small interfering rna

Summary

Summary: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.

Top Publications

  1. Jiménez J, Clemente M, Weber N, Sanchez J, Ortega P, de la Mata F, et al. Carbosilane dendrimers to transfect human astrocytes with small interfering RNA targeting human immunodeficiency virus. BioDrugs. 2010;24:331-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Gene therapy techniques such as small interfering RNA (siRNA) possess great potential in drug development, but first they must overcome the key obstacle of ..
  2. Smeenk G, Wiegant W, Vrolijk H, Solari A, Pastink A, van Attikum H. The NuRD chromatin-remodeling complex regulates signaling and repair of DNA damage. J Cell Biol. 2010;190:741-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that CHD4 promotes DSB repair and checkpoint activation in response to IR. Thus, the NuRD chromatin-remodeling complex is a novel regulator of DNA damage responses that orchestrates proper signaling and repair of DSBs. ..
  3. McCormack A, Mak S, Henderson J, Bumcrot D, Farrer M, Di Monte D. Alpha-synuclein suppression by targeted small interfering RNA in the primate substantia nigra. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12122 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, feasibility and safety of alpha-synuclein suppression were evaluated by treating monkeys with small interfering RNA (siRNA) directed against alpha-synuclein...
  4. Larsen D, Poinsignon C, Gudjonsson T, Dinant C, Payne M, Hari F, et al. The chromatin-remodeling factor CHD4 coordinates signaling and repair after DNA damage. J Cell Biol. 2010;190:731-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, CHD4 emerges as a novel genome caretaker and a factor that facilitates both checkpoint signaling and repair events after DNA damage. ..
  5. Bao C, Tang G, Zhang X, Quan Z. Lentivirus-mediated gene transfer of small interfering RNA against the chemokine receptor CXCR3 suppresses cytokine indicators of acute graft rejection in a rat model. J Int Med Res. 2010;38:1113-20 pubmed
    ..CXCR3 in acute transplant rejection after liver transplantation by lentivirus-mediated gene transfer of small interfering RNA (siRNA) against CXCR3...
  6. Ma X, Yang Y, Wang Y, An G, Lv G. Small interfering RNA-directed knockdown of S100A4 decreases proliferation and invasiveness of osteosarcoma cells. Cancer Lett. 2010;299:171-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, siRNA-directed knockdown of S100A4 may represent a viable clinical therapy for osteosarcoma. ..
  7. Kumar M, Yigit M, Dai G, Moore A, Medarova Z. Image-guided breast tumor therapy using a small interfering RNA nanodrug. Cancer Res. 2010;70:7553-61 pubmed publisher
    Iron oxide nanoparticles offer a feasible tool for combined imaging and delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to tumors, stimulating active interest in exploring different imaging and delivery platforms suitable for detection by a ..
  8. Wu X, Hong H, Yue J, Wu Y, Li X, Jiang L, et al. Inhibitory effect of small interfering RNA on dengue virus replication in mosquito cells. Virol J. 2010;7:270 pubmed publisher
    ..dsRNA was considered a potent antiviral pathway in the mosquito, only limited studies of the value of small interfering RNA (siRNA) have been conducted...
  9. Oskuee R, Philipp A, Dehshahri A, Wagner E, Ramezani M. The impact of carboxyalkylation of branched polyethylenimine on effectiveness in small interfering RNA delivery. J Gene Med. 2010;12:729-38 pubmed publisher
    ..for hydrophobic interactions, thus generating optimized novel PEI carriers for efficient delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA). Substitution of PEI was evaluated in the range of 6 to > 50 mole percentage of primary amines...

More Information

Publications84

  1. Phipps J, Kestler D, Foster J, Kennel S, Donnell R, Weiss D, et al. Inhibition of pathologic immunoglobulin-free light chain production by small interfering RNA molecules. Exp Hematol. 2010;38:1006-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Both were treated with small interfering RNA directed specifically to the V, J, or C portions of the molecules and then analyzed by enzyme-linked ..
  2. Somvanshi P, Singh V, Seth P. High throughput prediction and analysis of small interfering RNA from the 5'UTR and capsid genes of flavivirus through in silico strategies. Interdiscip Sci. 2009;1:298-302 pubmed publisher
    ..Twenty three siRNAs were identified in the 5' UTR and capsid protein encoding gene from flavivirus. These siRNA can be useful to knockdown the flavivirus and it might also be helpful for constructing live attenuated vaccine. ..
  3. Yun S, Han Y, Lee J, Kim S, Lee S. Enhanced Susceptibility to 5-Fluorouracil in Human Colon Cancer Cells by Silencing of GRP78. Anticancer Res. 2017;37:2975-2984 pubmed
    ..GRP78 silencing and incubation with 5-FU have synergistic effects on the inhibition of LoVo colon cancer cell growth via the induction of ER stress-dependent apoptosis. ..
  4. Spadoni T, Svegliati Baroni S, Amico D, Albani L, Moroncini G, Avvedimento E, et al. A reactive oxygen species-mediated loop maintains increased expression of NADPH oxidases 2 and 4 in skin fibroblasts from patients with systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015;67:1611-22 pubmed publisher
    ..NOX isoforms were silenced using small interfering RNA. Production of ROS was measured by fluorometry and confocal microscopy...
  5. Ahmad F, Lindh R, Tang Y, Ruishalme I, Ost A, Sahachartsiri B, et al. Differential regulation of adipocyte PDE3B in distinct membrane compartments by insulin and the beta3-adrenergic receptor agonist CL316243: effects of caveolin-1 knockdown on formation/maintenance of macromolecular signalling complexes. Biochem J. 2009;424:399-410 pubmed publisher
    ..siRNA (small interfering RNA)-mediated KD (knockdown) of CAV-1 (caveolin-1) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes resulted in down-regulation of ..
  6. Koo J, Lee H, Kim W, Kim S. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Hepatic Stellate Cells Promotes Liver Fibrosis via PERK-Mediated Degradation of HNRNPA1 and Up-regulation of SMAD2. Gastroenterology. 2016;150:181-193.e8 pubmed publisher
    ..SMAD2, but not SMAD3, were increased in fibrotic liver tissues from patients or mice exposed to ER stress; small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of SMAD2 reduced ER stress-mediated activation of HSCs...
  7. Ma Y, Wu Z, Gao M, Loor J. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-antioxidant activation through the action of ataxia telangiectasia-mutated serine/threonine kinase is essential to counteract oxidative stress in bovine mammary epithelial cells. J Dairy Sci. 2018;101:5317-5328 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, after the 6 h incubation with H2O2, BMEC were transiently transfected with ATM-small interfering RNA (siRNA) 1, 2, or 3...
  8. Chang Y, Chang H, Tsai C, Lin H, Ho T, Ye C, et al. Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. fruit extract activates IGFR-PI3K/Akt signaling to induce Schwann cell proliferation and sciatic nerve regeneration. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017;17:184 pubmed publisher
    ..Transfection with a small interfering RNA blocked the expression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and induced down-regulation both on the mRNA and ..
  9. Liu L, Zhou L, Yang X, Liu Q, Yang L, Zheng C, et al. 17?-estradiol attenuates ovariectomy?induced bone deterioration through the suppression of the ephA2/ephrinA2 signaling pathway. Mol Med Rep. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..b>small interfering RNA was designed to knockdown ehpA2 receptor and its ligand ephrinA2...
  10. Carey B, Ammosova T, Pinkham C, Lin X, Zhou W, Liotta L, et al. Protein Phosphatase 1? Interacts with Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Capsid Protein and Regulates Viral Replication through Modulation of Capsid Phosphorylation. J Virol. 2018;92: pubmed publisher
    ..Viral replication was also decreased after treatment with PP1?-targeting small interfering RNA (siRNA)...
  11. Zhu J, Ren T, Zhou M, Cheng M. The combination of blueberry juice and probiotics reduces apoptosis of alcoholic fatty liver of mice by affecting SIRT1 pathway. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2016;10:1649-61 pubmed publisher
    ..diet and evenly assigned to six groups with different treatments: MG (model), SI (SIRT1 [sirtuin type 1] small interfering RNA [siRNA]), BJ (blueberry juice), BJSI (blueberry juice and SIRT1 siRNA), BJP (blueberry juice and ..
  12. Yue S, Zhu J, Zhang M, Li C, Zhou X, Zhou M, et al. The myeloid heat shock transcription factor 1/?-catenin axis regulates NLR family, pyrin domain-containing 3 inflammasome activation in mouse liver ischemia/reperfusion injury. Hepatology. 2016;64:1683-1698 pubmed publisher
    ..Knockdown of XBP1 in HSF1-deficient livers using a XBP1 small interfering RNA ameliorated hepatocellular functions and reduced NLRP3/cleaved caspase-1 and IL-1? protein levels...
  13. Teixeira T, da Costa D, Resende A, Soulage C, Bezerra F, Daleprane J. Activation of Nrf2-Antioxidant Signaling by 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol Prevents Leptin-Induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Human Endothelial Cells. J Nutr. 2017;147:506-513 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Methods: Small interfering RNA (siRNA) were used to knock down the expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in human umbilical vein ..
  14. Ajuh E, Wu Z, Kraus E, Weissbach F, Bethge T, Gosert R, et al. Novel Human Polyomavirus Noncoding Control Regions Differ in Bidirectional Gene Expression according to Host Cell, Large T-Antigen Expression, and Clinically Occurring Rearrangements. J Virol. 2018;92: pubmed publisher
    ..625; P < 0.05) and decreased following SV40 LTag small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown...
  15. Basuroy S, Bhattacharya S, Leffler C, Parfenova H. Nox4 NADPH oxidase mediates oxidative stress and apoptosis caused by TNF-alpha in cerebral vascular endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;296:C422-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Nox4 small interfering RNA, but not Nox2, knockdown prevented oxidative stress and apoptosis caused by TNF-alpha in CMVEC...
  16. Gonsky R, Fleshner P, Deem R, Biener Ramanujan E, Li D, Potdar A, et al. Association of Ribonuclease T2 Gene Polymorphisms With Decreased Expression and Clinical Characteristics of Severity in Crohn's Disease. Gastroenterology. 2017;153:219-232 pubmed publisher
    ..Levels of RNASET2 were knocked down with small interfering RNA in CD4+ T cells and the effect on protein expression was determined by proteomic analysis and ..
  17. Piera Velazquez S, Makul A, Jiménez S. Increased expression of NAPDH oxidase 4 in systemic sclerosis dermal fibroblasts: regulation by transforming growth factor β. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015;67:2749-58 pubmed publisher
    ..NOX-4 inhibition/down-regulation was induced with a selective NOX-4 small-molecule inhibitor and NOX-4 small interfering RNA (siRNA). In contrast with normal skin fibroblasts, those from SSc skin showed intense NOX-4 staining...
  18. Singh N, Lawana V, Luo J, Phong P, Abdalla A, Palanisamy B, et al. Organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos impairs STAT1 signaling to induce dopaminergic neurotoxicity: Implications for mitochondria mediated oxidative stress signaling events. Neurobiol Dis. 2018;117:82-113 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, small interfering RNA knockdown demonstrated STAT1 to be a critical regulator of autophagy and mitochondria-mediated ..
  19. Lin C, Lin W, Hou W, Hsiao L, Yang C. Endothelin-1 induces VCAM-1 expression-mediated inflammation via receptor tyrosine kinases and Elk/p300 in human tracheal smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2015;309:L211-25 pubmed publisher
  20. Wu S, Wang M, Lu J, Chen X. Signal transduction involved in lipoxin A4?induced protection of tubular epithelial cells against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. Mol Med Rep. 2017;15:1682-1692 pubmed publisher
    ..signal molecule inhibitors or the HO?1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin?IX, or were transfected with PPAR? small interfering RNA (siRNA) or nuclear factor E2?related factor 2 (Nrf2) siRNA...
  21. Nickerson M, Das S, Im K, Turan S, Berndt S, Li H, et al. TET2 binds the androgen receptor and loss is associated with prostate cancer. Oncogene. 2017;36:2172-2183 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Small interfering RNA-mediated TET2 knockdown (KD) increases LNCaP cell proliferation, migration and wound healing, verifying ..
  22. Xu K, Wang X, Zhang Q, Liang A, Zhu H, Huang D, et al. Sp1 downregulates proinflammatory cytokine?induced catabolic gene expression in nucleus pulposus cells. Mol Med Rep. 2016;14:3961-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic inhibition of Sp1 by small interfering RNA?mediated Sp1 knockdown partially inhibited catabolic enzyme induction by TNF??...
  23. Nain M, Mukherjee S, Karmakar S, Paton A, Paton J, Abdin M, et al. GRP78 Is an Important Host Factor for Japanese Encephalitis Virus Entry and Replication in Mammalian Cells. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..Depletion of GRP78 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly blocked JEV entry into Neuro2a cells, further supporting its role in virus uptake...
  24. Cheng Z, Jiang X, Pansuria M, Fang P, Mai J, Mallilankaraman K, et al. Hyperhomocysteinemia and hyperglycemia induce and potentiate endothelial dysfunction via μ-calpain activation. Diabetes. 2015;64:947-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Calpain small interfering RNA (μ-calpsiRNA) prevented HHcy/HG-induced ED in the mouse aorta and calpain activation in human aortic ..
  25. Rouget C, Papin C, Boureux A, Meunier A, Franco B, Robine N, et al. Maternal mRNA deadenylation and decay by the piRNA pathway in the early Drosophila embryo. Nature. 2010;467:1128-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Because the piRNAs involved in this regulation are produced from transposable elements, this identifies a direct developmental function for transposable elements in the regulation of gene expression. ..
  26. Lin Y, Leng M, Wan M, Wilson J. Convergent transcription through a long CAG tract destabilizes repeats and induces apoptosis. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:4435-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Using chemical inhibitors and small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdowns, we identified the ATR (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated [ATM] and Rad3 related) signaling ..
  27. Staudt V, Bothur E, Klein M, Lingnau K, Reuter S, Grebe N, et al. Interferon-regulatory factor 4 is essential for the developmental program of T helper 9 cells. Immunity. 2010;33:192-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data clearly demonstrate the central function of IRF4 in the development of Th9 cells and underline the contribution of this T helper cell subset to the pathogenesis of asthma. ..
  28. Nagao A, Mituyama T, Huang H, Chen D, Siomi M, Siomi H. Biogenesis pathways of piRNAs loaded onto AGO3 in the Drosophila testis. RNA. 2010;16:2503-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the impacts of armi mutants on the operation of the piRNA pathway are variable in germ cells of fly testes. ..
  29. Licciulli S, Kissil J. WT1: a weak spot in KRAS-induced transformation. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:3804-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are of significant interest given previous studies suggesting that the ability of oncogenic Kras to induce senescence versus proliferation depends on its levels of expression. ..
  30. Dun Z, Zhang X, An J, Zheng L, Barrett R, Xie S. Specific shRNA targeting of FAK influenced collagen metabolism in rat hepatic stellate cells. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16:4100-6 pubmed
    ..000). These data support the hypothesis that shRNA-mediated disruption of FAK expression could attenuate extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and promote ECM degradation, making FAK a potential target for novel anti-fibrosis therapies. ..
  31. Wang X, Li F, Fan C, Wang C, Ruan H. Analysis of isoform specific ERK signaling on the effects of interleukin-1? on COX-2 expression and PGE2 production in human chondrocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;402:23-9 pubmed publisher
    ..respective roles and relationship of ERK1 and ERK2 on IL-1? induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production, small interfering RNA was used to knockdown ERK1, ERK2 or both in human chondrocytes...
  32. Sethi N, Yan Y, Quek D, Schupbach T, Kang Y. Rabconnectin-3 is a functional regulator of mammalian Notch signaling. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:34757-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings define an important role for Rabconnectin-3 and V-ATPase activity in the Notch signaling pathway in mammalian cells. ..
  33. Kim S, Lee K, Park H, Park S, Min K, Moon H, et al. HIF-1? inhibition ameliorates an allergic airway disease via VEGF suppression in bronchial epithelium. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:2858-69 pubmed publisher
  34. Gao Y, Su D, Ying L, Lv W, Ma S. [Enhanced cisplatin cytotoxicity by RNA interfering the excision repair cross-complementing gene 1 in lung cancer cell A549/DDP]. Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi. 2010;13:846-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting ERCC1 gene was designed and synthesized, and transfected to lung cancer cell A549/DDP...
  35. An B, Tavera Mendoza L, Dimitrov V, Wang X, Calderon M, Wang H, et al. Stimulation of Sirt1-regulated FoxO protein function by the ligand-bound vitamin D receptor. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:4890-900 pubmed publisher
    ..1,25D regulation of common VDR/FoxO target genes is attenuated by blockade of phosphatase activity or by small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of Sirt1 or FoxO protein expression...
  36. Leiser Y, Silverstein N, Blumenfeld A, Shilo D, Haze A, Rosenfeld E, et al. The induction of tuftelin expression in PC12 cell line during hypoxia and NGF-induced differentiation. J Cell Physiol. 2011;226:165-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Revealing the physiological role of tuftelin will clarify mechanisms related to the "hypoxic genome," and NGF-induced neurotrophic and angiogenic effects. ..
  37. Martins L, Lucio P, Silva M, Anderes K, Gameiro P, Silva M, et al. Targeting CK2 overexpression and hyperactivation as a novel therapeutic tool in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood. 2010;116:2724-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our study indicates that CK2 plays a critical role in CLL cell survival, laying the groundwork for the inclusion of CK2 inhibitors into future therapeutic strategies. ..
  38. Li F, Liang A, Lv Y, Liu G, Jiang A, Liu P. MicroRNA-200c Inhibits Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition by Targeting the BMI-1 Gene Through the Phospho-AKT Pathway in Endometrial Carcinoma Cells In Vitro. Med Sci Monit. 2017;23:5139-5149 pubmed
    ..b>Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to silence the BMI-1 gene to study the targeting effect...
  39. Schulz A, Geissler K, Kumar S, Leichsenring G, Morrison H, Baader S. Merlin inhibits neurite outgrowth in the CNS. J Neurosci. 2010;30:10177-86 pubmed publisher
    ..We thus provide evidence that merlin plays a pivotal role in controlling the neuronal wiring in the developing CNS. ..
  40. Gao G, Wong J, Zhang J, Mao I, Shravah J, Wu Y, et al. Proteasome activator REGgamma enhances coxsackieviral infection by facilitating p53 degradation. J Virol. 2010;84:11056-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results present the first evidence that the host REG? pathway is utilized and modified during CVB3 infection to promote efficient viral replication. ..
  41. Hikita H, Takehara T, Shimizu S, Kodama T, Shigekawa M, Iwase K, et al. The Bcl-xL inhibitor, ABT-737, efficiently induces apoptosis and suppresses growth of hepatoma cells in combination with sorafenib. Hepatology. 2010;52:1310-21 pubmed publisher
    ..to be related to resistance to ABT-737, because decreasing Mcl-1 expression levels to the baseline by a small interfering RNA-mediated strategy made hepatoma cells sensitive to this agent...
  42. Wang F, Pan B, Zheng Z, Yan W. [Construction of eukaryotic vector of small hairpin interfering RNA against NYD-SP5]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2010;16:445-9 pubmed
    ..The shRNA expression vector targeting NYD-SP5 could be established successfully. ..
  43. Yang J, Maurin T, Robine N, Rasmussen K, Jeffrey K, Chandwani R, et al. Conserved vertebrate mir-451 provides a platform for Dicer-independent, Ago2-mediated microRNA biogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:15163-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Beyond the demonstration of an alternative strategy to direct gene silencing, these observations open the way for transgenic rescue of Dicer conditional knockouts. ..
  44. Hsieh C, Wu S, Lan S, Weng T, Tsai Y, Liu H. Effect of Ha-rasval12 on nm23 expression, tumor formation and metastasis of the transformants, and immunomodulation in tumor-bearing mice. Anticancer Res. 2010;30:3585-92 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the Ha-ras oncogene regulates morphogenesis, tumorigenesis, and metastasis through suppressing nm23 expression and modulation of immune cell function. ..
  45. Maeda K, Nishiyama C, Ogawa H, Okumura K. GATA2 and Sp1 positively regulate the c-kit promoter in mast cells. J Immunol. 2010;185:4252-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Introduction of Sp1 small interfering RNA significantly reduced the amount not only of Sp1 but also of GATA2 binding to the c-kit promoter in mast ..
  46. Yang K, Chen D, Li X, Wen Y. [Construction and identification of shRNA expressing vectors targeting RhoA gene]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2010;26:707-8 pubmed
    ..Enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing showed that the oligonucleotide fragments were correctly inserted into pGPU6/GFP/Neo vector. The RhoA gene-targeted siRNA and its vector are successfully constructed. ..
  47. Dai W, He W, Shang G, Jiang J, Wang Y, Kong W. Gene silencing of myofibrillogenesis regulator-1 by adenovirus-delivered small interfering RNA suppresses cardiac hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II in mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010;299:H1468-75 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our results demonstrate the feasibility of MR-1 silencing in vivo and suggest that MR-1 could be a potential new target to treat cardiac hypertrophy induced by ANG II. ..
  48. Revenko A, Kalashnikova E, Gemo A, Zou J, Chen H. Chromatin loading of E2F-MLL complex by cancer-associated coregulator ANCCA via reading a specific histone mark. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:5260-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results suggest that ANCCA acts as a pioneer factor in E2F-dependent gene activation and that a novel mechanism involving ANCCA bromodomain may contribute to cancer cell proliferation. ..
  49. Salva E, Kabasakal L, Eren F, Cakalagaoglu F, Ozkan N, Akbuga J. Chitosan/short hairpin RNA complexes for vascular endothelial growth factor suppression invasive breast carcinoma. Oligonucleotides. 2010;20:183-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest that chitosan/shVEGF complexes can be used to inhibit tumor growth in breast carcinoma model of rats. ..
  50. Seetharam R, Sood A, Basu Mallick A, Augenlicht L, Mariadason J, Goel S. Oxaliplatin resistance induced by ERCC1 up-regulation is abrogated by siRNA-mediated gene silencing in human colorectal cancer cells. Anticancer Res. 2010;30:2531-8 pubmed
    ..ERCC1 gene expression is inducible, contributes to oxaliplatin resistance, and is reversible by targeted suppression of ERCC1, identifying ERCC1 as a potential target for drug development. ..
  51. Qian Lin Z, Ting Feng W, Qi Feng C, Min Hua Z, Ai Guo L. Inhibition of cytosolic chaperonin CCT?-1 expression depletes proliferation of colorectal carcinoma in vitro. J Surg Oncol. 2010;102:419-23 pubmed publisher
    ..CCT?-1 could be a new prognostic marker for CRC and involve in tumorigenesis. CCT?-1 inhibition in vivo might therefore become a new therapy for CRC. ..
  52. Shimizu H, Nakagawa Y, Murakami C, Aoki N, Kim Mitsuyama S, Miyazaki H. Protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPepsilonM negatively regulates PDGF beta-receptor signaling induced by high glucose and PDGF in vascular smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010;299:C1144-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We overexpressed wild-type and inactive PTP?M and an small interfering RNA (siRNA) of PTP?M by using an adenovirus vector to investigate the effects of PTP?M upon platelet-derived ..
  53. Li S, Zeng L, Feng L, Chen D. Rac1-dependent intracellular superoxide formation mediates vascular endothelial growth factor-induced placental angiogenesis in vitro. Endocrinology. 2010;151:5315-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In oFAPEC transfected with specific Rac1 small interfering RNA (siRNA, 40 nm), VEGF-induced intracellular superoxide formation was completely abrogated in association ..
  54. Weisbart R, Chan G, Heinze E, Mory R, Nishimura R, Colburn K. BRAF drives synovial fibroblast transformation in rheumatoid arthritis. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:34299-303 pubmed publisher
    ..Our finding is the first to establish mechanisms for fibroblast transformation responsible for destruction of articular cartilage and bone in rheumatoid arthritis and establishes a new target for therapeutic intervention. ..
  55. Pchejetski D, Bohler T, Brizuela L, Sauer L, Doumerc N, Golzio M, et al. FTY720 (fingolimod) sensitizes prostate cancer cells to radiotherapy by inhibition of sphingosine kinase-1. Cancer Res. 2010;70:8651-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that low, well-tolerated doses of FTY720 could offer significant improvement to the clinical treatment of prostate cancer...
  56. Place R, Noonan E, Földes Papp Z, Li L. Defining features and exploring chemical modifications to manipulate RNAa activity. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2010;11:518-26 pubmed
    ..RNAi) is an evolutionary conserved mechanism by which small double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)--termed small interfering RNA (siRNA)--inhibit translation or degrade complementary mRNA sequences...
  57. Gui H, Lu C, Adams S, Stollar V, Li M. hnRNP A1 interacts with the genomic and subgenomic RNA promoters of Sindbis virus and is required for the synthesis of G and SG RNA. J Biomed Sci. 2010;17:59 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides the first direct evidence that hnRNP A1 actively participates in viral RNA replication and is required for the synthesis of G and SG RNA. ..
  58. Chernikova S, Dorth J, Razorenova O, Game J, Brown J. Deficiency in Bre1 impairs homologous recombination repair and cell cycle checkpoint response to radiation damage in mammalian cells. Radiat Res. 2010;174:558-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus our data suggest that the observed defects in the radiation response of Bre1a/b-deficient cells are associated with reduced H3K79me2 and not with H4K20me2. ..
  59. Gómez Benito M, Conchillo A, Garcia M, Vazquez I, Maicas M, Vicente C, et al. EVI1 controls proliferation in acute myeloid leukaemia through modulation of miR-1-2. Br J Cancer. 2010;103:1292-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data showed that EVI1 controls proliferation in AML through modulation of miR-1-2. This study contributes to further understand the transcriptional networks involving transcription factors and miRNAs in AML. ..
  60. Attia M, Mohamed A, Huet E, Eric H, Delbe J, Jean D, et al. Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN/CD147) as a novel regulator of myogenic cell differentiation. J Cell Physiol. 2011;226:141-9 pubmed publisher
    ..While small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibition of EMMPRIN expression accelerated cell differentiation, exogenously added recombinant ..
  61. Fujioka T, Matsunaga N, Okazaki H, Koyanagi S, Ohdo S. Hypoxia-response plasmid vector producing bcl-2 shRNA enhances the apoptotic cell death of mouse rectum carcinoma. J Pharmacol Sci. 2010;113:353-61 pubmed
    ..Supplementary Figures: available only at http://dx.doi.org/10.1254/jphs.10054FP]. ..
  62. Otto E, Hurd T, Airik R, Chaki M, Zhou W, Stoetzel C, et al. Candidate exome capture identifies mutation of SDCCAG8 as the cause of a retinal-renal ciliopathy. Nat Genet. 2010;42:840-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This work identifies loss of SDCCAG8 function as a cause of a retinal-renal ciliopathy and validates exome capture analysis for broadly heterogeneous single-gene disorders. ..
  63. Wu Z, Jiao P, Huang X, Feng B, Feng Y, Yang S, et al. MAPK phosphatase-3 promotes hepatic gluconeogenesis through dephosphorylation of forkhead box O1 in mice. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:3901-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that MKP-3 is an important regulator of hepatic gluconeogenesis in vivo and suggest that inhibition of MKP-3 activity may provide new therapies for T2DM. ..
  64. Xu D, Muniandy P, Leo E, Yin J, Thangavel S, Shen X, et al. Rif1 provides a new DNA-binding interface for the Bloom syndrome complex to maintain normal replication. EMBO J. 2010;29:3140-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that Rif1 provides a new DNA-binding interface for the BLM complex to restart stalled replication forks. ..
  65. Ahmed A, Lu Z, Jennings N, Etemadmoghadam D, Capalbo L, Jacamo R, et al. SIK2 is a centrosome kinase required for bipolar mitotic spindle formation that provides a potential target for therapy in ovarian cancer. Cancer Cell. 2010;18:109-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Higher expression of SIK2 significantly correlated with poor survival in patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancers. We believe these data identify SIK2 as a plausible target for therapy in ovarian cancers. ..
  66. Kaiser F, Osmanoric A, Rakovic A, Erogullari A, Uflacker N, Braunholz D, et al. The dystonia gene DYT1 is repressed by the transcription factor THAP1 (DYT6). Ann Neurol. 2010;68:554-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate that THAP1 regulates the transcription of TOR1A, suggesting transcriptional dysregulation as a cause of dystonia. ..
  67. Komarova T, Schwartz A, Frolova O, Zvereva A, Gleba Y, Citovsky V, et al. Pol II-directed short RNAs suppress the nuclear export of mRNA. Plant Mol Biol. 2010;74:591-603 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with this model, we observed that Pol II-derived sncRNAs as well as scRNA, thionin and ELF strongly enhanced the cytoplasmic reproduction of TMV and PVX RNA...
  68. Gil Humanes J, Piston F, Tollefsen S, Sollid L, Barro F. Effective shutdown in the expression of celiac disease-related wheat gliadin T-cell epitopes by RNA interference. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:17023-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This work shows that the down-regulation of gliadins by RNAi can be used to obtain wheat lines with very low levels of toxicity for CD patients. ..
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    ..EndoMT is a novel pathway leading to early development of diabetic nephropathy. Blockade of EndoMT by SIS3 may provide a new strategy to retard the progression of diabetic nephropathy and other diabetes complications. ..
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    ..Our data support a novel epigenetic control mechanism for the transcriptional regulation of growth and survival genes by NFATc1 in the pathophysiology of DLBCL and suggests that targeting NFATc1 could potentially have therapeutic value. ..
  72. Rysman E, Brusselmans K, Scheys K, Timmermans L, Derua R, Munck S, et al. De novo lipogenesis protects cancer cells from free radicals and chemotherapeutics by promoting membrane lipid saturation. Cancer Res. 2010;70:8117-26 pubmed publisher
    ..cancer cells by treatment with the lipogenesis inhibitor soraphen A or by targeting lipogenic enzymes with small interfering RNA leads to a marked decrease in saturated and mono-unsaturated phospholipid species and increases the ..
  73. Suzuki H, Hasegawa Y, Chen W, Kanamaru K, Zhang J. Recombinant osteopontin in cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Ann Neurol. 2010;68:650-60 pubmed publisher
    ..An integrin receptor antagonist GRGDSP or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase (MKP)-1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) was also administered to r-OPN-treated SAH rats, and those effects were evaluated...
  74. Sun X, Wu S, Xing D. The reactive oxygen species-Src-Stat3 pathway provokes negative feedback inhibition of apoptosis induced by high-fluence low-power laser irradiation. FEBS J. 2010;277:4789-802 pubmed publisher
    ..HF-LPLI-induced apoptosis, as shown by the fact that both dominant negative Stat3 (Y705F) and Stat3 small interfering RNA expression enhanced cellular apoptosis induced by HF-LPLI...
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    ..Targeted depletion of cIAP-1 by SMAC mimetics in conjunction with TRAIL may be beneficial for the treatment of human hepatobiliary malignancies. ..