FLC

Summary

Gene Symbol: FLC
Description: K-box region and MADS-box transcription factor family protein
Alias: AGAMOUS-like 25, AGL25, FLF, FLOWERING LOCUS C, FLOWERING LOCUS F, MADS BOX PROTEIN FLOWERING LOCUS F, REDUCED STEM BRANCHING 6, RSB6, T31P16.130, T31P16_130, K-box region and MADS-box transcription factor family protein
Species: thale cress

Top Publications

  1. Jiang D, Yang W, He Y, Amasino R. Arabidopsis relatives of the human lysine-specific Demethylase1 repress the expression of FWA and FLOWERING LOCUS C and thus promote the floral transition. Plant Cell. 2007;19:2975-87 pubmed
    ..H3-Lys 4 demethylase) reduce the levels of histone H3-Lys 4 methylation in chromatin of the floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) and the sporophytically silenced floral repressor FWA...
  2. Sheldon C, Rouse D, Finnegan E, Peacock W, Dennis E. The molecular basis of vernalization: the central role of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:3753-8 pubmed
    In Arabidopsis, the MADS-box protein encoded by FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) is a repressor of flowering...
  3. Jiang D, Wang Y, Wang Y, He Y. Repression of FLOWERING LOCUS C and FLOWERING LOCUS T by the Arabidopsis Polycomb repressive complex 2 components. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3404 pubmed publisher
    ..CLF), EMBRYONIC FLOWER 2 (EMF2) and FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM (FIE) repress the expression of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), a central repressor of the floral transition in Arabidopsis and FLC relatives...
  4. Li D, Liu C, Shen L, Wu Y, Chen H, Robertson M, et al. A repressor complex governs the integration of flowering signals in Arabidopsis. Dev Cell. 2008;15:110-20 pubmed publisher
    ..SVP protein associates with the promoter regions of SOC1 and FT, where another potent repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) binds...
  5. Searle I, He Y, Turck F, Vincent C, Fornara F, Kröber S, et al. The transcription factor FLC confers a flowering response to vernalization by repressing meristem competence and systemic signaling in Arabidopsis. Genes Dev. 2006;20:898-912 pubmed
    ..of flowering that comprise several related MADS-box transcription factors, the most prominent of which is FLC. We show that FLC delays flowering by repressing production in the leaf of at least two systemic signals, one of ..
  6. Choi K, Kim J, Hwang H, Kim S, Park C, Kim S, et al. The FRIGIDA complex activates transcription of FLC, a strong flowering repressor in Arabidopsis, by recruiting chromatin modification factors. Plant Cell. 2011;23:289-303 pubmed publisher
    ..of Arabidopsis thaliana winter annuals is delayed until the subsequent spring by the strong floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). FRIGIDA (FRI) activates the transcription of FLC, but the molecular mechanism remains elusive...
  7. Pien S, Fleury D, Mylne J, Crevillen P, Inze D, Avramova Z, et al. ARABIDOPSIS TRITHORAX1 dynamically regulates FLOWERING LOCUS C activation via histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation. Plant Cell. 2008;20:580-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report a novel function of ATX1, namely, the epigenetic regulation of the floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC)...
  8. Shindo C, Aranzana M, Lister C, Baxter C, Nicholls C, Nordborg M, et al. Role of FRIGIDA and FLOWERING LOCUS C in determining variation in flowering time of Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2005;138:1163-73 pubmed
    ..We explored the contribution to this variation from the two genes FRIGIDA (FRI) and FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), previously shown to be important determinants in natural variation of flowering time...
  9. Saleh A, Alvarez Venegas R, Avramova Z. Dynamic and stable histone H3 methylation patterns at the Arabidopsis FLC and AP1 loci. Gene. 2008;423:43-7 pubmed publisher
    ..as an indicator of expression status: despite being members of the same gene family selectively activated by ATX1, FLC and AP1 nucleosomes may be similarly decorated but, also, surprisingly different...
  10. Heo J, Sung S. Vernalization-mediated epigenetic silencing by a long intronic noncoding RNA. Science. 2011;331:76-9 pubmed publisher
    ..winter cold triggers enrichment of tri-methylated histone H3 Lys(27) at chromatin of the floral repressor, FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), and results in epigenetically stable repression of FLC...

Detail Information

Publications80

  1. Jiang D, Yang W, He Y, Amasino R. Arabidopsis relatives of the human lysine-specific Demethylase1 repress the expression of FWA and FLOWERING LOCUS C and thus promote the floral transition. Plant Cell. 2007;19:2975-87 pubmed
    ..H3-Lys 4 demethylase) reduce the levels of histone H3-Lys 4 methylation in chromatin of the floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) and the sporophytically silenced floral repressor FWA...
  2. Sheldon C, Rouse D, Finnegan E, Peacock W, Dennis E. The molecular basis of vernalization: the central role of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:3753-8 pubmed
    In Arabidopsis, the MADS-box protein encoded by FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) is a repressor of flowering...
  3. Jiang D, Wang Y, Wang Y, He Y. Repression of FLOWERING LOCUS C and FLOWERING LOCUS T by the Arabidopsis Polycomb repressive complex 2 components. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3404 pubmed publisher
    ..CLF), EMBRYONIC FLOWER 2 (EMF2) and FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM (FIE) repress the expression of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), a central repressor of the floral transition in Arabidopsis and FLC relatives...
  4. Li D, Liu C, Shen L, Wu Y, Chen H, Robertson M, et al. A repressor complex governs the integration of flowering signals in Arabidopsis. Dev Cell. 2008;15:110-20 pubmed publisher
    ..SVP protein associates with the promoter regions of SOC1 and FT, where another potent repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) binds...
  5. Searle I, He Y, Turck F, Vincent C, Fornara F, Kröber S, et al. The transcription factor FLC confers a flowering response to vernalization by repressing meristem competence and systemic signaling in Arabidopsis. Genes Dev. 2006;20:898-912 pubmed
    ..of flowering that comprise several related MADS-box transcription factors, the most prominent of which is FLC. We show that FLC delays flowering by repressing production in the leaf of at least two systemic signals, one of ..
  6. Choi K, Kim J, Hwang H, Kim S, Park C, Kim S, et al. The FRIGIDA complex activates transcription of FLC, a strong flowering repressor in Arabidopsis, by recruiting chromatin modification factors. Plant Cell. 2011;23:289-303 pubmed publisher
    ..of Arabidopsis thaliana winter annuals is delayed until the subsequent spring by the strong floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). FRIGIDA (FRI) activates the transcription of FLC, but the molecular mechanism remains elusive...
  7. Pien S, Fleury D, Mylne J, Crevillen P, Inze D, Avramova Z, et al. ARABIDOPSIS TRITHORAX1 dynamically regulates FLOWERING LOCUS C activation via histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation. Plant Cell. 2008;20:580-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report a novel function of ATX1, namely, the epigenetic regulation of the floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC)...
  8. Shindo C, Aranzana M, Lister C, Baxter C, Nicholls C, Nordborg M, et al. Role of FRIGIDA and FLOWERING LOCUS C in determining variation in flowering time of Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2005;138:1163-73 pubmed
    ..We explored the contribution to this variation from the two genes FRIGIDA (FRI) and FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), previously shown to be important determinants in natural variation of flowering time...
  9. Saleh A, Alvarez Venegas R, Avramova Z. Dynamic and stable histone H3 methylation patterns at the Arabidopsis FLC and AP1 loci. Gene. 2008;423:43-7 pubmed publisher
    ..as an indicator of expression status: despite being members of the same gene family selectively activated by ATX1, FLC and AP1 nucleosomes may be similarly decorated but, also, surprisingly different...
  10. Heo J, Sung S. Vernalization-mediated epigenetic silencing by a long intronic noncoding RNA. Science. 2011;331:76-9 pubmed publisher
    ..winter cold triggers enrichment of tri-methylated histone H3 Lys(27) at chromatin of the floral repressor, FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), and results in epigenetically stable repression of FLC...
  11. Choi K, Park C, Lee J, Oh M, Noh B, Lee I. Arabidopsis homologs of components of the SWR1 complex regulate flowering and plant development. Development. 2007;134:1931-41 pubmed
    ..weak apical dominance, flowers with extra petals and early flowering by reduction in expression of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), a strong floral repressor...
  12. Zhao Z, Yu Y, Meyer D, Wu C, Shen W. Prevention of early flowering by expression of FLOWERING LOCUS C requires methylation of histone H3 K36. Nat Cell Biol. 2005;7:1256-60 pubmed
    ..the enzymes involved are unknown, methylation of histone H3 K9 and K27 correlates with repression of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), an essential transcriptional repressor involved in flowering time control in Arabidopsis thaliana; in ..
  13. Jean Finnegan E, Kovac K, Jaligot E, Sheldon C, James Peacock W, Dennis E. The downregulation of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) expression in plants with low levels of DNA methylation and by vernalization occurs by distinct mechanisms. Plant J. 2005;44:420-32 pubmed
    b>FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), a repressor of flowering, is a major determinant of flowering time in Arabidopsis. FLC expression is repressed by vernalization and in plants with low levels of DNA methylation, resulting in early flowering...
  14. Sun Q, Csorba T, Skourti Stathaki K, Proudfoot N, Dean C. R-loop stabilization represses antisense transcription at the Arabidopsis FLC locus. Science. 2013;340:619-21 pubmed publisher
    ..AtNDX, that regulates COOLAIR, a set of antisense transcripts originating from the 3' end of Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC)...
  15. Buzas D, Robertson M, Finnegan E, Helliwell C. Transcription-dependence of histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation at the Arabidopsis polycomb target gene FLC. Plant J. 2011;65:872-81 pubmed publisher
    The FLC gene encodes a MADS box repressor of flowering that is the main cause of the late-flowering phenotype of many Arabidopsis ecotypes...
  16. Kim D, Sung S. Environmentally coordinated epigenetic silencing of FLC by protein and long noncoding RNA components. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2012;15:51-6 pubmed publisher
    In Arabidopsis, the role of the vernalization pathway is to repress expression of a potent floral repressor, FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), after a sufficient period of winter cold has been perceived...
  17. Liu F, Bakht S, Dean C. Cotranscriptional role for Arabidopsis DICER-LIKE 4 in transcription termination. Science. 2012;335:1621-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that DCL4 promotes transcription termination of the Arabidopsis FCA gene, reducing the amount of aberrant RNA produced from the locus. ..
  18. Turck F, Fornara F, Coupland G. Regulation and identity of florigen: FLOWERING LOCUS T moves center stage. Annu Rev Plant Biol. 2008;59:573-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we discuss conservation of FT function in other species and how variation in its regulation could generate different flowering behaviors. ..
  19. Tamada Y, Yun J, Woo S, Amasino R. ARABIDOPSIS TRITHORAX-RELATED7 is required for methylation of lysine 4 of histone H3 and for transcriptional activation of FLOWERING LOCUS C. Plant Cell. 2009;21:3257-69 pubmed publisher
    ..accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana, presence of an active allele of FRIGIDA (FRI) elevates expression of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), a repressor of flowering, and thus confers a vernalization requirement...
  20. Finnegan E, Dennis E. Vernalization-induced trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 at FLC is not maintained in mitotically quiescent cells. Curr Biol. 2007;17:1978-83 pubmed
    Vernalization promotes flowering in Arabidopsis through epigenetic repression of the floral repressor, FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC)...
  21. Helliwell C, Robertson M, Finnegan E, Buzas D, Dennis E. Vernalization-repression of Arabidopsis FLC requires promoter sequences but not antisense transcripts. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21513 pubmed publisher
    The repression of Arabidopsis FLC expression by vernalization (extended cold) has become a model for understanding polycomb-associated epigenetic regulation in plants...
  22. Fujiwara S, Oda A, Yoshida R, Niinuma K, Miyata K, Tomozoe Y, et al. Circadian clock proteins LHY and CCA1 regulate SVP protein accumulation to control flowering in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2008;20:2960-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Yeast two-hybrid analysis demonstrated an interaction between SVP and FLOWERING LOCUS C, and genetic analysis indicated that these two proteins act as partially redundant repressors of flowering ..
  23. Liu F, Marquardt S, Lister C, Swiezewski S, Dean C. Targeted 3' processing of antisense transcripts triggers Arabidopsis FLC chromatin silencing. Science. 2010;327:94-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We are characterizing RNA-mediated chromatin silencing of the Arabidopsis major floral repressor gene, FLC. Through suppressor mutagenesis, we identify a requirement for CstF64 and CstF77, two conserved RNA 3'-end-..
  24. Sheldon C, Burn J, Perez P, Metzger J, Edwards J, Peacock W, et al. The FLF MADS box gene: a repressor of flowering in Arabidopsis regulated by vernalization and methylation. Plant Cell. 1999;11:445-58 pubmed
    A MADS box gene, FLF (for FLOWERING LOCUS F ), isolated from a late-flowering, T-DNA-tagged Arabidopsis mutant, is a semidominant gene encoding a repressor of flowering...
  25. Crevillen P, Dean C. Regulation of the floral repressor gene FLC: the complexity of transcription in a chromatin context. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2011;14:38-44 pubmed publisher
    ..One focus has been on the pathways that regulate the gene encoding the floral repressor FLC. This has revealed a set of antagonistic pathways comprising evolutionary conserved activities that link chromatin ..
  26. Liu F, Quesada V, Crevillen P, Bäurle I, Swiezewski S, Dean C. The Arabidopsis RNA-binding protein FCA requires a lysine-specific demethylase 1 homolog to downregulate FLC. Mol Cell. 2007;28:398-407 pubmed
    A repressor of the transition to flowering in Arabidopsis is the MADS box protein FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC)...
  27. Jin J, Jin Y, Lee J, Miura K, Yoo C, Kim W, et al. The SUMO E3 ligase, AtSIZ1, regulates flowering by controlling a salicylic acid-mediated floral promotion pathway and through affects on FLC chromatin structure. Plant J. 2008;53:530-40 pubmed
    ..accelerated flowering time of an autonomous pathway mutant, luminidependens, by reducing the expression of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), a floral repressor...
  28. Robertson M, Helliwell C, Dennis E. Post-translational modifications of the endogenous and transgenic FLC protein in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Physiol. 2008;49:1859-66 pubmed publisher
    b>FLC is a MADS box transcription factor that acts as a dosage-dependent repressor of flowering...
  29. Schmitz R, Sung S, Amasino R. Histone arginine methylation is required for vernalization-induced epigenetic silencing of FLC in winter-annual Arabidopsis thaliana. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:411-6 pubmed publisher
    ..vernalization renders plants competent to flower by epigenetically silencing the strong floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC)...
  30. Swiezewski S, Liu F, Magusin A, Dean C. Cold-induced silencing by long antisense transcripts of an Arabidopsis Polycomb target. Nature. 2009;462:799-802 pubmed publisher
    ..We are investigating the link between non-coding RNA and chromatin regulation through analysis of FLC - a regulator of flowering time in Arabidopsis and a target of several chromatin pathways...
  31. Deal R, Topp C, McKinney E, Meagher R. Repression of flowering in Arabidopsis requires activation of FLOWERING LOCUS C expression by the histone variant H2A.Z. Plant Cell. 2007;19:74-83 pubmed
    ..Z at multiple loci, including the FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) gene, a central repressor of the transition to flowering. Loss of H2A...
  32. Helliwell C, Wood C, Robertson M, James Peacock W, Dennis E. The Arabidopsis FLC protein interacts directly in vivo with SOC1 and FT chromatin and is part of a high-molecular-weight protein complex. Plant J. 2006;46:183-92 pubmed
    The Arabidopsis Flowering Locus C (FLC) protein is a repressor of flowering regulated by genes in the autonomous and vernalization pathways...
  33. Shin J, Chekanova J. Arabidopsis RRP6L1 and RRP6L2 function in FLOWERING LOCUS C silencing via regulation of antisense RNA synthesis. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004612 pubmed publisher
    ..nuclear exosome components AtRRP6L1 and AtRRP6L2, cause de-repression of the main flowering repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) and thus delay flowering in early-flowering Arabidopsis ecotypes...
  34. Marquardt S, Raitskin O, Wu Z, Liu F, Sun Q, Dean C. Functional consequences of splicing of the antisense transcript COOLAIR on FLC transcription. Mol Cell. 2014;54:156-165 pubmed publisher
    ..of a set of long noncoding antisense transcripts, collectively called COOLAIR, produced at Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC)...
  35. Yu X, Michaels S. The Arabidopsis Paf1c complex component CDC73 participates in the modification of FLOWERING LOCUS C chromatin. Plant Physiol. 2010;153:1074-84 pubmed publisher
    b>FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) is a key repressor of flowering in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and is regulated, both positively and negatively, by posttranslational histone modifications...
  36. Mylne J, Barrett L, Tessadori F, Mesnage S, Johnson L, Bernatavichute Y, et al. LHP1, the Arabidopsis homologue of HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1, is required for epigenetic silencing of FLC. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:5012-7 pubmed
    ..A key step of vernalization in Arabidopsis is the epigenetic silencing of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), which encodes a repressor of flowering...
  37. Zhou Y, Romero Campero F, Gómez Zambrano A, Turck F, Calonje M. H2A monoubiquitination in Arabidopsis thaliana is generally independent of LHP1 and PRC2 activity. Genome Biol. 2017;18:69 pubmed publisher
    ..thaliana genome and unveil that ubiquitination by PRC1 is largely independent of PRC2 activity in plants, while the inverse is true for H3K27 trimethylation. ..
  38. Ripoll J, Rodríguez Cazorla E, González Reig S, Andújar A, Alonso Cantabrana H, Perez Amador M, et al. Antagonistic interactions between Arabidopsis K-homology domain genes uncover PEPPER as a positive regulator of the central floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C. Dev Biol. 2009;333:251-62 pubmed publisher
    ..autonomous flowering-promotive pathway by decreasing the transcript levels of the key flowering repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC)...
  39. Shu K, Chen Q, Wu Y, Liu R, Zhang H, Wang S, et al. ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE 4 negatively regulates flowering through directly promoting Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS C transcription. J Exp Bot. 2016;67:195-205 pubmed publisher
    ..a key component in the ABA signalling pathway, negatively regulates floral transition by directly promoting FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) transcription...
  40. Gu X, Jiang D, Yang W, Jacob Y, Michaels S, He Y. Arabidopsis homologs of retinoblastoma-associated protein 46/48 associate with a histone deacetylase to act redundantly in chromatin silencing. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002366 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that MSI5 acts in partial redundancy with FVE to silence FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), which is a crucial floral repressor subject to asRNA-mediated silencing, FLC homologs, and other loci ..
  41. Wu Z, Ietswaart R, Liu F, Yang H, Howard M, Dean C. Quantitative regulation of FLC via coordinated transcriptional initiation and elongation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:218-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In Arabidopsis thaliana, quantitative variation in expression of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) influences the timing of flowering...
  42. Cao Y, Wen L, Wang Z, Ma L. SKIP Interacts with the Paf1 Complex to Regulate Flowering via the Activation of FLC Transcription in Arabidopsis. Mol Plant. 2015;8:1816-9 pubmed publisher
  43. Wang B, Jin S, Hu H, Sun Y, Wang Y, Han P, et al. UGT87A2, an Arabidopsis glycosyltransferase, regulates flowering time via FLOWERING LOCUS C. New Phytol. 2012;194:666-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, the expression of the flowering repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C was increased substantially in the mutant, but decreased to the wild-type level in complementation lines, ..
  44. Salathia N, Davis S, Lynn J, Michaels S, Amasino R, Millar A. FLOWERING LOCUS C-dependent and -independent regulation of the circadian clock by the autonomous and vernalization pathways. BMC Plant Biol. 2006;6:10 pubmed
    ..Our previous studies of natural genetic variation in Arabidopsis thaliana accessions implicated FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) as a circadian-clock regulator...
  45. Bond D, Dennis E, Pogson B, Finnegan E. Histone acetylation, VERNALIZATION INSENSITIVE 3, FLOWERING LOCUS C, and the vernalization response. Mol Plant. 2009;2:724-37 pubmed publisher
    The quantitative induction of VIN3 by low temperatures is required for PRC2 repression of FLC and promotion of flowering (vernalization) in Arabidopsis...
  46. Seo E, Lee H, Jeon J, Park H, Kim J, Noh Y, et al. Crosstalk between cold response and flowering in Arabidopsis is mediated through the flowering-time gene SOC1 and its upstream negative regulator FLC. Plant Cell. 2009;21:3185-97 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, overexpression of cold-inducible CBFs caused late flowering through increased expression of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), an upstream negative regulator of SOC1...
  47. Kong X, Luo X, Qu G, Liu P, Jin J. Arabidopsis SUMO protease ASP1 positively regulates flowering time partially through regulating FLC stability?. J Integr Plant Biol. 2017;59:15-29 pubmed publisher
    ..It is well known that autonomous and vernalization pathways repress transcription of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), a focal floral repressor, but how its protein stability is regulated remains largely unknown...
  48. Niu L, Lu F, Zhao T, Liu C, Cao X. The enzymatic activity of Arabidopsis protein arginine methyltransferase 10 is essential for flowering time regulation. Protein Cell. 2012;3:450-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations of AtPRMT10 derepress FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) expression resulting in a late-flowering phenotype...
  49. Andersson C, Helliwell C, Bagnall D, Hughes T, Finnegan E, Peacock W, et al. The FLX gene of Arabidopsis is required for FRI-dependent activation of FLC expression. Plant Cell Physiol. 2008;49:191-200 pubmed
    The Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) gene encodes a MADS box protein that acts as a dose-dependent repressor of flowering. Mutants and ecotypes with elevated expression of FLC are late flowering and vernalization responsive...
  50. Schmitz R, Tamada Y, Doyle M, Zhang X, Amasino R. Histone H2B deubiquitination is required for transcriptional activation of FLOWERING LOCUS C and for proper control of flowering in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2009;149:1196-204 pubmed publisher
    ..In the ubp26 mutant, mRNA levels of the floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) and other related family members is decreased...
  51. Ebine K, Uemura T, Nakano A, Ueda T. Flowering time modulation by a vacuolar SNARE via FLOWERING LOCUS C in Arabidopsis thaliana. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42239 pubmed publisher
    ..regulatory pathways, the vernalization-dependent and autonomous pathways are integrated by the expression of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), a negative regulator of flowering; however, the upstream regulation of this locus has not been fully ..
  52. Mahrez W, Shin J, Muñoz Viana R, Figueiredo D, Trejo Arellano M, Exner V, et al. BRR2a Affects Flowering Time via FLC Splicing. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1005924 pubmed publisher
    ..expressed in all analyzed tissues and involved in the processing of flowering time gene transcripts, most notably FLC. A missense mutation of threonine 895 in BRR2a caused defects in FLC splicing and greatly reduced FLC transcript ..
  53. Lopez Vernaza M, Yang S, Muller R, Thorpe F, de Leau E, Goodrich J. Antagonistic roles of SEPALLATA3, FT and FLC genes as targets of the polycomb group gene CURLY LEAF. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30715 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic analysis of clf ft mutants indicates that CLF promotes flowering by reducing expression of FLC, a repressor of flowering...
  54. Jung J, Park C. HOS1-mediated activation of FLC via chromatin remodeling under cold stress. Plant Signal Behav. 2013;8:e27342 pubmed publisher
    ..loss-of-function hos1 mutants exhibit early flowering, and the transcript level of the floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) is downregulated in the mutants. However, it is largely unknown how HOS1 regulates FLC transcription...
  55. Burghardt L, Runcie D, Wilczek A, Cooper M, Roe J, Welch S, et al. Fluctuating, warm temperatures decrease the effect of a key floral repressor on flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana. New Phytol. 2016;210:564-76 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified 17 genotypes, many of which have high levels of the floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), that bolted dramatically earlier in fluctuating - as opposed to constant - warm temperatures (mean ..
  56. Aikawa S, Kobayashi M, Satake A, Shimizu K, Kudoh H. Robust control of the seasonal expression of the Arabidopsis FLC gene in a fluctuating environment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11632-7 pubmed publisher
  57. Guyomarc h S, Benhamed M, Lemonnier G, Renou J, Zhou D, Delarue M. MGOUN3: evidence for chromatin-mediated regulation of FLC expression. J Exp Bot. 2006;57:2111-9 pubmed
    ..Study of flowering-time associated gene expression showed that the floral transition inhibitor gene FLC was under-expressed in the mutant background...
  58. Lin S, Wang J, Poon S, Su C, Wang S, Chiou T. Differential regulation of FLOWERING LOCUS C expression by vernalization in cabbage and Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2005;137:1037-48 pubmed
    Vernalization is required to induce flowering in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var Capitata L.). Since FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) was identified as a major repressor of flowering in the vernalization pathway in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis ..
  59. Fujiwara S, Sakamoto S, Kigoshi K, Suzuki K, Ohme Takagi M. VP16 fusion induces the multiple-knockout phenotype of redundant transcriptional repressors partly by Med25-independent mechanisms in Arabidopsis. FEBS Lett. 2014;588:3665-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that strong viral activation domain VP16 fusion to the transcriptional repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C reversed its function and caused a stronger phenotype than that of the multiple-knockout line of redundant ..
  60. Locascio A, Lucchin M, Varotto S. Characterization of a MADS FLOWERING LOCUS C-LIKE (MFL) sequence in Cichorium intybus: a comparative study of CiMFL and AtFLC reveals homologies and divergences in gene function. New Phytol. 2009;182:630-43 pubmed publisher
    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the ability to flower is mainly related to a floral repressor, FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), which is regulated through the vernalization pathway...
  61. Rodríguez Cazorla E, Ripoll J, Andújar A, Bailey L, Martínez Laborda A, Yanofsky M, et al. K-homology nuclear ribonucleoproteins regulate floral organ identity and determinacy in arabidopsis. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1004983 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously demonstrated that FLK and PEP interact to regulate FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), a central repressor of flowering time...
  62. Huang B, Qian P, Gao N, Shen J, Hou S. Fackel interacts with gibberellic acid signaling and vernalization to mediate flowering in Arabidopsis. Planta. 2017;245:939-950 pubmed publisher
    ..This new function of FK is partially dependent on the FLOWERING LOCUS C ( FLC )...
  63. Hu J, Zhou Y, He F, Dong X, Liu L, Coupland G, et al. miR824-Regulated AGAMOUS-LIKE16 Contributes to Flowering Time Repression in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2014;26:2024-2037 pubmed
    ..Knockout of AGL16 effectively accelerates flowering in nonvernalized Col-FRI, in which the floral inhibitor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) is strongly expressed, but shows no effect if plants are vernalized or grown in short days...
  64. Li P, Tao Z, Dean C. Phenotypic evolution through variation in splicing of the noncoding RNA COOLAIR. Genes Dev. 2015;29:696-701 pubmed publisher
    ..in Arabidopsis thaliana accessions is due to noncoding cis polymorphisms that define distinct haplotypes of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC)...
  65. Proveniers M, Rutjens B, Brand M, Smeekens S. The Arabidopsis TALE homeobox gene ATH1 controls floral competency through positive regulation of FLC. Plant J. 2007;52:899-913 pubmed
    ..Among these repressors, FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) is the most prominent...
  66. Lai Z, Schluttenhofer C, Bhide K, Shreve J, Thimmapuram J, Lee S, et al. MED18 interaction with distinct transcription factors regulates multiple plant functions. Nat Commun. 2014;5:3064 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, MED18 conveys distinct cues to engender transcription underpinning plant responses. ..
  67. Edwards K, Anderson P, Hall A, Salathia N, Locke J, Lynn J, et al. FLOWERING LOCUS C mediates natural variation in the high-temperature response of the Arabidopsis circadian clock. Plant Cell. 2006;18:639-50 pubmed
    ..effects on the circadian rhythm of leaf movement, including a QTL linked to the transcription factor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC)...
  68. Levy Y, Mesnage S, Mylne J, Gendall A, Dean C. Multiple roles of Arabidopsis VRN1 in vernalization and flowering time control. Science. 2002;297:243-6 pubmed
    ..manner and functions in stable repression of the major target of the vernalization pathway, the floral repressor FLC. Overexpression of VRN1 reveals a vernalization-independent function for VRN1, mediated predominantly through the ..
  69. Domagalska M, Schomburg F, Amasino R, Vierstra R, Nagy F, Davis S. Attenuation of brassinosteroid signaling enhances FLC expression and delays flowering. Development. 2007;134:2841-50 pubmed
    ..Moreover, all of these double mutants exhibited elevated expression of the potent floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC)...
  70. Sánchez Bermejo E, Méndez Vigo B, Pico F, Martinez Zapater J, Alonso Blanco C. Novel natural alleles at FLC and LVR loci account for enhanced vernalization responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Environ. 2012;35:1672-84 pubmed publisher
    ..in a new Ler × Ll-0 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, identified large effect alleles at FRI, FLC and HUA2, together with two small effect loci named as Llagostera vernalization response (LVR) 1 and 2...
  71. Salehi H, Ransom C, Oraby H, Seddighi Z, Sticklen M. Delay in flowering and increase in biomass of transgenic tobacco expressing the Arabidopsis floral repressor gene FLOWERING LOCUS C. J Plant Physiol. 2005;162:711-7 pubmed
    b>FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), a gene from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. that acts as a flowering repressor, was expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. 'Samsun')...
  72. Périlleux C, Pieltain A, Jacquemin G, Bouché F, Detry N, D Aloia M, et al. A root chicory MADS box sequence and the Arabidopsis flowering repressor FLC share common features that suggest conserved function in vernalization and de-vernalization responses. Plant J. 2013;75:390-402 pubmed publisher
    ..A MADS box sequence was isolated by RT-PCR and named FLC-LIKE1 (CiFL1) because of its phylogenetic positioning within the same clade as the floral repressor Arabidopsis ..
  73. Anderssen R, Helliwell C. Information recovery in molecular biology: causal modelling of regulated promoter switching experiments. J Math Biol. 2013;67:105-22 pubmed publisher
    ..in plants; in particular, regulated promoter switching experiments used to examine the relationship between FLC transcription activity and the associated histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation at a vernalization-responsive gene in ..
  74. Shindo C, Lister C, Crevillen P, Nordborg M, Dean C. Variation in the epigenetic silencing of FLC contributes to natural variation in Arabidopsis vernalization response. Genes Dev. 2006;20:3079-83 pubmed
    ..the cold-induced acceleration of flowering, involves the epigenetic silencing of the floral repressor gene FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC)...
  75. Gan E, Xu Y, Wong J, Goh J, Sun B, Wee W, et al. Jumonji demethylases moderate precocious flowering at elevated temperature via regulation of FLC in Arabidopsis. Nat Commun. 2014;5:5098 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that Jumonji-C domain-containing protein JMJ30 directly binds to the flowering-repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) locus and removes the repressive histone modification H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3)...
  76. Mateos J, Madrigal P, Tsuda K, Rawat V, Richter R, Romera Branchat M, et al. Combinatorial activities of SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE and FLOWERING LOCUS C define distinct modes of flowering regulation in Arabidopsis. Genome Biol. 2015;16:31 pubmed publisher
    ..The MADS-box transcription factors (TFs) FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) and SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP) form a complex to repress the expression of genes that initiate ..
  77. Chiang G, Barua D, Kramer E, Amasino R, Donohue K. Major flowering time gene, flowering locus C, regulates seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:11661-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Flowering locus C (FLC) is a major regulator of flowering responses to seasonal environmental factors...
  78. Kim D, Xi Y, Sung S. Modular function of long noncoding RNA, COLDAIR, in the vernalization response. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006939 pubmed publisher
    The long noncoding RNA COLDAIR is necessary for the repression of a floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) during vernalization in Arabidopsis thaliana...