Alias: "Ehrenbergia" Gieszczykiewiez 1939, "Spirochaete" Cohn 1872 (orthographic variant of Spirochaeta), "Spirochoeta" Dujardin 1841 (orthographic variant of Spirochaeta), Ehrenbergia, Spirochaete, Spirochoeta, Spirochaeta Ehrenberg 1835 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Pikuta et al. 2009

Top Publications

  1. Rahimi R, Omar E, Tuan Soh T, Mohd Nawi S, Md Noor S. Leptospirosis in pregnancy: A lesson in subtlety. Malays J Pathol. 2018;40:169-173 pubmed
    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by spirochaete of the genus Leptospira. Human infection occurs after exposure to water or soil contaminated by urine from an infected animal...
  2. Salát J, Paesen G, Rezácová P, Kotsyfakis M, Kovárová Z, Sanda M, et al. Crystal structure and functional characterization of an immunomodulatory salivary cystatin from the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata. Biochem J. 2010;429:103-12 pubmed publisher
    ..the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata, an important disease vector transmitting African swine fever virus and the spirochaete Borrelia duttoni...
  3. Salado Rasmussen K, Katzenstein T, Larsen H. [Syphilis]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2018;180: pubmed
    Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the spirochaete Treponema pallidum. Syphilis re-emerged worldwide in the late 1990s, and hereafter increasing rates of syphilis were seen also in Denmark...
  4. Schmidpeter P, Gao X, Uphadyay V, Rheinberger J, Nimigean C. Ligand binding and activation properties of the purified bacterial cyclic nucleotide-gated channel SthK. J Gen Physiol. 2018;150:821-834 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we establish that SthK, a cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel from Spirochaeta thermophila, is an excellent model for investigating the gating of eukaryotic CNG channels at the molecular ..
  5. Tushar L, Sravanthi T, Sasikala C, Ramana C. Draft Genome Sequence of Spirochaeta sp. Strain JC202, an Endosymbiont of the Termite (Isoptera) Gut. Genome Announc. 2015;3: pubmed publisher
    We announce here the draft genome sequence of Spirochaeta sp. strain JC202 isolated from gut of a termite (Isoptera). The genome suggests that Spirochaeta sp...
  6. Meriläinen L, Herranen A, Schwarzbach A, Gilbert L. Morphological and biochemical features of Borrelia burgdorferi pleomorphic forms. Microbiology. 2015;161:516-27 pubmed publisher
    The spirochaete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is the causative agent of Lyme disease, the most common tick-borne infection in the northern hemisphere...
  7. La T, Phillips N, Thomson J, Hampson D. Absence of a set of plasmid-encoded genes is predictive of reduced pathogenic potential in Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Vet Res. 2014;45:131 pubmed publisher
    The gene content of 14 strains of the intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae was compared using a DNA microarray...
  8. Shivani Y, Subhash Y, Tushar L, Sasikala C, Ramana C. Spirochaeta lutea sp. nov., isolated from marine habitats and emended description of the genus Spirochaeta. Syst Appl Microbiol. 2015;38:110-4 pubmed publisher
    ..was brought to cultivation and its 16S rRNA gene sequence showed highest sequence similarity with that of Spirochaeta asiatica Z-7591(T) (90.78%)...
  9. Marks M, Lebari D, Solomon A, Higgins S. Yaws. Int J STD AIDS. 2015;26:696-703 pubmed publisher
    Yaws is a non-venereal endemic treponemal infection caused by Treponema pallidum sub-species pertenue, a spirochaete bacterium closely related to Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum, the agent of venereal syphilis...

More Information


  1. Bourhy P, Collet L, Brisse S, Picardeau M. Leptospira mayottensis sp. nov., a pathogenic species of the genus Leptospira isolated from humans. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2014;64:4061-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Two strains from each serogroup currently identified within this novel species were studied. Spirochaete, aerobic, motile, helix-shaped strains grew well at 30-37 °C, but not at 13 °C or in the presence of 8-..
  2. Wang S, Zhang B, Diao M, Shi J, Jiang Y, Cheng Y, et al. Enhancement of synchronous bio-reductions of vanadium (V) and chromium (VI) by mixed anaerobic culture. Environ Pollut. 2018;242:249-256 pubmed publisher
    ..High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis indicated the accumulation of Anaerolineaceae, Spirochaeta and Spirochaetaceae, which could contribute to V(V) and Cr(VI) bio-reductions...
  3. Moniuszko A, Rückert C, Alberdi M, Barry G, Stevenson B, Fazakerley J, et al. Coinfection of tick cell lines has variable effects on replication of intracellular bacterial and viral pathogens. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2014;5:415-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Prior infection of tick cell cultures with the spirochaete B. burgdorferi enhanced subsequent replication of the rickettsial pathogen E...
  4. Loder A, Zeldes B, Garrison G, Lipscomb G, Adams M, Kelly R. Alcohol Selectivity in a Synthetic Thermophilic n-Butanol Pathway Is Driven by Biocatalytic and Thermostability Characteristics of Constituent Enzymes. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2015;81:7187-200 pubmed publisher
    ..tengcongensis; trans-2-enoyl-CoA reductase [Ter] from Spirochaeta thermophila; bifunctional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase/alcohol dehydrogenase [AdhE] from Clostridium thermocellum;..
  5. Ferrando L, Fernández Scavino A. Strong shift in the diazotrophic endophytic bacterial community inhabiting rice (Oryza sativa) plants after flooding. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2015;91:fiv104 pubmed publisher
    ..g. Dechloromonas, Rhodopseudomonas, Desulfovibrio, Geobacter, Chlorobium, Spirochaeta, Selenomonas and Dehalobacter) with diverse metabolic traits were retrieved from flooded rice roots...
  6. van Duijvendijk G, Sprong H, Takken W. Multi-trophic interactions driving the transmission cycle of Borrelia afzelii between Ixodes ricinus and rodents: a review. Parasit Vectors. 2015;8:643 pubmed publisher
    The tick Ixodes ricinus is the main vector of the spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causal agent of Lyme borreliosis, in the western Palearctic. Rodents are the reservoir host of B. afzelii, which can be transmitted to I...
  7. Gannoun H, Omri I, Chouari R, Khelifi E, Keskes S, Godon J, et al. Microbial community structure associated with the high loading anaerobic codigestion of olive mill and abattoir wastewaters. Bioresour Technol. 2016;201:337-46 pubmed publisher
    ..detected in the digester at both phases were the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Synergistetes and Spirochaete. However, Verrucomicrobia, Proteobacteria and the candidate division BRC1 were only detected at thermophilic ..
  8. Dubinina G, Grabovich M, Leshcheva N, Gronow S, Gavrish E, Akimov V. Spirochaeta sinaica sp. nov., a halophilic spirochaete isolated from a cyanobacterial mat. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2015;65:3872-3877 pubmed publisher
    A strain of free-living obligately anaerobic, halophilic spirochaete, SLT, was isolated from a sample of a cyanobacterial mat of the hypersaline Solar Lake, Sinai shore. The strain had motile helical cells, 0.35-0.40 × 6-10 μm...
  9. Mushtaq M, Zubair S, Råsbäck T, Bongcam Rudloff E, Jansson D. Brachyspira suanatina sp. nov., an enteropathogenic intestinal spirochaete isolated from pigs and mallards: genomic and phenotypic characteristics. BMC Microbiol. 2015;15:208 pubmed publisher
    ..For this new species we propose the name B. suanatina for which the type strain is AN4859/03T (=ATCC® BAA-2592™=DSM 100974T). ..
  10. Song Y, La T, Phillips N, Hampson D. Development of a serological ELISA using a recombinant protein to identify pig herds infected with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Vet J. 2015;206:365-70 pubmed publisher
    Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is an anaerobic spirochaete that can induce swine dysentery (SD), a severe mucohaemorrhagic colitis in grower and fattener pigs...
  11. Hao L, Zhang B, Cheng M, Feng C. Effects of various organic carbon sources on simultaneous V(V) reduction and bioelectricity generation in single chamber microbial fuel cells. Bioresour Technol. 2016;201:105-10 pubmed publisher
    ..reduction, electrochemical activity and fermentation, accompanied with other functional species as Pseudomonas, Spirochaeta, Sedimentibacter and Dysgonomonas...
  12. Berner A, Bachmann M, Pfeilschifter J, Kraiczy P, Mühl H. Interferon-α curbs production of interleukin-22 by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to live Borrelia burgdorferi. J Cell Mol Med. 2015;19:2507-11 pubmed publisher
    ..burgdorferi. As IFN-α has been related to pathological dissemination of the spirochaete, data suggest an immunoregulatory role of type I IFN in this context that is able to significantly modify ..
  13. Molloy E, Casjens S, Cox C, Maxson T, Ethridge N, Margos G, et al. Identification of the minimal cytolytic unit for streptolysin S and an expansion of the toxin family. BMC Microbiol. 2015;15:141 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the Spirochaete clusters, naturally truncated SLS-like precursors were found in the genomes of three Lyme disease-causing ..
  14. Krajewska J, Arent Z, Zolkiewski M, Kedzierska Mieszkowska S. Isolation and Identification of Putative Protein Substrates of the AAA+ Molecular Chaperone ClpB from the Pathogenic Spirochaete Leptospira interrogans. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19: pubmed publisher
    ..large number of publications also indicate that ClpB supports the virulence of bacteria, including a pathogenic spirochaete Leptospira interrogans responsible for leptospirosis in both animals and humans...
  15. Wu Q, Guan G, Liu Z, Li Y, Luo J, Yin H. RNA-Seq-based analysis of changes in Borrelia burgdorferi gene expression linked to pathogenicity. Parasit Vectors. 2015;8:155 pubmed publisher
    Lyme disease is a global public health problem caused by the spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi. Our previous studies found differences in disease severity between B. burgdorferi B31- and B. garinii SZ-infected mice...
  16. van Duijvendijk G, Coipan C, Wagemakers A, Fonville M, Ersöz J, Oei A, et al. Larvae of Ixodes ricinus transmit Borrelia afzelii and B. miyamotoi to vertebrate hosts. Parasit Vectors. 2016;9:97 pubmed publisher
    ..l.). Borrelia miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochaete, is transmitted transovarially, whereas this has not been shown for B. burgdorferi (s.l). Therefore, B...
  17. Margos G, Hojgaard A, Lane R, Cornet M, Fingerle V, Rudenko N, et al. Multilocus sequence analysis of Borrelia bissettii strains from North America reveals a new Borrelia species, Borrelia kurtenbachii. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2010;1:151-8 pubmed publisher
    Using multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA), we investigated the phylogenetic relationship of spirochaete strains from North America previously assigned to the genospecies Borrelia bissettii...
  18. La T, Neo E, Phillips N, Hampson D. Genes encoding ten newly designated OXA-63 group class D β-lactamases identified in strains of the pathogenic intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira pilosicoli. J Med Microbiol. 2015;64:1425-35 pubmed publisher
    The anaerobic spirochaete Brachyspira pilosicoli colonizes the large intestine of birds and mammals, including human beings, and may induce colitis and diarrhoea. B...
  19. Rudenko N, Golovchenko M, Vancova M, Clark K, Grubhoffer L, Oliver J. Isolation of live Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochaetes from patients with undefined disorders and symptoms not typical for Lyme borreliosis. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2016;22:267.e9-15 pubmed publisher
    ..It is known that Lyme borreliosis mimics multiple diseases that were never proven to have a spirochaete aetiology. Using complete modified Kelly-Pettenkofer medium we succeeded in cultivating live B...
  20. Troshina O, Oshurkova V, Suzina N, Machulin A, Ariskina E, Vinokurova N, et al. Sphaerochaeta associata sp. nov., a spherical spirochaete isolated from cultures of Methanosarcina mazei JL01. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2015;65:4315-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Strain GLS2T therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Sphaerochaeta associata sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain GLS2T ( = DSM 26261T = VKM B-2742T). ..
  21. Martin W. Physiology, anaerobes, and the origin of mitosing cells 50 years on. J Theor Biol. 2017;434:2-10 pubmed publisher
    ..origin: the host (an engulfing bacterium), the mitochondrion (a respiring bacterium), and the flagellum (a spirochaete), with lineages descended from that flagellated eukaryote subsequently acquiring plastids from cyanobacteria, ..
  22. Pires V, Pereira P, Brás J, Correia M, Cardoso V, Bule P, et al. Stability and Ligand Promiscuity of Type A Carbohydrate-binding Modules Are Illustrated by the Structure of Spirochaeta thermophila StCBM64C. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:4847-4860 pubmed publisher
    ..A Spirochaeta thermophila CBM64, in particular, displayed plasticity in its capacity to bind both crystalline and soluble ..
  23. Matsuyama T, Yasuike M, Fujiwara A, Nakamura Y, Takano T, Takeuchi T, et al. A Spirochaete is suggested as the causative agent of Akoya oyster disease by metagenomic analysis. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182280 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose 'Candidatus Maribrachyspira akoyae' gen. nov, sp nov., for this bacterium. ..
  24. Huang X, Mo C, Yu J, Zhao H, Meng C, Li Y, et al. Variations in microbial community and ciprofloxacin removal in rhizospheric soils between two cultivars of Brassica parachinensis L. Sci Total Environ. 2017;603-604:66-76 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Spirochaeta and Trichosporon might be associated with CIP degradation, and higher relative abundances of Trichosporon in ..
  25. Sun W, Krumins V, Dong Y, Gao P, Ma C, Hu M, et al. A Combination of Stable Isotope Probing, Illumina Sequencing, and Co-occurrence Network to Investigate Thermophilic Acetate- and Lactate-Utilizing Bacteria. Microb Ecol. 2018;75:113-122 pubmed publisher
    ..fed 13C-acetate, bacteria related to members of Clostridium, Hydrogenophaga, Fervidobacterium, Spirochaeta, Limnohabitans, and Rhodococcus demonstrated elevated abundances of 13C-DNA fractions, suggesting ..
  26. Parolin C, Giordani B, Ñahui Palomino R, Biagi E, Severgnini M, Consolandi C, et al. Design and validation of a DNA-microarray for phylogenetic analysis of bacterial communities in different oral samples and dental implants. Sci Rep. 2017;7:6280 pubmed publisher
    ..to bacteria belonging to the phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, and Spirochaete. The tool is characterized by high specificity, sensitivity and reproducibility...
  27. Pandit P, Gulhane M, Khardenavis A, Purohit H. Mining of hemicellulose and lignin degrading genes from differentially enriched methane producing microbial community. Bioresour Technol. 2016;216:923-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Ruminococcus, Thermotoga associated with hemicellulose degradation and Burkholderia, Pandorea, Sphingomonas, Spirochaeta, Pseudomonas for lignocellulose hydrolysis...
  28. Krajewska J, Arent Z, Więckowski D, Zolkiewski M, Kedzierska Mieszkowska S. Immunoreactivity of the AAA+ chaperone ClpB from Leptospira interrogans with sera from Leptospira-infected animals. BMC Microbiol. 2016;16:151 pubmed publisher
    Leptospira interrogans is a spirochaete responsible for leptospirosis in mammals. The molecular mechanisms of the Leptospira virulence remain mostly unknown. Recently, it has been demonstrated that L...
  29. Hampson D, La T, Phillips N, Holyoake P. Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolated from apparently healthy pig herds following an evaluation of a prototype commercial serological ELISA. Vet Microbiol. 2016;191:15-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The classical aetiological agent is the anaerobic intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, although "Brachyspira hampsonii" and Brachyspira suanatina also cause SD...
  30. Zhou X, Jiang X, Yang C, Ma B, Lei C, Xu C, et al. Cecal microbiota of Tibetan Chickens from five geographic regions were determined by 16S rRNA sequencing. Microbiologyopen. 2016;5:753-762 pubmed publisher
    ..There were relatively more Christensenellaceae, Subdoligranulum, Spirochaeta, and Treponema in Tibetan Chickens, whereas there were more Phascolarctobacterium, Faecalibacterium, Megamonas, ..
  31. Pritt B, Mead P, Johnson D, Neitzel D, Respicio Kingry L, Davis J, et al. Identification of a novel pathogenic Borrelia species causing Lyme borreliosis with unusually high spirochaetaemia: a descriptive study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2016;16:556-564 pubmed publisher
    ..Multigene sequencing identified the spirochaete as a novel B burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies...
  32. Liu H, Zhang B, Yuan H, Cheng Y, Wang S, He Z. Microbial reduction of vanadium (V) in groundwater: Interactions with coexisting common electron acceptors and analysis of microbial community. Environ Pollut. 2017;231:1362-1369 pubmed publisher
    ..16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analysis indicated the accumulation of Geobacter, Longilinea, Syntrophobacter, Spirochaeta and Anaerolinea, which might be responsible for the reduction of multiple electron acceptors...
  33. Hagen R, Frickmann H, Ehlers J, Krüger A, Margos G, Hizo Teufel C, et al. Presence of Borrelia spp. DNA in ticks, but absence of Borrelia spp. and of Leptospira spp. DNA in blood of fever patients in Madagascar. Acta Trop. 2018;177:127-134 pubmed publisher
    ..are sufficient for transmission of infection from ticks to humans. In order to determine whether spirochaete infections are relevant in humans, blood samples of 1009 patients from the highlands of Madagascar with fever ..
  34. Peeling R, Mabey D, Kamb M, Chen X, Radolf J, Benzaken A. Syphilis. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2017;3:17073 pubmed publisher
    ..The spirochaete has a long latent period during which individuals have no signs or symptoms but can remain infectious...
  35. Zhao C, Mu H, Zhao Y, Wang L, Zuo B. Microbial characteristics analysis and kinetic studies on substrate composition to methane after microbial and nutritional regulation of fruit and vegetable wastes anaerobic digestion. Bioresour Technol. 2018;249:315-321 pubmed publisher
    ..Results showed that the enriched hydrogenotrophic methanogens, and Firmicutes and Spirochaeta in the AGS were responsible for the enhanced methane yield...
  36. Meng L, Li X, Wang X, Ma K, Liu G, Zhang J. Amoxicillin effects on functional microbial community and spread of antibiotic resistance genes in amoxicillin manufacture wastewater treatment system. J Environ Sci (China). 2017;61:110-117 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that the genera Ignavibacterium, Phocoenobacter, Spirochaeta, Aminobacterium and Cloacibacillus contributed to the degradation of different organic compounds (such as ..
  37. Wang X, Cao A, Zhao G, Zhou C, Xu R. Microbial community structure and diversity in a municipal solid waste landfill. Waste Manag. 2017;66:79-87 pubmed publisher
    ..were the dominant phyla, whereas Halanaerobium, Methylohalobius, Syntrophomonas, Fastidiosipila, and Spirochaeta were the dominant genera...
  38. Coburn J, Chege W, Magoun L, Bodary S, Leong J. Characterization of a candidate Borrelia burgdorferi beta3-chain integrin ligand identified using a phage display library. Mol Microbiol. 1999;34:926-40 pubmed
    ..p66, is known to be recognized by human Lyme disease patient sera and to be expressed on the surface of the spirochaete. We show here that recombinant p66 binds specifically to beta3-chain integrins and inhibits attachment of ..