Salmonella typhimurium LT2

Summary

Alias: Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium str. LT2, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain LT2, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain LT2-LTL2

Top Publications

  1. Walthers D, Carroll R, Navarre W, Libby S, Fang F, Kenney L. The response regulator SsrB activates expression of diverse Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 promoters and counters silencing by the nucleoid-associated protein H-NS. Mol Microbiol. 2007;65:477-93 pubmed
    ..SsrB appears to possess dual activities to promote SPI-2 gene expression: activation of transcription and relief of H-NS-mediated repression. ..
  2. Brawn L, Hayward R, Koronakis V. Salmonella SPI1 effector SipA persists after entry and cooperates with a SPI2 effector to regulate phagosome maturation and intracellular replication. Cell Host Microbe. 2007;1:63-75 pubmed
    ..Our findings define an unexpected additional function for SipA postentry and reveal precise intracellular communication between effectors deployed by distinct T3SSs underlying SCV biogenesis. ..
  3. Vivero A, Baños R, Mariscotti J, Oliveros J, Garcia del Portillo F, Juárez A, et al. Modulation of horizontally acquired genes by the Hha-YdgT proteins in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:1152-6 pubmed
    ..Many of these genes have also been reported to be targets for H-NS. As Hha and YdgT interact with H-NS, our findings strongly suggest that Hha and/or YdgT must form complexes with H-NS when they silence these DNA regions. ..
  4. McFarland K, Lucchini S, Hinton J, Dorman C. The leucine-responsive regulatory protein, Lrp, activates transcription of the fim operon in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium via the fimZ regulatory gene. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:602-12 pubmed
    ..These data show that Lrp makes a positive contribution to fim gene expression through direct interaction with the fimZ promoter region, possibly by antagonizing the binding of the H-NS global repressor protein. ..
  5. Lossi N, Rolhion N, Magee A, Boyle C, Holden D. The Salmonella SPI-2 effector SseJ exhibits eukaryotic activator-dependent phospholipase A and glycerophospholipid : cholesterol acyltransferase activity. Microbiology. 2008;154:2680-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of the activating factor(s) shows that it is soluble and heat- and protease-sensitive. We conclude that PLA and GCAT activities of SseJ are potentiated by proteinaceous eukaryotic factor(s). ..
  6. Du F, Galan J. Selective inhibition of type III secretion activated signaling by the Salmonella effector AvrA. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000595 pubmed publisher
    ..This interplay between effector proteins delivered by the same TTSS highlights the remarkable complexity of these systems. ..
  7. Kim M, Lim S, Kim D, Choy H, Ryu S. A tdcA mutation reduces the invasive ability of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium. Mol Cells. 2009;28:389-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the virulence of a S. Typhimurium tdcA mutant was attenuated compared to a wild type when administered orally. This study implies the role of tdcA in the invasion process of S. Typhimurium. ..
  8. Webber M, Bailey A, Blair J, Morgan E, Stevens M, Hinton J, et al. The global consequence of disruption of the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump in Salmonella enterica includes reduced expression of SPI-1 and other attributes required to infect the host. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:4276-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The link between antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity establishes the AcrAB-TolC system as fundamental to the biology of Salmonella. ..
  9. Dillon S, Cameron A, Hokamp K, Lucchini S, Hinton J, Dorman C. Genome-wide analysis of the H-NS and Sfh regulatory networks in Salmonella Typhimurium identifies a plasmid-encoded transcription silencing mechanism. Mol Microbiol. 2010;76:1250-65 pubmed publisher
    ..It is proposed that Sfh acts as a molecular backup for H-NS and that it provides its 'stealth' function by replacing H-NS on the chromosome, thus minimizing disturbances to the H-NS-DNA binding pattern in cells that acquire pSfR27. ..

More Information

Publications126 found, 100 shown here

  1. Choi J, Shin D, Yoon H, Kim J, Lee C, Kim M, et al. Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 expression negatively controlled by EIIANtr-SsrB interaction is required for Salmonella virulence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:20506-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicated that normal SPI-2 gene expression maintained by an EIIA(Ntr)-SsrB interaction is another determinant of Salmonella virulence. ..
  2. Ye Z, Petrof E, Boone D, Claud E, Sun J. Salmonella effector AvrA regulation of colonic epithelial cell inflammation by deubiquitination. Am J Pathol. 2007;171:882-92 pubmed
    ..Increased beta-catenin further negatively regulates the NF-kappaB pathway. Our findings suggest an important role for AvrA in regulating host inflammatory responses through NF-kappaB and beta-catenin pathways. ..
  3. Minamino T, Kinoshita M, Imada K, Namba K. Interaction between FliI ATPase and a flagellar chaperone FliT during bacterial flagellar protein export. Mol Microbiol. 2012;83:168-78 pubmed publisher
  4. Appia Ayme C, Patrick E, Sullivan M, Alston M, Field S, Abuoun M, et al. Novel inducers of the envelope stress response BaeSR in Salmonella Typhimurium: BaeR is critically required for tungstate waste disposal. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23713 pubmed publisher
    ..BaeR is therefore either required for survival in larger mammals such as pigs or calves, an avian host such as chickens, or survival out with the host altogether where Salmonella and related enterics must survive in soil and water...
  5. Taga M, Miller S, Bassler B. Lsr-mediated transport and processing of AI-2 in Salmonella typhimurium. Mol Microbiol. 2003;50:1411-27 pubmed
    ..Transport and processing of AI-2 could be required for removing the quorum-sensing signal, conveying the signal to an internal detector and/or scavenging boron...
  6. Wall D, Nadeau W, Pazos M, Shi H, Galyov E, McCormick B. Identification of the Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium SipA domain responsible for inducing neutrophil recruitment across the intestinal epithelium. Cell Microbiol. 2007;9:2299-313 pubmed
    ..typhimurium requires delivery of SipA to both extracellular and intracellular spaces to maximize pro-inflammatory responses and mechanisms of bacterial invasion. ..
  7. Hammarlöf D, Hughes D. Mutants of the RNA-processing enzyme RNase E reverse the extreme slow-growth phenotype caused by a mutant translation factor EF-Tu. Mol Microbiol. 2008;70:1194-209 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, RNase E is suggested to act at two distinct stages in the life of mRNA: early, on the nascent transcript; late, on the complete mRNA. ..
  8. Lara Tejero M, Galan J. Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium pathogenicity island 1-encoded type III secretion system translocases mediate intimate attachment to nonphagocytic cells. Infect Immun. 2009;77:2635-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the coordinated deployment and interaction between the protein translocases mediate the SPI-1 TTSS-dependent intimate association of S. Typhimurium with host cells. ..
  9. Pontel L, Soncini F. Alternative periplasmic copper-resistance mechanisms in Gram negative bacteria. Mol Microbiol. 2009;73:212-25 pubmed publisher
    ..coli. We posit that CueP can functionally replace the Cus complex for periplasmic copper resistance, in particular under anaerobic conditions...
  10. Perrett C, Karavolos M, Humphrey S, Mastroeni P, Martinez Argudo I, Spencer H, et al. LuxS-based quorum sensing does not affect the ability of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to express the SPI-1 type 3 secretion system, induce membrane ruffles, or invade epithelial cells. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:7253-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic deletion of luxS did not alter the virulence of S. Typhimurium in the mouse model, and therefore, it appears that luxS does not play a significant role in regulating invasion of Salmonella in vitro or in vivo. ..
  11. Achard M, Tree J, Holden J, Simpfendorfer K, Wijburg O, Strugnell R, et al. The multi-copper-ion oxidase CueO of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is required for systemic virulence. Infect Immun. 2010;78:2312-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarly, the S. Typhimurium cueO mutant was not rescued from copper ion toxicity by addition of the branched-chain amino acids and leucine. ..
  12. Evans M, Fink R, Vazquez Torres A, Porwollik S, Jones Carson J, McClelland M, et al. Analysis of the ArcA regulon in anaerobically grown Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium. BMC Microbiol. 2011;11:58 pubmed publisher
    ..Typhimurium, ArcA serves as a transcriptional regulator coordinating cellular metabolism, flagella biosynthesis, and motility. Furthermore, ArcA and Fnr share in the regulation of 120 S. Typhimurium genes. ..
  13. Kerrinnes T, Zelas Z, Streckel W, Faber F, Tietze E, Tschäpe H, et al. CsrA and CsrB are required for the post-transcriptional control of the virulence-associated effector protein AvrA of Salmonella enterica. Int J Med Microbiol. 2009;299:333-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the expression of avrA is suggested to be regulated in a post-transcriptional manner by critical and effective concentrations of CsrA (see-saw regulation), which is achieved through the sequestering activity of CsrB. ..
  14. Lilic M, Vujanac M, Stebbins C. A common structural motif in the binding of virulence factors to bacterial secretion chaperones. Mol Cell. 2006;21:653-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Disruption of this structural motif leads to a destabilization of several chaperone-substrate complexes from different species, as well as an impairment of secretion in Salmonella...
  15. Liu Y, Leal N, Sampson E, Johnson C, Havemann G, Bobik T. PduL is an evolutionarily distinct phosphotransacylase involved in B12-dependent 1,2-propanediol degradation by Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium LT2. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:1589-96 pubmed
    ..97 mM, respectively. Sequence analyses showed that PduL is unrelated in amino acid sequence to known PTAC enzymes and that PduL homologues are distributed among at least 49 bacterial species but are absent from the Archaea and Eukarya...
  16. Mason D, Mallo G, Terebiznik M, Payrastre B, Finlay B, Brumell J, et al. Alteration of epithelial structure and function associated with PtdIns(4,5)P2 degradation by a bacterial phosphatase. J Gen Physiol. 2007;129:267-83 pubmed
    ..We therefore suggest that opening of the tight junctions and inhibition of Na(+)/H(+) exchange caused by PtdIns(4,5)P(2) hydrolysis combine to account, at least in part, for the fluid loss observed during Salmonella-induced diarrhea. ..
  17. Wang Y, Ouellette A, Egan C, Rathinavelan T, Im W, De Guzman R. Differences in the electrostatic surfaces of the type III secretion needle proteins PrgI, BsaL, and MxiH. J Mol Biol. 2007;371:1304-14 pubmed publisher
    ..typhimurium and S. flexneri...
  18. Choi J, Shin D, Ryu S. Implication of quorum sensing in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium virulence: the luxS gene is necessary for expression of genes in pathogenicity island 1. Infect Immun. 2007;75:4885-90 pubmed
    ..Thus, the reduced expression of invF and its regulated genes in Salmonella cells lacking quorum sensing resulted in the attenuation of virulence phenotypes both in vitro and in vivo. ..
  19. Saini S, Pearl J, Rao C. Role of FimW, FimY, and FimZ in regulating the expression of type i fimbriae in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:3003-10 pubmed publisher
    ..However, we found that the response was continuous and not bistable. ..
  20. Patel J, Hueffer K, Lam T, Galan J. Diversification of a Salmonella virulence protein function by ubiquitin-dependent differential localization. Cell. 2009;137:283-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, by exploiting the host cellular machinery, Salmonella Typhimurium has evolved the capacity to broaden the functional repertoire of a virulence factor to maximize its ability to modulate cellular functions. ..
  21. Müller A, Hoffmann C, Galle M, Van Den Broeke A, Heikenwalder M, Falter L, et al. The S. Typhimurium effector SopE induces caspase-1 activation in stromal cells to initiate gut inflammation. Cell Host Microbe. 2009;6:125-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings implicate SopE-driven Rho GTPase-mediated caspase-1 activation in stromal cells as a mechanism eliciting mucosal inflammation during S. Typhimurium infection. ..
  22. Mutalik V, Nonaka G, Ades S, Rhodius V, Gross C. Promoter strength properties of the complete sigma E regulon of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:7279-87 pubmed publisher
  23. Karlinsey J, Maguire M, Becker L, Crouch M, Fang F. The phage shock protein PspA facilitates divalent metal transport and is required for virulence of Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium. Mol Microbiol. 2010;78:669-85 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that PspA promotes Salmonella virulence by maintaining proton motive force, which is required for the function of multiple transporters mediating bacterial divalent metal acquisition during infection. ..
  24. Teixidó L, Cortés P, Bigas A, Alvarez G, Barbe J, Campoy S. Control by Fur of the nitrate respiration regulators NarP and NarL in Salmonella enterica. Int Microbiol. 2010;13:33-9 pubmed
    ..These results confirm Fur as a global regulator based on its involvement not only in iron uptake and detoxification but also in the control of nitrate/nitrite respiration by sensing cellular redox status. ..
  25. Fan C, Bobik T. The PduX enzyme of Salmonella enterica is an L-threonine kinase used for coenzyme B12 synthesis. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:11322-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, PduX is the first enzyme shown to phosphorylate free L-threonine and the first L-threonine kinase shown to function in coenzyme B(12) synthesis. ..
  26. Gil F, Hernandez Lucas I, Polanco R, Pacheco N, Collao B, Villarreal J, et al. SoxS regulates the expression of the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ompW gene. Microbiology. 2009;155:2490-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Transcriptional fusions support the relevance of this region in ompW activation. The SoxS site is in the forward orientation and its location suggests that the ompW gene has a class I SoxS-dependent promoter. ..
  27. Mangan M, Lucchini S, O Cróinín T, Fitzgerald S, Hinton J, Dorman C. Nucleoid-associated protein HU controls three regulons that coordinate virulence, response to stress and general physiology in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Microbiology. 2011;157:1075-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show that HU coordinates the expression of genes involved in central metabolism and virulence and contributes to the success of S. enterica as a pathogen. ..
  28. Stebbins C, Galan J. Maintenance of an unfolded polypeptide by a cognate chaperone in bacterial type III secretion. Nature. 2001;414:77-81 pubmed
  29. McGhie E, Hume P, Hayward R, Torres J, Koronakis V. Topology of the Salmonella invasion protein SipB in a model bilayer. Mol Microbiol. 2002;44:1309-21 pubmed
    ..The combined data suggest a topological model for membrane-inserted SipB. ..
  30. Shin D, Groisman E. Signal-dependent binding of the response regulators PhoP and PmrA to their target promoters in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:4089-94 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that the promoter binding ability of the PhoP and PmrA proteins occurring in low Mg2+ is correlated with phosphorylation of these proteins in vivo. ..
  31. Takaya A, Kubota Y, Isogai E, Yamamoto T. Degradation of the HilC and HilD regulator proteins by ATP-dependent Lon protease leads to downregulation of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 gene expression. Mol Microbiol. 2005;55:839-52 pubmed
    ..In view of these findings, we suggest that the regulation of SPI1 expression is negatively controlled through degradation of the HilC and HilD transcriptional regulators by Lon. ..
  32. Knodler L, Steele Mortimer O. The Salmonella effector PipB2 affects late endosome/lysosome distribution to mediate Sif extension. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:4108-23 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it seems that a divergence in the biological functions of these two effectors can be accounted for by sequence divergence in their C termini. ..
  33. Espariz M, Checa S, Audero M, Pontel L, Soncini F. Dissecting the Salmonella response to copper. Microbiology. 2007;153:2989-97 pubmed
    ..The observed differences between Salmonella and E. coli in handling copper excess may contribute to our understanding of the distinct capability of these related pathogenic bacteria to survive outside the host. ..
  34. Bearson B, Bearson S. The role of the QseC quorum-sensing sensor kinase in colonization and norepinephrine-enhanced motility of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Microb Pathog. 2008;44:271-8 pubmed
  35. Christopherson M, Schmitz G, Downs D. YjgF is required for isoleucine biosynthesis when Salmonella enterica is grown on pyruvate medium. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:3057-62 pubmed publisher
    ..From this study, we conclude that the isoleucine requirement of a yjgF mutant on pyruvate is a consequence of the decreased transaminase B (IlvE) activity that has previously been characterized in these mutants. ..
  36. Nawabi P, Catron D, Haldar K. Esterification of cholesterol by a type III secretion effector during intracellular Salmonella infection. Mol Microbiol. 2008;68:173-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicating the molecular activity of SseJ suggest that cholesterol and its esterification at the SCV are functionally important for intracellular bacterial survival...
  37. Mills P, Rowley G, Spiro S, Hinton J, Richardson D. A combination of cytochrome c nitrite reductase (NrfA) and flavorubredoxin (NorV) protects Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium against killing by NO in anoxic environments. Microbiology. 2008;154:1218-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the results reveal a combined role for NorV and NrfA in NO detoxification under anaerobic conditions, and highlight the influence that growth conditions have on the sensitivity to NO of this pathogenic bacterium. ..
  38. Barchiesi J, Espariz M, Checa S, Soncini F. Downregulation of RpoN-controlled genes protects Salmonella cells from killing by the cationic antimicrobial peptide polymyxin B. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2009;291:73-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Downregulation of one or more genes belonging to the RpoN regulon may provide an additional mechanism of defence against membrane-permeabilizing antimicrobial peptides that helps the pathogen to survive in different environments. ..
  39. Fan C, Fromm H, Bobik T. Kinetic and functional analysis of L-threonine kinase, the PduX enzyme of Salmonella enterica. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:20240-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The studies reported here are the first to investigate the kinetic and catalytic mechanisms of l-threonine kinase from any organism. ..
  40. Knodler L, Winfree S, Drecktrah D, Ireland R, Steele Mortimer O. Ubiquitination of the bacterial inositol phosphatase, SopB, regulates its biological activity at the plasma membrane. Cell Microbiol. 2009;11:1652-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our data show that ubiquitination of SopB is not related to its intracellular stability but rather regulates its enzymatic activity at the plasma membrane and intracellular localization. ..
  41. Grantcharova N, Peters V, Monteiro C, Zakikhany K, Romling U. Bistable expression of CsgD in biofilm development of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:456-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, bistability at the level of CsgD expression leads to a corresponding pattern of task distribution in S. Typhimurium biofilms. ..
  42. Calderón I, Morales E, Caro N, Chahúan C, Collao B, Gil F, et al. Response regulator ArcA of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium downregulates expression of OmpD, a porin facilitating uptake of hydrogen peroxide. Res Microbiol. 2011;162:214-22 pubmed publisher
  43. Luo Y, Bertero M, Frey E, Pfuetzner R, Wenk M, Creagh L, et al. Structural and biochemical characterization of the type III secretion chaperones CesT and SigE. Nat Struct Biol. 2001;8:1031-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Isothermal titration calorimetry studies of Tir-CesT and enzymatic activity profiles of SigD-SigE indicate that the effector proteins are not globally unfolded in the presence of their cognate chaperones...
  44. Winfield M, Groisman E. Phenotypic differences between Salmonella and Escherichia coli resulting from the disparate regulation of homologous genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:17162-7 pubmed
    ..coli isolates in PmrD-dependent transcription occurring in low Mg(2+). Our results suggest that the differential regulation of conserved genes may have ecological consequences, determining the range of niches a microorganism can occupy. ..
  45. Kim M, Lim S, Ryu S. Molecular analysis of the Salmonella typhimurium tdc operon regulation. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008;18:1024-32 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that Tdc enzymes may play a pivotal role in energy metabolism under a sudden change of oxygen tension. ..
  46. Jeon J, Kim H, Yun J, Ryu S, Groisman E, Shin D. RstA-promoted expression of the ferrous iron transporter FeoB under iron-replete conditions enhances Fur activity in Salmonella enterica. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:7326-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Under iron-replete conditions, RstA expression retarded Salmonella growth but enabled the Fur protein to repress the target genes beyond the levels which were simply accomplished by iron. ..
  47. Bogomolnaya L, Santiviago C, Yang H, BAUMLER A, Andrews Polymenis H. 'Form variation' of the O12 antigen is critical for persistence of Salmonella Typhimurium in the murine intestine. Mol Microbiol. 2008;70:1105-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that the 12-2 antigen is a S. enterica subspecies I-specific LPS modification that enhances long-term intestinal colonization, and is in contrast to the role of O-antigen variation described for Shigella...
  48. Bruno V, Hannemann S, Lara Tejero M, Flavell R, Kleinstein S, Galan J. Salmonella Typhimurium type III secretion effectors stimulate innate immune responses in cultured epithelial cells. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000538 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations have implications for the understanding of the mechanisms by which Salmonella Typhimurium induces intestinal inflammation as well as other intestinal inflammatory pathologies. ..
  49. Wu S, Ye Z, Liu X, Zhao Y, Xia Y, Steiner A, et al. Salmonella typhimurium infection increases p53 acetylation in intestinal epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;298:G784-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies provide novel mechanistic evidence that Salmonella modulates the p53 pathway during intestinal inflammation and infection. ..
  50. Troxell B, Sikes M, Fink R, Vazquez Torres A, Jones Carson J, Hassan H. Fur negatively regulates hns and is required for the expression of HilA and virulence in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:497-505 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, deletion of fur in an hns mutant resulted in Fur-independent activation of hilA. In conclusion, Fur activates hilA by repressing the expression of hns. ..
  51. Bearson S, Bearson B, Brunelle B, Sharma V, Lee I. A mutation in the poxA gene of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium alters protein production, elevates susceptibility to environmental challenges, and decreases swine colonization. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2011;8:725-32 pubmed publisher
  52. Zwir I, Shin D, Kato A, Nishino K, Latifi T, Solomon F, et al. Dissecting the PhoP regulatory network of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:2862-7 pubmed
  53. Ono S, Goldberg M, Olsson T, Esposito D, Hinton J, Ladbury J. H-NS is a part of a thermally controlled mechanism for bacterial gene regulation. Biochem J. 2005;391:203-13 pubmed
    ..The present study addresses one of the key complex mechanisms by which H-NS regulates gene expression. ..
  54. Zhu Y, Li H, Long C, Hu L, Xu H, Liu L, et al. Structural insights into the enzymatic mechanism of the pathogenic MAPK phosphothreonine lyase. Mol Cell. 2007;28:899-913 pubmed
    ..The mechanism described here provides a structural understanding of MAPK inactivation by a family of pathogenic effectors conserved in plant and animal systems and may also open a new route for biological catalysis. ..
  55. Lahiri A, Das P, Chakravortty D. The LysR-type transcriptional regulator Hrg counteracts phagocyte oxidative burst and imparts survival advantage to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Microbiology. 2008;154:2837-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Microarray analysis suggested the presence of an Hrg regulon, which is required for resistance to the toxic oxidative products of the reticuloendothelial system. ..
  56. Wozniak C, Lee C, Hughes K. T-POP array identifies EcnR and PefI-SrgD as novel regulators of flagellar gene expression. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:1498-508 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify EcnR and PefI-SrgD as additional components of the complex regulatory network controlling flagellar expression. ..
  57. Das P, Lahiri A, Lahiri A, Chakravortty D. Novel role of the nitrite transporter NirC in Salmonella pathogenesis: SPI2-dependent suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in activated macrophages. Microbiology. 2009;155:2476-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results reveal that intracellular Salmonella evade killing in activated macrophages by downregulating IFN-gamma-induced NO production, and they highlight the critical role of nirC as a virulence gene. ..
  58. Muskotál A, Seregélyes C, Sebestyén A, Vonderviszt F. Structural basis for stabilization of the hypervariable D3 domain of Salmonella flagellin upon filament formation. J Mol Biol. 2010;403:607-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Because D3 is a largely independent part of flagellin, its replacement by heterologous proteins or domains might offer a promising approach for creation of various fusion proteins possessing polymerization ability. ..
  59. Knodler L, Finlay B, Steele Mortimer O. The Salmonella effector protein SopB protects epithelial cells from apoptosis by sustained activation of Akt. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:9058-64 pubmed
    ..These results provide new insights into the mechanisms of apoptosis and highlight how bacterial effectors can intercept signaling pathways to manipulate host responses. ..
  60. Shi L, Adkins J, Coleman J, Schepmoes A, Dohnkova A, Mottaz H, et al. Proteomic analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium isolated from RAW 264.7 macrophages: identification of a novel protein that contributes to the replication of serovar typhimurium inside macrophages. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:29131-40 pubmed
    ..The predicted function common for STM3117-3119 is biosynthesis and modification of the peptidoglycan layer of the STM cell wall. ..
  61. Main Hester K, Colpitts K, Thomas G, Fang F, Libby S. Coordinate regulation of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1) and SPI4 in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Infect Immun. 2008;76:1024-35 pubmed
    ..Coordinate regulation suggests that SPI1 and SPI4 play complementary roles in the interaction of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium with the host intestinal mucosa. ..
  62. Figueiredo J, Lawhon S, Gokulan K, Khare S, Raffatellu M, Tsolis R, et al. Salmonella enterica Typhimurium SipA induces CXC-chemokine expression through p38MAPK and JUN pathways. Microbes Infect. 2009;11:302-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that S. typhimurium SipA induces expression of CXC chemokines through phosphorylation of IL-8-transcription regulatory proteins, JUN and p38MAK. ..
  63. Cheng S, Bobik T. Characterization of the PduS cobalamin reductase of Salmonella enterica and its role in the Pdu microcompartment. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:5071-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies further characterize PduS, an unusual MCP-associated cobalamin reductase, and, in conjunction with prior results, indicate that the Pdu MCP encapsulates a complete cobalamin assimilation system. ..
  64. Chiu T, Sohn C, Dickerson R, Johnson R. Testing water-mediated DNA recognition by the Hin recombinase. EMBO J. 2002;21:801-14 pubmed
    ..The mutant structures also illustrate the prominent roles of thymine methyls both in stabilizing intermediate waters and in interfering with water or amino acid side chain interactions with DNA. ..
  65. Kim J, Kim M, Joe M, Song S, Lee I, Choi S. The sctR of Salmonella enterica serova Typhimurium encoding a homologue of MerR protein is involved in the copper-responsive regulation of cuiD. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2002;210:99-103 pubmed
    ..Copper-responsive induction and copper tolerance were restored by providing sctR in trans, suggesting that SctR plays an important role in intracellular copper detoxification. ..
  66. Penrod J, Roth J. Conserving a volatile metabolite: a role for carboxysome-like organelles in Salmonella enterica. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:2865-74 pubmed
    ..The EutG enzyme converts acetaldehyde to ethanol, which may improve carbon retention by forming acetals; alternatively, EutG may recycle NADH within the carboxysome...
  67. Fink R, Evans M, Porwollik S, Vazquez Torres A, Jones Carson J, Troxell B, et al. FNR is a global regulator of virulence and anaerobic metabolism in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ATCC 14028s). J Bacteriol. 2007;189:2262-73 pubmed
    ..The inability of the mutant to survive inside macrophages is likely due to its sensitivity to the reactive oxygen species generated by NADPH phagocyte oxidase. ..
  68. Freeman J, Rappl C, Kuhle V, Hensel M, Miller S. SpiC is required for translocation of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 effectors and secretion of translocon proteins SseB and SseC. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:4971-80 pubmed
    ..SpiC was also required to secrete translocon proteins SseB and SseC but not translocated effector SseJ, indicating that lack of assembly of the translocon explains the spiC mutant phenotype. ..
  69. Becker L, Bang I, Crouch M, Fang F. Compensatory role of PspA, a member of the phage shock protein operon, in rpoE mutant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Mol Microbiol. 2005;56:1004-16 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that pspA expression in S. Typhimurium is induced by alterations in PMF and a functional sigma(E) regulon is essential for the maintenance of PMF. ..
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    ..The Hmp flavohemoglobin plays a central role in the response of Salmonella to nitrosative stress but requires precise regulation to avoid the exacerbation of oxidative stress that can result if electrons are shuttled to extraneous iron. ..
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    ..These results clearly imply that in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, the redox-active protein thioredoxin 1 promotes virulence, whereas in vitro tolerance to oxidative stress depends on production of glutathione. ..
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    ..The data presented here are consistent with a model in which the absence of YjgF uncovers a new catalytic activity of TrpDE. ..
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    ..This series of chemical events is proposed to enable enteric bacteria to respond to the presence of competitor bacteria by sequestering and destroying AI-2, thereby eliminating the competitors' intercellular communication capabilities. ..
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    ..Based on these results, we propose that Mlc functions to sense the availability of sugars and is linked to virulence gene regulation by its ability to control hilE expression in Salmonella. ..
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    ..These data add detail to the developing model of the regulation of Salmonella invasion genes. ..
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    ..This is the first report that identifies the whole set of in vivo-regulated genes for any bacterial pathogen during infection of mammalian cells. ..
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    ..These data suggest that colonization of the murine cecum is required for efficient fecal shedding in mice. ..
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    ..Salmonella-infected macrophages exhibited marked accumulation of autophagic vesicles. We propose that Salmonella, through the action of SipB, kills macrophages by disrupting mitochondria, thereby inducing autophagy and cell death. ..
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    ..Finally, we provide evidence via peptide analysis and FlhB cleavage variants that the tertiary structure of FlhB plays a significant role in cleavage. Based on these results, we propose that FlhB cleavage is an autocatalytic process. ..
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    ..Taken together our results suggest that MgtC has a dual role when bacteria localize in macrophages or low Mg(2+) environment. ..
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    ..The absence of a conserved ferroxidase domain and the potentiation of oxidative stress by FtnB in some strains lacking Dps suggest that FtnB serves as a facile cellular reservoir of Fe2+. ..
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    ..These findings extend our knowledge of the roles of Sir2 proteins in gene silencing, chromosome stability, and cell aging and imply that lysine acetylation is a common regulatory mechanism in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. ..
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    ..Therefore, the N-terminus of SseA provides a function that is essential for SseB export, but dispensable for partner binding and stabilization. ..