fibroblast growth factor 3

Summary

Summary: A fibroblast growth factor that is expressed primarily during development.

Top Publications

  1. Hatch E, Noyes C, Wang X, Wright T, Mansour S. Fgf3 is required for dorsal patterning and morphogenesis of the inner ear epithelium. Development. 2007;134:3615-25 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that Fgf3 prevents ventral expansion of r5-6 neurectodermal Wnt3a, serving to focus inductive WNT signals on the dorsal otic vesicle and highlighting a new example of cross-talk between the two signaling systems. ..
  2. Zelarayan L, Vendrell V, Alvarez Y, Dominguez Frutos E, Theil T, Alonso M, et al. Differential requirements for FGF3, FGF8 and FGF10 during inner ear development. Dev Biol. 2007;308:379-91 pubmed
    ..Together these results provide important insights into how the spatial and temporal expression of various FGFs controls different steps of inner ear formation during vertebrate development. ..
  3. Tekin M, Hişmi B, Fitoz S, Ozdag H, Cengiz F, Sirmaci A, et al. Homozygous mutations in fibroblast growth factor 3 are associated with a new form of syndromic deafness characterized by inner ear agenesis, microtia, and microdontia. Am J Hum Genet. 2007;80:338-44 pubmed
    ..We later demonstrated three different homozygous mutations (p.S156P, p.R104X, and p.V206SfsX117) in the fibroblast growth factor 3 (FGF3) gene in affected members of these families, cosegregating with the autosomal recessive ..
  4. Vázquez Echeverría C, Dominguez Frutos E, Charnay P, Schimmang T, Pujades C. Analysis of mouse kreisler mutants reveals new roles of hindbrain-derived signals in the establishment of the otic neurogenic domain. Dev Biol. 2008;322:167-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These results highlight the importance of hindbrain-derived signals in the regulation of otic neurogenesis. ..
  5. Pirvola U, Spencer Dene B, Xing Qun L, Kettunen P, Thesleff I, Fritzsch B, et al. FGF/FGFR-2(IIIb) signaling is essential for inner ear morphogenesis. J Neurosci. 2000;20:6125-34 pubmed
    ..Our findings provide genetic evidence that signaling by FGFR-2(IIIb) is critical for the morphological development of the inner ear. ..
  6. Cao Y, Zhao J, Sun Z, Zhao Z, Postlethwait J, Meng A. fgf17b, a novel member of Fgf family, helps patterning zebrafish embryos. Dev Biol. 2004;271:130-43 pubmed
    ..Like fgf8, activation of fgf17b expression depends on Nodal signaling. ..
  7. Robinson D, Segal M, Nevo Z. Giant cell tumor of bone. The role of fibroblast growth factor 3 positive mesenchymal stem cells in its pathogenesis. Pathobiology. 2002;70:333-42 pubmed
    ..This should be further investigated in an in vivo model to ascertain whether induction of differentiation will prevent bone loss and retard tumor progression. ..
  8. Mahmood R, Mason I, Morriss Kay G. Expression of Fgf-3 in relation to hindbrain segmentation, otic pit position and pharyngeal arch morphology in normal and retinoic acid-exposed mouse embryos. Anat Embryol (Berl). 1996;194:13-22 pubmed
  9. Alvarez Y, Alonso M, Vendrell V, Zelarayan L, Chamero P, Theil T, et al. Requirements for FGF3 and FGF10 during inner ear formation. Development. 2003;130:6329-38 pubmed
    ..We thus created double mutant mice for FGF3 and FGF10, which form severely reduced otic vesicles, suggesting redundant roles of these FGFs, acting in combination as neural signals for otic vesicle formation. ..
  10. Walshe J, Maroon H, McGonnell I, Dickson C, Mason I. Establishment of hindbrain segmental identity requires signaling by FGF3 and FGF8. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1117-23 pubmed
    ..Spatiotemporal studies of Fgf expression suggest that this patterning mechanism is conserved during hindbrain development in other vertebrate classes. ..

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Hatch E, Noyes C, Wang X, Wright T, Mansour S. Fgf3 is required for dorsal patterning and morphogenesis of the inner ear epithelium. Development. 2007;134:3615-25 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that Fgf3 prevents ventral expansion of r5-6 neurectodermal Wnt3a, serving to focus inductive WNT signals on the dorsal otic vesicle and highlighting a new example of cross-talk between the two signaling systems. ..
  2. Zelarayan L, Vendrell V, Alvarez Y, Dominguez Frutos E, Theil T, Alonso M, et al. Differential requirements for FGF3, FGF8 and FGF10 during inner ear development. Dev Biol. 2007;308:379-91 pubmed
    ..Together these results provide important insights into how the spatial and temporal expression of various FGFs controls different steps of inner ear formation during vertebrate development. ..
  3. Tekin M, Hişmi B, Fitoz S, Ozdag H, Cengiz F, Sirmaci A, et al. Homozygous mutations in fibroblast growth factor 3 are associated with a new form of syndromic deafness characterized by inner ear agenesis, microtia, and microdontia. Am J Hum Genet. 2007;80:338-44 pubmed
    ..We later demonstrated three different homozygous mutations (p.S156P, p.R104X, and p.V206SfsX117) in the fibroblast growth factor 3 (FGF3) gene in affected members of these families, cosegregating with the autosomal recessive ..
  4. Vázquez Echeverría C, Dominguez Frutos E, Charnay P, Schimmang T, Pujades C. Analysis of mouse kreisler mutants reveals new roles of hindbrain-derived signals in the establishment of the otic neurogenic domain. Dev Biol. 2008;322:167-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These results highlight the importance of hindbrain-derived signals in the regulation of otic neurogenesis. ..
  5. Pirvola U, Spencer Dene B, Xing Qun L, Kettunen P, Thesleff I, Fritzsch B, et al. FGF/FGFR-2(IIIb) signaling is essential for inner ear morphogenesis. J Neurosci. 2000;20:6125-34 pubmed
    ..Our findings provide genetic evidence that signaling by FGFR-2(IIIb) is critical for the morphological development of the inner ear. ..
  6. Cao Y, Zhao J, Sun Z, Zhao Z, Postlethwait J, Meng A. fgf17b, a novel member of Fgf family, helps patterning zebrafish embryos. Dev Biol. 2004;271:130-43 pubmed
    ..Like fgf8, activation of fgf17b expression depends on Nodal signaling. ..
  7. Robinson D, Segal M, Nevo Z. Giant cell tumor of bone. The role of fibroblast growth factor 3 positive mesenchymal stem cells in its pathogenesis. Pathobiology. 2002;70:333-42 pubmed
    ..This should be further investigated in an in vivo model to ascertain whether induction of differentiation will prevent bone loss and retard tumor progression. ..
  8. Mahmood R, Mason I, Morriss Kay G. Expression of Fgf-3 in relation to hindbrain segmentation, otic pit position and pharyngeal arch morphology in normal and retinoic acid-exposed mouse embryos. Anat Embryol (Berl). 1996;194:13-22 pubmed
  9. Alvarez Y, Alonso M, Vendrell V, Zelarayan L, Chamero P, Theil T, et al. Requirements for FGF3 and FGF10 during inner ear formation. Development. 2003;130:6329-38 pubmed
    ..We thus created double mutant mice for FGF3 and FGF10, which form severely reduced otic vesicles, suggesting redundant roles of these FGFs, acting in combination as neural signals for otic vesicle formation. ..
  10. Walshe J, Maroon H, McGonnell I, Dickson C, Mason I. Establishment of hindbrain segmental identity requires signaling by FGF3 and FGF8. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1117-23 pubmed
    ..Spatiotemporal studies of Fgf expression suggest that this patterning mechanism is conserved during hindbrain development in other vertebrate classes. ..
  11. Fürthauer M, Reifers F, Brand M, Thisse B, Thisse C. sprouty4 acts in vivo as a feedback-induced antagonist of FGF signaling in zebrafish. Development. 2001;128:2175-86 pubmed
  12. Wright T, Mansour S. Fgf3 and Fgf10 are required for mouse otic placode induction. Development. 2003;130:3379-90 pubmed
    ..Finally, examination of embryos carrying three out of the four mutant Fgf alleles revealed intermediate phenotypes, suggesting a quantitative requirement for FGF signalling in otic vesicle formation. ..
  13. Liu D, Chu H, Maves L, Yan Y, Morcos P, Postlethwait J, et al. Fgf3 and Fgf8 dependent and independent transcription factors are required for otic placode specification. Development. 2003;130:2213-24 pubmed
  14. Maroon H, Walshe J, Mahmood R, Kiefer P, Dickson C, Mason I. Fgf3 and Fgf8 are required together for formation of the otic placode and vesicle. Development. 2002;129:2099-108 pubmed
    ..We propose that Fgf3 and Fgf8 are required together for formation of the otic placode and act during the earliest stages of its induction. ..
  15. Sun S, Dee C, Tripathi V, Rengifo A, Hirst C, Scotting P. Epibranchial and otic placodes are induced by a common Fgf signal, but their subsequent development is independent. Dev Biol. 2007;303:675-86 pubmed
  16. Hu L, Sham J, Xie D, Wen J, Wang W, Wang Y, et al. Up-regulation of fibroblast growth factor 3 is associated with tumor metastasis and recurrence in human hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Lett. 2007;252:36-42 pubmed
    ..TMA study showed that overexpression of FGF3 was significantly associated with HCC metastasis and recurrence (p<0.01), suggesting that up-regulation of FGF3 may play an important role in HCC metastasis and recurrence. ..
  17. Alsmadi O, Meyer B, Alkuraya F, Wakil S, Alkayal F, Al Saud H, et al. Syndromic congenital sensorineural deafness, microtia and microdontia resulting from a novel homoallelic mutation in fibroblast growth factor 3 (FGF3). Eur J Hum Genet. 2009;17:14-21 pubmed publisher
    We identified a homozygous missense mutation (c.196G-->T) in fibroblast growth factor 3 (FGF3) in 21 affected individuals from a large extended consanguineous Saudi family, phenotypically characterized by autosomal recessive syndromic ..
  18. Taylor B, Navin A, Skryabin B, Brosius J. Localization of the mouse gene (Bc1) encoding neural BC1 RNA near the fibroblast growth factor 3 locus (Fgf3) on distal chromosome 7. Genomics. 1997;44:153-4 pubmed
  19. Ramsebner R, Ludwig M, Parzefall T, Lucas T, Baumgartner W, Bodamer O, et al. A FGF3 mutation associated with differential inner ear malformation, microtia, and microdontia. Laryngoscope. 2010;120:359-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Auditory investigations, computer tomography, and genetic sequencing of the fibroblast growth factor 3 (FGF3) gene were performed on a Somali family presenting with autosomal recessive, hearing impairment, ..
  20. Pearson C, Ohyama K, Manning L, Aghamohammadzadeh S, Sang H, Placzek M. FGF-dependent midline-derived progenitor cells in hypothalamic infundibular development. Development. 2011;138:2613-24 pubmed publisher
  21. Herzog W, Sonntag C, von der Hardt S, Roehl H, Varga Z, Hammerschmidt M. Fgf3 signaling from the ventral diencephalon is required for early specification and subsequent survival of the zebrafish adenohypophysis. Development. 2004;131:3681-92 pubmed
    ..This early specification seems to be essential for the subsequent survival of pituitary cells, but not for pituitary morphogenesis or pituitary cell proliferation...
  22. Hernandez R, Rikhof H, Bachmann R, Moens C. vhnf1 integrates global RA patterning and local FGF signals to direct posterior hindbrain development in zebrafish. Development. 2004;131:4511-20 pubmed
    ..The different requirements for vhnf1 and val to repress hoxb1a and ephrin-B2a, respectively, demonstrate that not all aspects of an individual rhombomere's identity are regulated coordinately. ..
  23. Hans S, Liu D, Westerfield M. Pax8 and Pax2a function synergistically in otic specification, downstream of the Foxi1 and Dlx3b transcription factors. Development. 2004;131:5091-102 pubmed
    ..Combined loss of both factors eliminates all indications of otic specification. We suggest that the Foxi1-Pax8 pathway provides an early 'jumpstart' of otic specification that is maintained by the Dlx3b-Pax2a pathway. ..
  24. Maves L, Jackman W, Kimmel C. FGF3 and FGF8 mediate a rhombomere 4 signaling activity in the zebrafish hindbrain. Development. 2002;129:3825-37 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our findings demonstrate a crucial role for FGF-mediated inter-rhombomere signaling in promoting early hindbrain patterning and underscore the significance of organizing centers in patterning the vertebrate neural plate. ..
  25. Leger S, Brand M. Fgf8 and Fgf3 are required for zebrafish ear placode induction, maintenance and inner ear patterning. Mech Dev. 2002;119:91-108 pubmed
    ..We suggest a model of zebrafish inner ear development with several discrete steps that utilize sequential Fgf signals during otic placode induction and vesicle patterning. ..
  26. Karabagli H, Karabagli P, Ladher R, Schoenwolf G. Comparison of the expression patterns of several fibroblast growth factors during chick gastrulation and neurulation. Anat Embryol (Berl). 2002;205:365-70 pubmed
    ..As well as providing a comparison of the expression patterns of those fibroblast growth factors already published, we provide new data on the expression patterns of some of these genes at early stages...
  27. Raible F, Brand M. Tight transcriptional control of the ETS domain factors Erm and Pea3 by Fgf signaling during early zebrafish development. Mech Dev. 2001;107:105-17 pubmed
  28. Reimers K, Antoine M, Zapatka M, Blecken V, Dickson C, Kiefer P. NoBP, a nuclear fibroblast growth factor 3 binding protein, is cell cycle regulated and promotes cell growth. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:4996-5007 pubmed
    Secreted and nuclear forms of fibroblast growth factor 3 (FGF3) have opposing effects on cells. The secreted form stimulates cell growth and transformation, while the nuclear form inhibits DNA synthesis and cell proliferation...
  29. Weisinger K, Wilkinson D, Sela Donenfeld D. Inhibition of BMPs by follistatin is required for FGF3 expression and segmental patterning of the hindbrain. Dev Biol. 2008;324:213-25 pubmed publisher
  30. Mahmood R, Kiefer P, Guthrie S, Dickson C, Mason I. Multiple roles for FGF-3 during cranial neural development in the chicken. Development. 1995;121:1399-410 pubmed
    ..Expression was also detected in the segmental plate and in the posterior half of the three most-recently generated somites. ..
  31. Tekin M, Ozturkmen Akay H, Fitoz S, Birnbaum S, Cengiz F, Sennaroglu L, et al. Homozygous FGF3 mutations result in congenital deafness with inner ear agenesis, microtia, and microdontia. Clin Genet. 2008;73:554-65 pubmed publisher
    Homozygous mutations in the fibroblast growth factor 3 (FGF3) gene have recently been discovered in an autosomal recessive form of syndromic deafness characterized by complete labyrinthine aplasia (Michel aplasia), microtia, and ..
  32. Nechiporuk A, Raible D. FGF-dependent mechanosensory organ patterning in zebrafish. Science. 2008;320:1774-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This previously unrecognized mechanism may be applicable to understanding segmentation and morphogenesis in other organ systems. ..
  33. Lecaudey V, Cakan Akdogan G, Norton W, Gilmour D. Dynamic Fgf signaling couples morphogenesis and migration in the zebrafish lateral line primordium. Development. 2008;135:2695-705 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, this work uncovers a surprising link between internal tissue organization and collective migration. ..
  34. Maegawa S, Varga M, Weinberg E. FGF signaling is required for {beta}-catenin-mediated induction of the zebrafish organizer. Development. 2006;133:3265-76 pubmed
  35. Tai A, Sham J, Xie D, Fang Y, Wu Y, Hu L, et al. Co-overexpression of fibroblast growth factor 3 and epidermal growth factor receptor is correlated with the development of nonsmall cell lung carcinoma. Cancer. 2006;106:146-55 pubmed
    ..Amplification and overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) at 7p12 and fibroblast growth factor 3 (FGF3) at 11q13 were found...
  36. McKay I, Lewis J, Lumsden A. The role of FGF-3 in early inner ear development: an analysis in normal and kreisler mutant mice. Dev Biol. 1996;174:370-8 pubmed
    ..FGF-3 does, however, appear to be required for a correct pattern of differentiation within the vesicle. ..
  37. Chua S, Ma Z, Gong L, Lin S, DeMayo F, Tsai S. Ectopic expression of FGF-3 results in abnormal prostate and Wolffian duct development. Oncogene. 2002;21:1899-908 pubmed
    ..Taken together, we show that ectopic FGF-3 expression severely perturbs normal prostate development and our system should be useful for the analyses of early changes in prostatic hyperplasia. ..
  38. Powles N, Marshall H, Economou A, Chiang C, Murakami A, Dickson C, et al. Regulatory analysis of the mouse Fgf3 gene: control of embryonic expression patterns and dependence upon sonic hedgehog (Shh) signalling. Dev Dyn. 2004;230:44-56 pubmed
    ..Moreover, detailed re-examination of the Shh phenotype revealed that Shh signalling is required for the correct development/maturation of the DRG. ..
  39. Nissen R, Yan J, Amsterdam A, Hopkins N, Burgess S. Zebrafish foxi one modulates cellular responses to Fgf signaling required for the integrity of ear and jaw patterning. Development. 2003;130:2543-54 pubmed
    ..We propose that correct placement of survival/proliferation cues is essential for shaping the pharyngeal cartilages and that evolutionary links between jaw and ear formation can be traced to Fgf-Foxi1-Pax8 pathways. ..
  40. Antoine M, Reimers K, Wirz W, Gressner A, Muller R, Kiefer P. Fibroblast growth factor 3, a protein with a dual subcellular fate, is interacting with human ribosomal protein S2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;338:1248-55 pubmed
    The secreted isoform of fibroblast growth factor 3 (FGF3) induces a mitogenic cell response, while the nuclear form inhibits cell proliferation...
  41. Ladher R, Anakwe K, Gurney A, Schoenwolf G, Francis West P. Identification of synergistic signals initiating inner ear development. Science. 2000;290:1965-7 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrate the synergistic interactions of the extracellular polypeptide ligands FGF-19 and Wnt-8c as mediators of mesodermal and neural signals, respectively, initiating inner ear development. ..
  42. Gregory Evans C, Moosajee M, Hodges M, Mackay D, Game L, Vargesson N, et al. SNP genome scanning localizes oto-dental syndrome to chromosome 11q13 and microdeletions at this locus implicate FGF3 in dental and inner-ear disease and FADD in ocular coloboma. Hum Mol Genet. 2007;16:2482-93 pubmed
    ..We therefore propose that FADD haploinsufficiency is likely to be responsible for ocular coloboma in this family. This study therefore implicates FGF3 and FADD in human craniofacial disease. ..
  43. Aragon F, Vázquez Echeverría C, Ulloa E, Reber M, Cereghini S, Alsina B, et al. vHnf1 regulates specification of caudal rhombomere identity in the chick hindbrain. Dev Dyn. 2005;234:567-76 pubmed
    ..However, our data suggest differences in the vHnf1 downstream cascade in different vertebrates. ..
  44. Chen Y, Lin S, Kao T, Chang C, Hong P, Shieh T, et al. Genome-wide profiling of oral squamous cell carcinoma. J Pathol. 2004;204:326-32 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that genomic profiling can be useful in analysing pathogenetic events involved in the genesis or progression of OSCC. ..
  45. Zheng W, Huang L, Wei Z, Silvius D, Tang B, Xu P. The role of Six1 in mammalian auditory system development. Development. 2003;130:3989-4000 pubmed
    ..These analyses establish a role for Six1 in early growth and patterning of the otic vesicle. ..
  46. Liu W, Levi G, Shanske A, Frenz D. Retinoic acid-induced inner ear teratogenesis caused by defective Fgf3/Fgf10-dependent Dlx5 signaling. Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2008;83:134-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Disruption in an Fgf3, -10/Dlx5 signaling cascade is operant in molecular mechanisms of inner ear teratogenesis by excess RA. ..
  47. Burkhart B, Hebbar P, Trotter K, Archer T. Chromatin-dependent E1A activity modulates NF-kappaB RelA-mediated repression of glucocorticoid receptor-dependent transcription. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:6349-58 pubmed
  48. Grillo L, Greco D, Pettinato R, Avola E, Potenza N, Castiglia L, et al. Increased FGF3 and FGF4 gene dosage is a risk factor for craniosynostosis. Gene. 2014;534:435-9 pubmed publisher
  49. Liehr T, Uwe C, Erich G. Nucleus extraction from single mounted tissue sections. Genet Anal. 1999;15:65-9 pubmed
    ..The method described has been successfully used for the analysis of the INT2/FGF3-amplicon in 20 samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma. ..
  50. Chen W, Jongkamonwiwat N, Abbas L, Eshtan S, Johnson S, Kuhn S, et al. Restoration of auditory evoked responses by human ES-cell-derived otic progenitors. Nature. 2012;490:278-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These results should stimulate further research into the development of a cell-based therapy for deafness. ..
  51. Kuo C, Lam C, Hewitt J, Scotting P. Formation of the embryonic organizer is restricted by the competitive influences of Fgf signaling and the SoxB1 transcription factors. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57698 pubmed publisher
    ..The organizer therefore forms only where Nodal-induced Fgf signaling overlaps with Wnt signaling and the SoxB1 proteins are absent. ..
  52. Sarkar N. Clonal variations among multiple primary mammary tumors and within a tumor of individual mice: insertion mutations of int oncogenes. Virology. 1995;212:490-9 pubmed
  53. Jia C, Lin L, Liu N, Zhang X, Zhang J, Yang X, et al. [Effect of lead exposure on gene expression of Fgf3 in zebrafish embryonic development]. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 2012;30:730-4 pubmed
    To investigate the effect of lead exposure on the gene expression of fibroblast growth factor 3 (Fgf3) in zebrafish embryonic development and the mechanism of lead-induced embryonic developmental toxicity...
  54. Küchler E, Lips A, Tannure P, Ho B, Costa M, Granjeiro J, et al. Tooth agenesis association with self-reported family history of cancer. J Dent Res. 2013;92:149-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Prospective studies are needed to confirm if tooth agenesis can be used as a risk marker for cancer. ..
  55. Urness L, Paxton C, Wang X, Schoenwolf G, Mansour S. FGF signaling regulates otic placode induction and refinement by controlling both ectodermal target genes and hindbrain Wnt8a. Dev Biol. 2010;340:595-604 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results suggest that Wnt8a provides the link between FGF-induced formation of the pre-otic field and restriction of the otic placode to ectoderm adjacent to the hindbrain. ..
  56. Shackleford G, MacArthur C, Kwan H, Varmus H. Mouse mammary tumor virus infection accelerates mammary carcinogenesis in Wnt-1 transgenic mice by insertional activation of int-2/Fgf-3 and hst/Fgf-4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:740-4 pubmed
  57. Carlton M, Colledge W, Evans M. Crouzon-like craniofacial dysmorphology in the mouse is caused by an insertional mutation at the Fgf3/Fgf4 locus. Dev Dyn. 1998;212:242-9 pubmed
  58. Ngan E, Ma Z, Chua S, DeMayo F, Tsai S. Inducible expression of FGF-3 in mouse mammary gland. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:11187-92 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the mifepristone-inducible regulatory system provides a powerful means for understanding the diverse roles of FGF-3 and its interactions with hormones in mammary gland tumorigenesis. ..
  59. Edlund R, Ohyama T, Kantarci H, Riley B, Groves A. Foxi transcription factors promote pharyngeal arch development by regulating formation of FGF signaling centers. Dev Biol. 2014;390:1-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that Foxi3 may play a role in the establishment of signaling centers in the branchial arches that are required for neural crest survival, patterning and the subsequent development of branchial arch derivatives. ..
  60. Kiselyov V, Li S, Berezin V, Bock E. Insight into the structural mechanism of the bi-modal action of an NCAM mimetic, the C3 peptide. Neurosci Lett. 2009;452:224-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The bi-modal effect of C3 can be explained in the context of the former model and is not consistent with the latter, thus providing evidence in support of the former model. ..
  61. Finkelstein S, Hasegawa T, Colby T, Yousem S. 11q13 allelic imbalance discriminates pulmonary carcinoids from tumorlets. A microdissection-based genotyping approach useful in clinical practice. Am J Pathol. 1999;155:633-40 pubmed
    ..Demonstration of 11q13 allelic imbalance by microdissection/genotyping may be a useful discriminatory marker for pulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasia. ..
  62. Walshe J, Mason I. Fgf signalling is required for formation of cartilage in the head. Dev Biol. 2003;264:522-36 pubmed
    ..These data implicate Fgf3 and Fgf8 as key regulators of cartilage formation in the vertebrate head. ..