, Kaser A, Pixner C, Schmid C, Klingler S, Winklmayr M, et al. GLI2-specific transcriptional activation of the bone morphogenetic protein/activin antagonist follistatin in human epidermal cells. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:12426-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that, in human epidermal cells, expression of the activin/BMP antagonist follistatin (FST) is predominantly up-regulated by the HH effector GLI2...
  12. Blount A, Vaughan J, Vale W, Bilezikjian L. A Smad-binding element in intron 1 participates in activin-dependent regulation of the follistatin gene. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:7016-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In the pituitary, activin acts locally to induce follistatin expression and thus modulate its own actions...
  13. Lee K, Bettegowda A, Wee G, Ireland J, Smith G. Molecular determinants of oocyte competence: potential functional role for maternal (oocyte-derived) follistatin in promoting bovine early embryogenesis. Endocrinology. 2009;150:2463-71 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies established a positive relationship between oocyte competence and follistatin mRNA abundance...
  14. Razanajaona D, Joguet S, Ay A, Treilleux I, Goddard Leon S, Bartholin L, et al. Silencing of FLRG, an antagonist of activin, inhibits human breast tumor cell growth. Cancer Res. 2007;67:7223-9 pubmed
    ..Our data provide strong evidence that endogenous FLRG contributes to tumor cell proliferation through antagonizing endogenous activin effects. ..
  15. Eijken M, Swagemakers S, Koedam M, Steenbergen C, Derkx P, Uitterlinden A, et al. The activin A-follistatin system: potent regulator of human extracellular matrix mineralization. FASEB J. 2007;21:2949-60 pubmed
    ..activin A treatment strongly inhibited mineralization in osteoblast cultures, whereas the activin antagonist follistatin increased mineralization...
  16. Florio P, Reis F, Torres P, Calonaci F, Abrao M, Nascimento L, et al. High serum follistatin levels in women with ovarian endometriosis. Hum Reprod. 2009;24:2600-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Follistatin is an activin-binding protein produced by several tissues, including endometrium and endometriotic implants...
  17. Grusch M, Drucker C, Peter Vörösmarty B, Erlach N, Lackner A, Losert A, et al. Deregulation of the activin/follistatin system in hepatocarcinogenesis. J Hepatol. 2006;45:673-80 pubmed
    Activins A and E negatively regulate hepatic cell number by inhibiting cell replication and inducing apoptosis. Follistatin and follistatin-like 3 bind activins and antagonise their biological activities...
  18. Wang Y, Ge W. Developmental profiles of activin betaA, betaB, and follistatin expression in the zebrafish ovary: evidence for their differential roles during sexual maturation and ovulatory cycle. Biol Reprod. 2004;71:2056-64 pubmed
    Our recent experiments showed that gonadotropin(s) stimulated activin betaA and follistatin expression through the cAMP-PKA pathway but suppressed betaB via a cAMP-dependent but PKA-independent pathway in cultured zebrafish follicle ..
  19. Muttukrishna S, Bearfield C, Johns J, Jauniaux E. Inhibin, activin, follistatin, activin receptors and beta-glycan gene expression in the villous tissue of miscarriage patients. Mol Hum Reprod. 2004;10:793-8 pubmed
    ..of this study was to quantify relative expression of inhibin alpha, inhibin/activin betaA, betaB, betaC, follistatin, activin receptors and beta-glycan genes and content of inhibin A, activin A and follistatin protein in villous ..
  20. Wang X, Suomalainen M, Jorgez C, Matzuk M, Werner S, Thesleff I. Follistatin regulates enamel patterning in mouse incisors by asymmetrically inhibiting BMP signaling and ameloblast differentiation. Dev Cell. 2004;7:719-30 pubmed
    ..Enamel matrix is secreted by ameloblasts derived from dental epithelium. Here we show that overexpression of follistatin in the dental epithelium inhibits ameloblast differentiation in transgenic mouse incisors, whereas in ..
  21. Zhang D, Li X, Su L, Meng Q. Expression of activin A and follistatin in glioblastoma and their effects on U87 in vitro. J Int Med Res. 2010;38:1343-53 pubmed
    ..Protein levels of activin A and follistatin were assessed in glioblastoma and normal brain tissues in this study, and the effect of activin A and ..
  22. Winbanks C, Weeks K, Thomson R, Sepulveda P, Beyer C, Qian H, et al. Follistatin-mediated skeletal muscle hypertrophy is regulated by Smad3 and mTOR independently of myostatin. J Cell Biol. 2012;197:997-1008 pubmed publisher
    b>Follistatin is essential for skeletal muscle development and growth, but the intracellular signaling networks that regulate follistatin-mediated effects are not well defined...
  23. Nakatani M, Takehara Y, Sugino H, Matsumoto M, Hashimoto O, Hasegawa Y, et al. Transgenic expression of a myostatin inhibitor derived from follistatin increases skeletal muscle mass and ameliorates dystrophic pathology in mdx mice. FASEB J. 2008;22:477-87 pubmed
    ..The known myostatin inhibitors include myostatin propeptide, follistatin, follistatin-related proteins, and myostatin antibodies...
  24. Abe Y, Abe T, Aida Y, Hara Y, Maeda K. Follistatin restricts bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 action on the differentiation of osteoblasts in fetal rat mandibular cells. J Bone Miner Res. 2004;19:1302-7 pubmed
    ..Activin A is involved in the regulation of bone formation. Follistatin (FS) antagonizes the bioactivities of BMP and activin A extracellularly...
  25. Ren P, Chen F, Liu H, Cui X, Sun Y, Guan J, et al. High serum levels of follistatin in patients with ovarian cancer. J Int Med Res. 2012;40:877-86 pubmed
    This study investigated the potential use of serum follistatin (FST) as a marker for ovarian cancer alongside serum cancer antigen-125 (CA-125)...
  26. Gold E, Zhang X, Wheatley A, Mellor S, Cranfield M, Risbridger G, et al. betaA- and betaC-activin, follistatin, activin receptor mRNA and betaC-activin peptide expression during rat liver regeneration. J Mol Endocrinol. 2005;34:505-15 pubmed
    ..betaA- and betaC-activin), activin receptor subunits (ActRIIA, ActRIIB) and the activin-binding protein follistatin, and peptide expression of betaA-activin and betaC-activin subunits, were examined in regenerating rat liver ..
  27. Szabat M, Johnson J, Piret J. Reciprocal modulation of adult beta cell maturity by activin A and follistatin. Diabetologia. 2010;53:1680-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of endogenous activin A on beta cells were completely reversed by exogenous follistatin. These results suggest that autocrine and/or paracrine activin A signalling exerts a suppressive effect on ..
  28. Hansen J, Brandt C, Nielsen A, Hojman P, Whitham M, Febbraio M, et al. Exercise induces a marked increase in plasma follistatin: evidence that follistatin is a contraction-induced hepatokine. Endocrinology. 2011;152:164-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Follistatin is a member of the TGF-? super family and inhibits the action of myostatin to regulate skeletal muscle growth...
  29. Kostek M, Angelopoulos T, Clarkson P, Gordon P, Moyna N, Visich P, et al. Myostatin and follistatin polymorphisms interact with muscle phenotypes and ethnicity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41:1063-71 pubmed publisher
    We examined associations among myostatin (MSTN) 2379 A > G and 163 G > A and follistatin (FST) -5003 A > T and -833 G > T single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on the muscle size and the strength response to resistance ..
  30. Bonetto A, Penna F, Minero V, Reffo P, Bonelli G, Baccino F, et al. Deacetylase inhibitors modulate the myostatin/follistatin axis without improving cachexia in tumor-bearing mice. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2009;9:608-16 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, enhanced expression of follistatin, an antagonist of myostatin, by inhibitors of histone deacetylases, such as valproic acid or trichostatin-A, ..
  31. Torres P, Florio P, Ferreira M, Torricelli M, Reis F, Petraglia F. Deranged expression of follistatin and follistatin-like protein in women with ovarian endometriosis. Fertil Steril. 2007;88:200-5 pubmed
    To evaluate the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and peptide localization of follistatin and follistatin-like protein (FLRG) in ovarian endometriosis, compared to healthy human endometrium...
  32. Foley J, Bercury S, Finn P, Cheng S, Scheule R, Ziegler R. Evaluation of systemic follistatin as an adjuvant to stimulate muscle repair and improve motor function in Pompe mice. Mol Ther. 2010;18:1584-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Administration of a recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 8 vector encoding follistatin, an inhibitor of myostatin, increased muscle mass and strength but only in Pompe mice that were treated before ..
  33. Lima A, Martinez P, Okoshi K, Guizoni D, Zornoff L, Campos D, et al. Myostatin and follistatin expression in skeletal muscles of rats with chronic heart failure. Int J Exp Pathol. 2010;91:54-62 pubmed publisher
    ..As myostatin gene expression can be modulated by follistatin, we also evaluated its expression...
  34. Cheng G, Yuen C, Ge W. Evidence for the existence of a local activin follistatin negative feedback loop in the goldfish pituitary and its regulation by activin and gonadal steroids. J Endocrinol. 2007;195:373-84 pubmed
    ..expression and production in the vertebrate pituitary, and its activity is fine-tuned by its binding protein follistatin. In the present study, a full-length cDNA for follistatin was cloned in the goldfish, which shows 74% amino ..
  35. Jones M, Wilson S, Mullin B, Mead R, Watts G, Stuckey B. Polymorphism of the follistatin gene in polycystic ovary syndrome. Mol Hum Reprod. 2007;13:237-41 pubmed
    b>Follistatin has been reported as a candidate gene for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) from linkage and association studies...
  36. Patella S, Phillips D, Tchongue J, de Kretser D, Sievert W. Follistatin attenuates early liver fibrosis: effects on hepatic stellate cell activation and hepatocyte apoptosis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006;290:G137-44 pubmed
    ..b>Follistatin is the main biological inhibitor of activin bioactivity...
  37. Sidis Y, Mukherjee A, Keutmann H, Delbaere A, Sadatsuki M, Schneyer A. Biological activity of follistatin isoforms and follistatin-like-3 is dependent on differential cell surface binding and specificity for activin, myostatin, and bone morphogenetic proteins. Endocrinology. 2006;147:3586-97 pubmed
    b>Follistatin (FST) and FST-like-3 (FSTL3) are activin-binding and neutralization proteins that also bind myostatin...
  38. Myers M, Gay E, McNeilly A, Fraser H, Duncan W. In vitro evidence suggests activin-A may promote tissue remodeling associated with human luteolysis. Endocrinology. 2007;148:3730-9 pubmed
    ..The effect of hCG, activin-A, and follistatin on MMP-2 activity and expression was assessed by gelatin zymography and quantitative RT-PCR in primary cell ..
  39. Fumagalli M, Musso T, Vermi W, Scutera S, Daniele R, Alotto D, et al. Imbalance between activin A and follistatin drives postburn hypertrophic scar formation in human skin. Exp Dermatol. 2007;16:600-10 pubmed
    ..Smad signalling pathway with TGF-beta, but binds to its own specific transmembrane receptors and to follistatin, a secreted protein that inhibits activin by sequestration...
  40. Silva J, van den Hurk R, van Tol H, Roelen B, Figueiredo J. Gene expression and protein localisation for activin-A, follistatin and activin receptors in goat ovaries. J Endocrinol. 2004;183:405-15 pubmed
    We studied the protein and mRNA expression of activin-A, follistatin and activin receptors in goat ovaries to find evidence of their possible role in ovarian activity, particularly in the various stages of follicle development...
  41. Flanagan J, Linder K, Mejhert N, Dungner E, Wahlen K, Decaunes P, et al. Role of follistatin in promoting adipogenesis in women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:3003-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Follistatin is a glycoprotein that binds and neutralizes biological activities of TGFbeta superfamily members including activin and myostatin...
  42. Cash J, Rejon C, McPherron A, Bernard D, Thompson T. The structure of myostatin:follistatin 288: insights into receptor utilization and heparin binding. EMBO J. 2009;28:2662-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we present the crystal structure of myostatin in complex with the antagonist follistatin 288 (Fst288)...
  43. Ebert S, Phillips D, Jenzewski P, Nau R, O Connor A, Michel U. Activin A concentrations in human cerebrospinal fluid are age-dependent and elevated in meningitis. J Neurol Sci. 2006;250:50-7 pubmed
    Activin A, and its binding protein, follistatin (FS), are expressed in the central nervous system (CNS)...
  44. Bilezikjian L, Blount A, Donaldson C, Vale W. Pituitary actions of ligands of the TGF-beta family: activins and inhibins. Reproduction. 2006;132:207-15 pubmed
    ..b>Follistatin, also produced by the pituitary, acts as a local buffer to bind activin and modulate its bioactivity...
  45. Chen Y, Wang Q, Lin S, Chang C, Chuang J, Chung J, et al. Activin signaling and its role in regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and carcinogenesis. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2006;231:534-44 pubmed
    ..This review focuses on the recent progress on activin-receptor interactions, regulations of activin signaling by ligand-binding proteins, receptor-binding proteins, and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Smad proteins. ..
  46. Rose F, Mattis V, Rindt H, Lorson C. Delivery of recombinant follistatin lessens disease severity in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:997-1005 pubmed publisher
    ..Myostatin, a member of the TGF-beta super-family, is a potent negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass. Follistatin is a natural antagonist of myostatin, and over-expression of follistatin in mouse muscle leads to profound ..
  47. Rae K, Hollebone K, Chetty V, Clausen D, McFarlane J. Follistatin serum concentrations during full-term labour in women--significant differences between spontaneous and induced labour. Reproduction. 2007;134:705-11 pubmed
    b>Follistatin has been isolated from human placenta and has been identified in human foetal membranes and fluids. Serum follistatin levels in women rise during pregnancy particularly near term...
  48. Roberts Galbraith R, Newmark P. Follistatin antagonizes activin signaling and acts with notum to direct planarian head regeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:1363-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we find that a planarian Follistatin homolog directs regeneration of anterior identity by opposing an Activin/ActR-1/Smad2/3 signaling pathway...
  49. Hedger M, de Kretser D. The activins and their binding protein, follistatin-Diagnostic and therapeutic targets in inflammatory disease and fibrosis. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2013;24:285-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Activin antagonists such as follistatin, an endogenous activin-binding protein, offer considerable promise as therapies in conditions as diverse as ..
  50. Chen M, Chen H, Chen S, Ho H, Yang Y, Yang W. The relationship between follistatin and chronic low-grade inflammation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2009;92:2041-4 pubmed publisher
    The circulating follistatin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) concentrations were significantly higher in 155 Taiwanese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) than in 37 healthy controls...
  51. Bloise E, Couto H, Massai L, Ciarmela P, Mencarelli M, Borges L, et al. Differential expression of follistatin and FLRG in human breast proliferative disorders. BMC Cancer. 2009;9:320 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Follistatin and follistatin- related gene (FLRG) bind and neutralize activins...
  52. Patel O, Bettegowda A, Ireland J, Coussens P, Lonergan P, Smith G. Functional genomics studies of oocyte competence: evidence that reduced transcript abundance for follistatin is associated with poor developmental competence of bovine oocytes. Reproduction. 2007;133:95-106 pubmed
    ..PCR experiments revealed greater abundance of mRNA for betaA and betaB subunits of inhibin/activin and follistatin, but not the alpha subunit in germinal vesicle stage oocytes collected from adult versus prepubertal animals...
  53. Ooe H, Chen Q, Kon J, Sasaki K, Miyoshi H, Ichinohe N, et al. Proliferation of rat small hepatocytes requires follistatin expression. J Cell Physiol. 2012;227:2363-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The activin (Act)/follistatin (Fst) system critically contributes to homeostasis of cell growth in the normal liver...
  54. Daponte A, Deligeoroglou E, Garas A, Pournaras S, Hadjichristodoulou C, Messinis I. Activin A and follistatin as biomarkers for ectopic pregnancy and missed abortion. Dis Markers. 2013;35:497-503 pubmed publisher
    ..a predictor of pregnancy failure has been the focus of heated debate, but the value of a combined activin A and follistatin (FS) measurement in serum to predict pregnancy failure has not been reported yet...
  55. Tardif G, Pelletier J, Boileau C, Martel Pelletier J. The BMP antagonists follistatin and gremlin in normal and early osteoarthritic cartilage: an immunohistochemical study. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2009;17:263-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In human osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage, the BMP antagonists follistatin and gremlin are increased but differentially regulated...
  56. de Kretser D, O Hehir R, Hardy C, Hedger M. The roles of activin A and its binding protein, follistatin, in inflammation and tissue repair. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;359:101-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Blocking activin action by pre-treatment with its binding protein, follistatin, modifies the inflammatory cytokine cascade, and reduces the severity of the subsequent inflammatory response ..
  57. Jones K, Mansell A, Patella S, Scott B, Hedger M, de Kretser D, et al. Activin A is a critical component of the inflammatory response, and its binding protein, follistatin, reduces mortality in endotoxemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:16239-44 pubmed
    ..Treatment with the activin-binding protein, follistatin, alters the profiles of TNF, IL-1beta, and IL-6 after LPS stimulation, indicating that activin modulates the ..
  58. Refaat B, Amer S, Ola B, Chapman N, Ledger W. The expression of activin-betaA- and -betaB-subunits, follistatin, and activin type II receptors in fallopian tubes bearing an ectopic pregnancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:293-9 pubmed
    ..betaA- and betaB-subunits, type II receptor group comprising the activin type IIA and type IIB receptors, and follistatin, which increased in intensity from the isthmus to the ampulla in both models...
  59. Colussi C, Gaetano C, Capogrossi M. AAV-dependent targeting of myostatin function: follistatin strikes back at muscular dystrophy. Gene Ther. 2008;15:1075-6 pubmed publisher
  60. Kang W, Saqui Salces M, Zavros Y, Merchant J. Induction of follistatin precedes gastric transformation in gastrin deficient mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;376:573-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Microarray analysis of 12 month Gas(-/-) tumors revealed an increase in follistatin, an activin/BMP antagonist...